Tetlin

Guide 2016

brochure Tetlin - Guide 2016
TETLIN NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE VISITOR GUIDE ACTIVITIES page 4 WILDLIFE page 10 FIRE page 12 Birds and Visitors Follow the Tetlin Passage Table of Contents Visitor Activities............................. 4 Education Programs..................... 6 Volunteer Programs..................... 7 Refuge Map...................................... 8 Refuge Facts.................................... 9 Wildlife........................................... 10 Fire................................................... 12 Communities Take Action........14 Planning Your Trip...................... 15 Visitor Information Centers.....16 Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge VISITOR GUIDE Refuge Coordinator: Kay Lynn Odle-Moore Contributors: Kay Lynn Odle-Moore, Shawn Bayless, Kristin DuBour, Nate Berg, Brian Haugen, and Tetlin Refuge staff. Photos: All photos and maps courtesy of U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Cover top: Biological work often requires flights to refuge lakes; cover bottom: aerial view of Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge Printed on recycled paper using soy-based inks. Greetings and welcome to Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, the only refuge in Alaska accessible by the Alaska Highway! Tetlin Refuge was established in 1980 under the auspices of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and encompasses over 700,000 acres in the headwaters of the Tanana River adjacent to Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve to the south and Kluane National Park in Canada. The lands and wildlife here have supported the Athabascan people for millennia and continue to provide the food and materials necessary for a subsistence lifestyle by local residents. In addition to providing breeding habitat for thousands of nesting waterfowl, Tetlin Refuge serves as a crucial migratory corridor for many other birds and mammals; over 180 bird species and 42 mammals have been documented on the refuge. I welcome your stay here in the Upper Tanana area and challenge you to see how many species you can identify! The refuge is open to hiking, canoeing, hunting, fishing, and camping and is accessible along the Alaska Highway from the Canada border to MP 1242. You may also access the refuge at the MP 1285 trailhead. Overnight camping is allowed anywhere on refuge lands, and there are two established campgrounds you are welcome to use. Don’t forget to stop at our visitor center at MP 1229! Please enjoy your stay, and don’t hesitate to give us a call at 907-883-5312. Shawn Bayless REFUGE MANAGER The Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Guide is published by the Alaska Geographic Association in cooperation with Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. ©Alaska Geographic Produced and Designed by: 2 The mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System is to administer a national network of lands and waters for the conservation, management, and restoration of fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitat for the benefit of present and future generations of Americans. Heading north up the Alaska Highway? Did you know that hundreds of thousands of birds fly a similar route known as the Tetlin Passage each spring? The Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge is situated within this natural corridor of the Upper Tanana River Valley. Each spring, from April through May, songbirds, swans, ducks, geese, shorebirds, sandhill cranes, and raptors funnel through this major migration pathway. Because it is a migration corridor for sandhill cranes with important nesting habitat for trumpeter swans, this region has received special recognition from the National Audubon Society as an Important Bird Area. Numerous birds of prey are commonly seen on the refuge. During the spring, fish-eating bald eagles and osprey often return to the same nesting areas along refuge waterways. After years of adding new material, eagle nests can span more than six feet in diameter. These habitats also support the highest density of nesting osprey in Alaska. Keep a close lookout for other commonly sighted raptors that nest here, including red-tailed hawk, northern harrier, golden eagle, great-horned owl, and northern hawk owl. In August, cooler temperatures and decreasing daylight prompt birds and visitors to move south. Trumpeter swans, the symbol of the Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, begin leaving in mid-September. These departing flocks leave us with a sense of admiration for the many miles they will travel before their return next spring. Peregrine falcons favor river bluffs and cliffs for their nests. They make spectacular high speed dives reaching 200 miles an hour to kill prey, such as waterfowl and other birds. Once faced with near extinction, peregrine falcons have rebounded dramatically due to the banning of DDT in 1972 and protection under the Endangered Species Act. The local peregrine population has recovered from four nesting pairs to 24 in the last two decades. The olive-sided flycatcher is perhaps best known for its emphatic song: quick THREE BEERS! During the short breeding season, this drab little bird sits proudly and prominently atop spruce snags on Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. Olive-sided flycatcher populations have experienced significant declines in recent years, and wildlife biologists at Tetlin want to better understand what factors might be contributing to these declines. One possibility is that habitat on breeding, migration, or wintering areas is impacting the birds’ survival. So Tetlin biologists are capturing olive-sided flycatchers and fitting them with tiny tracking devices (the weight of a paperclip) called geolocators. Unlike GPS-driven devices that use satellites to retrieve data, geolocators store data on-board, which means the birds must be recaptured to retrieve the information. The data these birds bring back will help us to better understand what regions are important for the olive-sided flycatcher population and where we should target conservation efforts to ensure that the species keeps coming back to Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. 3 Visitor Activities at Tetlin Refuge Interpretive Opportunities Camping Tetlin Refuge Visitor Center (MP 1229 Alaska Hwy.) offers wildlife exhibits, visitor information, Native craft demonstrations, interpretive talks, and a large observation deck with spotting scopes. Open daily from May 15 to September 15, 8 a.m. until 4:30 p.m., with extended hours when staff is available. Two free campgrounds located along the Alaska Highway are operated by the refuge. Each has tables, toilets, firepits, and garbage containers, but no drinking water. Auto Tour CDs can be picked up and dropped off at Tetlin Refuge and Tok visitor centers. This oral narrative describes wildlife and habitats on the refuge, local Athabascan history and culture, and the construction of the Alaska Highway. Deadman Lake Campground (MP 1249 Alaska Hwy.) has interpretive talks at 7 p.m. from June through August. Highway Pullouts with interpretive panels are located in five locations along 65 miles of the Alaska Highway (see refuge map page 8). These panels highlight the dynamics of the natural landscape and local wildlife. Hiking Trappers’ Trail (MP 1229 Alaska Hwy.) is a 1/3 mile (one direction) moderate hike which leads to two Trappers’ Cabins. Deadman Lake Campground (MP 1249 Alaska Hwy.) has 15 private campsites; 6 sites are suitable for RVs. Open through late fall. Lakeview Campground (MP 1256 Alaska Hwy.) has 11 primitive campsites—not recommended for vehicles over 30 feet. Photo blind nearby. Campground Regulations • Maximum 14-day stay camping limit • Quiet hours are 10 p.m. to 7 a.m. • No shooting of firearms within 1/4 mile of the dock and all campsites • No carrying, possessing, or discharging fireworks or explosives • No harassing of wildlife or gathering of plants • Please keep a clean camp and discard all garbage and waste in the bear-proof garbage containers provided. Fish refuse should be discarded in deep water or placed in bear-proof garbage containers immediately Administrative Cabins Boating Boat ramps are located at Chisana River, 1/4-mile south of Northway Junction (MP 1264 Alaska Hwy.) and Deadman Lake Campground. Small boat and canoe access from Desper Creek (MP 1226 Alaska Hwy.) and Lakeview Campground. Fishing Northern pike, burbot, and grayling are the most popular fish on the refuge. Hidden Lake is stocked with rainbow trout. State fishing regulations are available from the visitor center, refuge headquarters, or the Alaska Department of Fish and Game in Tok. Fishing licenses are available from local businesses. Remote administrative cabins, primarily used to support refuge field operations, can be reserved at other times by the public. Call 907-883-5312 for details. Hunting Refuge lands are open to hunting under state and federal regulations. Please check with refuge staff to verify refuge boundaries. Bird Watching Spring and fall are the best times to see the greatest variety of species. Pick up a refuge bird checklist at the visitor center or headquarters. Waterfowl may be seen in these areas along the Alaska Highway: MP 1221 MP 1223-1225 MP 1249 MP 1256 MP 1267 MP 1289 Lakes on the north side of highway Desper & Scotty creeks Deadman Lake Campground Lakeview Campground Lakes south of the highway Midway Lake Seaton Recreation Area (MP 1234.7 Alaska Hwy) Hike multiple trails, ranging from 1/2 to 3/4 miles in length. Hidden Lake Trail (MP 1240 Alaska Hwy.) is a onemile, planked trail through deciduous and lowland forest to a lake stocked with rainbow trout. No facilities available. Taiga Trail (MP 1249 Alaska Hwy.) is a 1/4-mile interpretive boardwalk trail through a black spruce forest with an observation deck at the end. Located at Deadman Lake Campground. Backcountry Hiking and camping are allowed 4 throughout the refuge for experienced hikers with wilderness survival skills. Please check with refuge staff to verify refuge boundaries. Emergency Contacts Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge Mile 1.3 Borealis Avenue, Tok, 907-883-5312 Tetlin Refuge Visitor Center MP 1229 Alaska Highway, 907-774-2245 Any information on wildland fires should be reported to Tok State Forestry MP 123.5 Tok Cut-off, Tok 907-883-FIRE (3473) or 907-883-5134 5 Environmental Education for All Ages! Young people don’t have a monopoly on having fun at Tetlin. Spurred by an idea to get some of Tok’s beloved elder residents reconnected with the natural world, Tetlin Refuge is partnering with Tok Senior Center to organize enjoyable, safe, outdoor education opportunities for seniors. A leisurely, evening raft trip down the Tok River provides a grand experience for participating elders. Along the way, a recent wildfire burn sparks discussion of fire history, ecology, and plant succession. The group spots a great horned owl and watches a rainstorm come down the valley. Further downriver, a picnic supper takes main stage on a gravel bar with a great campfire. When it’s time for giant marshmallows, it’s discovered that seniors and kids have a lot in common. Environmental Education in the Schools Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge often partners with Alaska Gateway School District on special projects. During the school year, Tetlin staff assists teachers in classrooms. Science curricula includes the role of fire, migratory birds, owl pellets, waterfowl, raptors, winter adaptations and arctic survival, climate change, art with nature, Alaskan wildlife, geology, habitat, botany, the Young Naturalist Program, and Junior Duck Stamp Program. Students love learning about their natural world. What fun it is to see these future stewards of our lands learn! Summer Programs Parents and Kids Sharing the Outdoors Remember all the fun we had as kids romping through the fields and forests, playing in empty lots, getting muddy in the river? Maybe your parents took you on family hikes or camping trips? It seemed like the natural world was never far away. In today’s busy world, it’s often difficult for parents to find opportunities to share outdoor adventures with their children. Tetlin Refuge has helped make this happen through “Parents and Kids” day camps. Whether it’s learning about aquatic habitats and fishing for pike at Deadman Lake, hiking up Mount Fairplay to identify plants of the alpine tundra, or rafting on the Tok River to explore the importance of natural fire in the boreal forest, families learn and have fun together. Once they realize how much fun these “backyard” adventures can be, parents will say, “I should bring the kids here to camp out later this summer.” Or “I had no 6 idea this was such a cool spot. We’ll come back with our kayaks.” When families enjoy and learn about the outdoors together, the values of stewardship are passed on. The hope is that in years to come, when today’s kids have families of their own, these natural places will still be here for them to enjoy outdoor adventures together. For more information on summer programs, please call 907-883-5312. Volunteer and Friends Programs Get Involved and Make a Difference Together with our wonderful volunteers, we’re able to do more for you, the visitor, and the refuge. Who are our volunteers? They are people who want to give back, to be good stewards of the land, to learn more about conservation, and who enjoy the outdoors. Who are the Friends? Friends of Alaska National Wildlife Refuges is an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting the conservation of natural resources for all the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. What do our volunteers do? Our volunteers help to meet and greet visitors at our Visitor Center, give interpretive talks and hikes, help with maintenance and construction of facilities, and chaperone educational field trips. Volunteers with more specialized skills grade campground roads, assist with special construction projects, and conduct duck brood surveys. While giving of their time and energy, volunteers can enjoy the refuge and get to know Tetlin’s staff. When you visit Tetlin, if you find yourself thinking, “I love this place—how do I get involved?” ask us about volunteer opportunities. Time commitments vary depending on the project, with some projects requiring specialized training. The mission of our “Friends” organization is driven by the following goals: 1) Educate the public and decision-makers on local, national, and international levels about Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuges. 2) Assist the refuges in accomplishing their missions through wildlife management and habitat improvement projects. 3) Fund refuge-oriented projects through grants, memberships, donations, and other activities. Over the years, the advocacy of our Friends organization has made a difference in many significant issues facing Alaska’s refuges. If you are interested in volunteering at the refuge or in becoming a Friend, please visit www.volunteer.gov Nurturing refuges beyond our own time 7 The Tetlin wildlife refuge encompasses 934,513 acres and is part of the world’s largest contiguous conservation unit, sharing a border with Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve and Kluane National Park in Canada. The Alaska Highway borders the refuge for 65 miles providing unique opportunities to explore the area. Hundreds of thousands of birds fly the Tetlin Passage traveling from as far away as South America. Thousands of sandhill cranes migrate through the refuge in the spring and fall. Nesting trumpeter swans, once rare, are now commonly found on the refuge. The importance of this region to trumpeter swans and sandhill cranes led to the Tetlin Refuge and the Upper Tanana Valley being recognized as an Important Bird Area (IBA) of global significance. 8 9 Common Animals and Their Habitats For the lynx study, lynx are sedated while they’re assessed and collared. When it’s very cold, they’re blanketed until they’ve regained consciousness. Lynx/ Snowshoe Hare Study The lynx’s dependence on cold snowy environments and snowshoe hares for survival make them an excellent “indicator species” for the health of the boreal forest ecosystem. Lynx can move really long distances (100-1000+ miles) in search of food, mates, and habitat. The long treks lynx make may contribute to the 10-year cycle or the “traveling wave” of snowshoe hare abundance across the boreal forests of North America. Additionally, lynx movements may be critical for the long-term persistence of the species near the southern periphery of their range in Canada and the United States. For these reasons Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge has teamed up with researchers in Alaska, Canada, and the Lower 48 states to investigate movement patterns and dispersal behavior of lynx in relation to snowshoe hare abundance. This is an ambitious international project with many study sites. Cooperators and Partners: University of Alaska Fairbanks, Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site, Alaska Department of Fish & Game, BLM Fairbanks Field Office, Department of Defense, Koyukuk-Nowitna NWR, Kanuti NWR, Yukon Flats NWR, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Kluane Field Station of British Columbia, University of Alberta, Washington State University, University of Washington, University of Minnesota, USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, and Boone Smith Wildlife Capture. 10 Ponds and lake edges Beaver Moose American Green-winged Teal American Widgeon Bald Eagle Horned Grebe Mallard Northern Pintail Northern Shoveler Pacific Loon Spotted Sandpiper Trumpeter Swan Wildlife Viewing Safely Keep Your Distance. If an animal alters its behavior because of your presence, you are too close. Responsible visitors use binoculars and telephoto lenses to observe an animal’s normal behavior. Wet meadows and burned areas Black & Brown Bears Coyote Red Fox American Robin Common Snipe Northern Harrier Northern Hawk Owl Red-tailed Hawk Rough-legged Hawk Savannah Sparrow Violet-green Swallow White-crowned Sparrow Caribou Moose (Rangifer tarandus) (Alces alces) A member of the deer family, caribou primarily eat lichen during the winter. This largest member of the deer family feeds primarily on willow, aspen, and birch. Both males and females have antlers; males shed antlers in early winter and females in spring. Only males have antlers which can grow an inch (2.5 cm) each day; antlers are shed in early winter. respond to repeated interference by abandoning their home, nesting sites, and even their young. Remember that we are the visitors. Bear (Ursus) Never Feed the Wildlife. Animals that Bears are active day and night, and can be anywhere. Watch for tracks and scat. If you come in close proximity to a bear, stop, remain calm, talk quietly, and then back away slowly. Don’t make sudden movements, loud noises, or turn your back on a bear. If the bear approaches, stand your ground. Do not run! become accustomed to human food become problem animals that need to be removed from the area. Don’t leave backpacks, trash, or food where an animal might find it. Drive Safely. When you see wildlife, stop to view them from a safe pullout, not from the roadway. Please do not follow an animal at close distance in your vehicle. Be alert for animals crossing the road, especially at dawn, dusk, and at night. Help Protect the Refuge. Remind others of their ethical responsibility when viewing wildlife. Moose often graze near the highway where shrubs and plants are plentiful. Both adults and young can appear suddenly from brushy roadside habitat. Be prepared for a calf and cow to cross the road separately. Caribou from two separate herds use the refuge during their migration between wintering areas and calving grounds. Respect the Animals. Animals often Forests and forest edges Black & Brown Bears Porcupine Red Squirrel Snowshoe Hare Black-capped Chickadee Boreal Chickadee Common Redpoll Gray Jay Northern Flicker Ruby-crowned Kinglet Varied Thrush Yellow-rumped Warbler Brown Bear Ursus arctos Viewing Tips Black Bear Ursus americanus Please report all bear encounters to the visitor center or headquarters. For more information on traveling in bear country visit www.fws.gov/refuge/ tetlin/visitor_activities/camping.html • Wildlife tend to be more visible during early morning twilight hours. • Be still and quiet so animals can maintain normal activity. • Your car is the best place to view and photograph wildlife. • Be aware of what’s around you, not just your chosen subject. • Stop by local visitor centers to check the daily wildlife and bird sighting report. • Become familiar with the habitat(s) and habits of the species you want to see. 11 Fire: A Work in Progress A Wilderness Laboratory Interior Alaska’s boreal forest is an unfinished masterpiece, reshaped each year by wildland fires. It’s hard to imagine that a charred landscape can be cause for celebration, but along with wind and rain, fire plays an essential role in Interior Alaska’s ecosystems. Plants and animals here have adapted to fire and often benefit from it. During the past 50 years, scientists have greatly improved their understanding of fires. Some work has been completed in the laboratory, but much of it has been accomplished in the forest during and following actual fires. Large fires make excellent laboratories, especially when they can be monitored without being suppressed. The Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge has been designated as a Land Management Resource Demonstration Area where the effects of fire can be studied. • Black spruce are very common in the Interior and have semi-serotinous cones—they need heat (from fire or intense sunlight) to open and spread seeds on newly exposed soils. A new generation is born as old trees are consumed by fire. Some of the projects already underway on the refuge include: • Studying how fire affects the seasonal distrubution of moose, and the relationship between fire and moose populations • Monitoring burn severity (how hot the fire burned) based on satellite imagery to simplify future fire assessments • Wildflowers such as lupine, fireweed, and bluebells also take advantage of exposed soil, weaving colorful carpets that may cover burned areas for several years. • Monitoring post-fire plant change over time so that long-term consequences of fire management decisions can be predicted • Willows develop wholesome new shoots that are eaten by moose and a host of small mammals. • An explosion of highly regarded morel mushrooms often occurs the summer following a wildfire, providing a tasty treat for people and wildlife. • Burned trees eventually topple and create cover for small mammals such as marten and snowshoe hares. Over time, fires remove accumulated dead vegetation and break up continuous forest stands into a patchwork of plant communities. These areas support a diversity of animals seeking food, water, and shelter. Fire is the herald of new beginnings in Interior Alaska, where most plants and animals thrive because of fire, not in spite of it. Firewise Northway and Tetlin village councils and other communities are working with Tetlin Refuge and the Alaska Division of Forestry to protect homes, schools, and other structures from wildland fires. With federal and state funding, crews thin the forest around communities and create fire breaks that dramatically reduce the wildfire hazard and provide fuel for biomass boilers that heat schools and other public buildings. Other cooperative efforts to protect developed areas include assistance agreements with local fire departments and a homeowner awareness program called “Firewise.” Firewise encourages residents to reduce hazards around homes before they are threatened by a fire. The Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, the Alaska Division of Forestry, and residents of the Upper Tanana Valley continue to work toward “fire safe” communities in a fire-prone land. Fire Facts • WILDFIRE CYCLE: In a typical, boreal spruce forest, as found at Tetlin, the time between natural wildland fires is 80 to 200 years. • LIGHTNING ROD: The record for lightning strikes in Alaska over a 24-hour period is 9,022 on July 15, 2004. • SOME LIKE IT HOT: Black spruce cones are semi-serotinous—they need heat (from fire or intense sunlight) to open and spread seeds. • IMPROVING PLANTLIFE: Fires improve growing conditions in permafrost areas by adding nutrients to the soil and increasing the depth and warmth of the unfrozen active layer (the layer of ground above permafrost). • LOCAL FIRES: The Taylor Complex fires of 2004 near Tok and Northway burned 1,305,252 acres. • RECORD FIRE: 2004 was the largest fire season in Alaska’s history—6.5 million acres burned. Lightning caused most of these fires. 2015 was Alaska’s second largest with 5.1 million acres burned. 12 13 Protect Natural Wildlands and Wildlife Refuge Partner Visitor Guide Invasive plants are aggressive, introduced species that out-compete native plants for light, water, and nutrients. They often grow rapidly, mature early, spread seeds that survive a long time, and have no natural controls. When alien plants displace native plants, habitats may be altered and no longer suitable for some resident wildlife. People unintentionally contribute to the spread of these unwanted plants. Here’s how you can help: • Learn invasive plant names and how to identify them • Avoid purchasing contaminated seed mixes • Plant only native species • Don’t pick the flowers of unknown plants or transplant wildflowers that can’t be identified If you see an invasive species in the backcountry, report it to the Alaska Committee for Noxious and Invasive Plant Management at www.cnipm.org. Thanks for doing your part to insure that invasives don’t displace Alaska’s native plants. One of the most common invasive plants on Tetlin Refuge is white sweet clover, a tall bushy plant with little white flowers commonly seen along the road. Working Together Working together with five Upper Tanana Native communities, the refuge is managing subsistence resources and activities. By including traditional ecological knowledge in our research we are better able to understand the unique relationship traditional cultures have with nature in Alaska. This relationship has been handed down from generation-to-generation for longer than anyone really knows. With it has come guidance for respectful attitudes and actions towards the natural world. Concepts such as “only taking what is needed,” “reciprocity,” and “our interrelatedness with all beings” help us to understand how to manage the resources today and for generations of Americans yet to come. As the primary nonprofit education partner of the Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Geographic connects people to Alaska’s magnificent wildlands through experiential education, award-winning books and maps, and by directly supporting the state’s parks, forests, and refuges. Over the past 50 years, Alaska Geographic has donated more than $20 million to help fund educational and interpretive programs throughout Alaska’s public lands. Alaska Geographic operates 48 bookstores across the state, including our bookstores at the Tetlin Refuge Visitor Center and the Refuge Headquarters. Your purchases at these locations directly support the Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge—a portion of every sale helps fund educational and interpretive programs throughout the refuge. To find out more, become a member, or browse our wide selection of Alaska books, maps, and films, stop by any Alaska Geographic bookstore or visit our website at www.alaskageographic.org Planning Your Trip Visit the Tetlin Refuge Visitor Center to find these useful guides. In addition to books, visitors will also find maps, journals, posters, field bags, and more. The Melting Edge By Michael Collier Alaska lies squarely in the crosshairs of climate change. The impact of climate change on Alaska’s people, landscape, and wildlife is both dramatic and real. $19.95 Scats and Tracks of Alaska By James C. Halfpenny, Ph.D. A field guide to the signs of wildlife along the trails in Alaska, the Yukon, and British Columbia. Detailed illustrations, measurements, and a glossary of terms are all included. $9.95 Guide to the Birds of Alaska By Robert Armstrong Timing Is Everything Over the millennia, many birds have synchronized their annual return to Tetlin to coincide with the most favorable conditions for breeding, including when food is available. The timing of reoccurring life history events in plants and animals, such as flowering, breeding, and migration is known as phenology. Phenology is of special interest to biologists because phenological events, like migration and flowering, are among the most sensitive biological responses to climate change. For example, warmer spring temperatures on Tetlin’s breeding grounds can lead to changes in the availability of food, such as insects. Insects are very sensitive to temperature and may reach peak abundance earlier than in the past. Some bird species may be able to adapt, but for many birds the timing of spring migration is triggered by cues that are not linked to the climate at their breeding grounds; this could lead to a miss-match in the synchrony of important life history events. Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge is collaborating with the National Phenology Network to expand its observations of phenology for several key species. Some of the species being observed here at Tetlin include the American robin, dark-eyed junco, lesser yellowlegs, rusty blackbird, bumblebees, Canadian swallowtail butterfly, four-spotted skimmer dragonfly, fireweed, blueberry, and aspen. Over the long-term, local changes in the timing of biological and climatic events, when combined with phenological records gathered elsewhere, will provide us with a “big picture” look at how things are changing. This will help Tetlin Refuge adapt its management efforts to a changing environment. 14 Alaska Geographic 241 North C Street Anchorage, AK 99501 (907) 274-8440 or toll-free at (866) AK-PARKS www.alaskageographic.org This comprehensive guide to all 480 species found in the state includes full-color photos of birds that regularly appear. $26.95 Wildflowers Along the Alaska Highway By Verna Pratt This guide covers the territory from Dawson Creek, B.C. to Delta Junction and Fairbanks, Alaska and includes nearly 500 full-color photographs. $19.95 Also available online at www.alaskageographic.org 15 Visitor Information Centers Tetlin Refuge Visitor Center Alaska Highway MP 1229 Open daily from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. May 15 - September 15 907-774-2245 Alaska Public Lands Information Center Alaska Highway MP 1314, Tok Open daily June 1-August 30 907-833-5666 www.alaskacenters.gov/tok.cfm Tok Mainstreet Visitor Center Alaska Highway MP 1314.5, Tok Open daily May 1-September 15 907-833-5775 www.tokalaskainfo.com State and Federal Agencies Tetlin Refuge Headquarters Mile 1.3 Borealis Ave, Tok Monday-Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. 907-883-5312 http://tetlin.fws.gov Alaska Department of Fish and Game Right at Tok Junction, 1 block on left Monday-Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. in summer 907-883-2971 www.adfg.state.ak.us Tok State Forestry MP 123.5 Tok Cut-off, Tok 907-883-5134 www.DNR.state.ak.us/forestry Headed Home with an Alaska Souvenir Wild game meat, animal parts, and some Alaska craft items made with wildlife parts (fur, ivory, baleen, bone) may require an export permit if you are driving through Canada. If you are an international visitor, please check your country’s regulations. Handcrafted items valued at less than $250 generally do not need a permit unless it uses bear, wolf, lynx, or river otter products. Marine mammal parts are not allowed into Canada. These pieces should be mailed or flown home. For More Information: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Office, Anchorage, 907-271-6198 Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge Office, Tok, 907-883-5312 U.S. Customs, Alaska Highway, 907-774-2252 Canadian Customs, Beaver Creek,

also available

National Parks
USFS NW