"Duncan Lake and Sturgeon River" by Lisa , public domain
Birds at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).
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U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge and the Kodiak Archipelago Birds Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1941 to preserve and protect the pristine habitat of the brown bear and Introduction Kodiak is the largest island in the Gulf of Alaska. A thirty mile span of notoriously treacherous ocean, Shelikof Strait, separates the island from the Alaska mainland. Spruce forest blankets lowlands in the eastern third of the archipelago, while to the west, tundra prevails. A backbone of mountains rising to over 4,000 feet runs the length of Kodiak Island. Over 1,000 miles of coastline borders the Kodiak Refuge alone. In winter the archipelago is important to sea ducks and other aquatic migratory birds whose Emperor Geese ©Michael Quinton other wildlife. The Refuge comprises more than two-thirds of Kodiak Island and a small portion of Afognak Island. combined populations number well over a million birds. A wide variety of upland and marine habitats, and temperatures moderated by the Gulf of Alaska, give Kodiak the greatest diversity of wintering birds in the State. Summer brings nesting birds from land and sea. Bank Swallows arrive from South America and puffins fly in from deep North Pacific waters. Many nesting species are year-round residents. While Kodiak is not in a major migratory bird pathway, a good variety of migrants can be seen in small numbers. This checklist contains 247 species that have been recorded in the archipelago. Most of these have also been found on the Refuge. A Abundance Codes Bird names in italics represent birds recorded on Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge Abundant, species is very numerous in all proper habitat; the region regularly hosts great numbers of the species; sighting likelihood excellent. C Common, species occurs regularly in most proper habitat; sighting likelihood good. u Uncommon, species usually present in relatively small numbers, or higher numbers unevenly distributed; sighting likelihood fair. R Rare, species occurs regularly in the region but in very small numbers; sighting likelihood fair to poor. + Species has been recorded no more than a few times in a season; usually occurs singly; sighting likelihood very poor. • nesting confirmed in archipelago ___ divides families Sp S F W Seasons Spring, March-May Summer, June-August Fall, September-November Winter, December -February Common Name Sp S F W _____ Greater White-fronted Goose U + R _____ Emperor Goose c + u c _____ Snow Goose + + + _____ Brant c r + + _____ Cackling Goose u r r + _____ Canada Goose• u u u u _____ Trumpeter Swan r + r + _____ Tundra Swan• u u u r _____ Wood Duck + _____ Gadwall• c u c c _____ Eurasian Wigeon u + r r _____ American Wigeon• c c c u _____ Mallard• a c a a _____ Eastern Spot-billed Duck + _____ Blue-winged Teal ++ _____ Cinnamon Teal ++ _____ Northern Shoveler c r r + _____ Northern Pintail• a c u u _____ Green-winged Teal• c c c u Common Name _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Red_____ breasted Mergansers _____ ©Rich MacIntosh _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Canvasback r r r Redhead r + r r Ring-necked Duck r + r r Tufted Duck r + + r Greater Scaup• a c a a Lesser Scaup• u r u u Steller’s Eider c + u c Spectacled Eider + + King Eider c r u c Common Eider• u u u u Harlequin Duck• cccc Surf Scoter c u c c White-winged Scoter a c a a Black Scoter• a u a a Long-tailed Duck a r a a Bufflehead c+cc Common Goldeneye u r u u Barrow’s Goldeneye• c u c c Smew + + Hooded Merganser ++++ Common Merganser• cccc Red-breasted Merganser• c c c c Willow Ptarmigan• cccc Rock Ptarmigan• cccc Red-throated Loon• u u u r Pacific Loon r + c u Common Loon• cccc Yellow-billed Loon r + r r Pied-billed Grebe + Horned Grebe c r c c Red-necked Grebe• u r u u Laysan Albatross u u u + Black-footed Albatross ccc+ Short-tailed Albatross + r r + Northern Fulmar a a a c Mottled Petrel u u u Pink-footed Shearwater +++ Flesh-footed Shearwater ++ Buller’s Shearwater + r r Sooty Shearwater a a c r Short-tailed Shearwater a a c r Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel• c c c u Leach’s Storm-Petrel• u u u Sp S F W Double-crested Cormorant• u u u u Red-faced Cormorant• u u u r Pelagic Cormorant• cccc Great Blue Heron Great Egret r + r r ++ Areas Included Most of the Refuge boundary follows the mean high tide line, largely excluding marine waters and offshore islets, as well as land surrounding the villages of Larsen Bay, Karluk, Akhiok, and Old Harbor. For the purposes of this list, the Kodiak Archipelago includes all islands from Tugidak Island to Shuyak Island and marine waters from the middle of Shelikof Strait extending eastward to the continental shelf. Common Name _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Osprey +++ Bald Eagle• cccc Steller’s Sea-Eagle + Northern Harrier u r u r Sharp-shinned Hawk r u u r Northern Goshawk• u u u u Red-tailed Hawk + Rough-legged Hawk• u u u + Golden Eagle• u u u u American Kestrel ++++ Merlin• r u u r Gyrfalcon• r r r r Peregrine Falcon• u r u u American Coot + + Sandhill Crane +++ Sp S F W _____ Black-bellied Plover u u u _____ American Golden-Plover + + _____ Pacific Golden-Plover u r u _____ Lesser Sand-Plover + _____ Semipalmated Plover• ccR _____ Killdeer + + _____ Black Oystercatcher• c ccc _____ Spotted Sandpiper• r u r _____ Solitary Sandpiper• r _____ Gray-tailed Tattler + _____ Wandering Tattler c c u _____ Greater Yellowlegs• u c u _____ Common Greenshank + _____ Lesser Yellowlegs r c r _____ Upland Sandpiper + _____ Whimbrel u r r Greater +++ Yellowlegs _____ Bristle-thighed Curlew ©Milo Burcham _____ Black-tailed Godwit + _____ Hudsonian Godwit ++ _____ Bar-tailed Godwit r + + + _____ Marbled Godwit r + _____ Ruddy Turnstone r r r _____ Black Turnstone u u u u _____ Surfbird• u u u u _____ Red Knot +++ _____ Sanderling r r r + _____ Semipalmated Sandpiper + r + _____ Western Sandpiper u c u _____ Temminck’s Stint + _____ Least Sandpiper• c c r _____ Baird’s Sandpiper u r _____ Pectoral Sandpiper r u u _____ Sharp-tailed Sandpiper + u + _____ Rock Sandpiper• c u c c Common Name Sp S F W _____ Dunlin u r u u _____ Curlew Sandpiper + _____ Stilt Sandpiper r + _____ Buff-breasted Sandpiper r r _____ Ruff +++ _____ Short-billed Dowitcher• u u r _____ Long-billed Dowitcher + + r + _____ Wilson’s Snipe• c c c r _____ Wilson’s Phalarope + _____ Red-necked Phalarope• u a u _____ Red Phalarope u u u _____ Black-legged Kittiwake• a a a u _____ Red-legged Kittiwake ++++ _____ Sabine’s Gull u u u _____ Bonaparte’s Gull u u u + _____ Black-headed Gull ++ _____ Franklin’s Gull ++ _____ Black-tailed Gull + _____ Mew Gull• c c a a _____ Ring-billed Gull +++ _____ Western Gull + _____ California Gull +++ _____ Herring Gull u r u r _____ Iceland Gull (inc. Thayer’s Gull) r r r _____ Lesser Black-backed Gull + + _____ Slaty-backed Gull + + r + _____ Glaucous-winged Gull• a a a a _____ Glaucous Gull u + u u _____ Great Black-backed Gull + + _____ Aleutian Tern• u u + _____ Caspian Tern + c c r _____ Arctic Tern• _____ South Polar Skua + + _____ Pomarine Jaeger u c c _____ Parasitic Jaeger• u c c u u u _____ Long-tailed Jaeger• _____ Dovekie + _____ Common Murre• c c a a _____ Thick-billed Murre• r r r r _____ Pigeon Guillemot• cccc Marbled _____ Long-billed Murrelet + Murrelet Marbled Murrelet• cccc ©Rich MacIntosh _____ _____ Kittlitz’s Murrelet• r u r r _____ Ancient Murrelet• r u u r _____ Cassin’s Auklet r u u + _____ Parakeet Auklet• r r r + _____ Least Auklet ++++ _____ Crested Auklet ++ c c _____ Rhinoceros Auklet• r u r r Common Name Sp S F W _____ Horned Puffin• c c c r _____ Tufted Puffin• a a a r _____ Mourning Dove + + _____ Snowy Owl ++++ _____ Northern Hawk Owl• r r r r _____ Great Gray Owl + _____ Short-eared Owl• u u u r _____ Boreal Owl• u u u u _____ Northern Saw-whet Owl + _____ Common Nighthawk + _____ Costa’s Hummingbird + + + r r _____ Rufous Hummingbird _____ Belted Kingfisher• cccc _____ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker + _____ Red-breasted Sapsucker ++++ _____ Downy Woodpecker• u u u u _____ Hairy Woodpecker + + + _____ American Three-toed Woodpecker• u u u u _____ Northern Flicker + _____ Olive-sided Flycatcher + + _____ Say’s Phoebe + _____ Eastern Kingbird + u u u u _____ Northern Shrike• _____ Black-billed Magpie• cccc _____ Northwestern Crow• cccc _____ Common Raven• cccc + + + _____ Horned Lark _____ Tree Swallow• c c r _____ Violet-green Swallow• c c r _____ Bank Swallow• u c r _____ Cliff Swallow r + _____ Barn Swallow + r Winter _____ Black-capped Chickadee• c c c c Wren ©Steve Heinl _____ Red-breasted Nuthatch• cccc _____ Brown Creeper• u u u u _____ Winter Wren• cccc _____ American Dipper• cccc _____ Golden-crowned Kinglet• c c c c _____ Ruby-crowned Kinglet r + r r _____ Mountain Bluebird + _____ Gray-cheeked Thrush• r c + _____ Swainson’s Thrush + _____ Hermit Thrush• a a c + Common Name Sp S F W _____ American Robin r r r r c c c u _____ Varied Thrush• _____ European Starling r r r _____ Eastern Yellow Wagtail + _____ American Pipit• c c c r _____ Bohemian Waxwing + r r _____ Cedar Waxwing + r + _____ Orange-crowned Warbler• c c r + _____ Yellow Warbler• U a u _____ Yellow-rumped Warbler• C c r + _____ Townsend’s Warbler +++ Yellow _____ Palm Warbler + Warbler ©Ashok Khosla _____ Blackpoll Warbler + _____ Wilson’s Warbler• C a u + _____ American Tree Sparrow u u u _____ Savannah Sparrow• a a c + _____ Fox Sparrow• a a c r _____ Song Sparrow• u u u u _____ Lincoln’s Sparrow + + r r _____ White-throated Sparrow + + _____ Harris’s Sparrow + + + _____ White-crowned Sparrow r + r r _____ Golden-crowned Sparrow• a a c r _____ Dark-eyed Junco u + u u _____ Lapland Longspur• a a c + _____ Rustic Bunting + _____ Snow Bunting• u u u u + + _____ McKay’s Bunting _____ Black-headed Grosbeak + _____ Red-winged Blackbird + r r r _____ Rusty Blackbird _____ Brambling + + + _____ Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch• u u u u _____ Pine Grosbeak• cccc _____ Red Crossbill• u u u u _____ White-winged Crossbill• u u u u _____ Common Redpoll• cccc _____ Hoary Redpoll + + _____ Pine Siskin• cccc Golden-crowned Sparrow ©Rich MacIntosh Phylogenetic sequence and English names of species follow Check-list of North American Birds (AOU 1998) and supplements. You Can Help Your bird observations can play an important role in keeping this checklist up to date. Please submit trip lists or individual records, including detailed notes or photographs for unusual species to: Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge 1390 Buskin River Road Kodiak, AK 99615 1 888/408 3514 or 907/487 2600 email@example.com U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service http://fws.gov 1 800/344 WILD December 2009 Compiled by Richard MacIntosh Arctic Tern ©Ashok Khosla