Tongass

National Forest - Alaska

The Tongass National Forest in Southeast Alaska is the largest national forest in the United States. Most of its area is part of the temperate rain forest WWF ecoregion, itself part of the larger Pacific temperate rain forest WWF ecoregion, and is remote enough to be home to many species of endangered and rare flora and fauna. The Tongass encompasses islands of the Alexander Archipelago, fjords and glaciers, and peaks of the Coast Mountains. An international border with Canada (British Columbia) runs along the crest of the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains. The forest is administered from Forest Service offices in Ketchikan. There are local ranger district offices located in Craig, Hoonah, Juneau, Ketchikan, Petersburg, Sitka, Thorne Bay, Wrangell, and Yakutat.

maps

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Juneau Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Juneau Admiralty 2021

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Juneau Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Sitka Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Sitka Map 1 2021

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Sitka Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Ketchikan Misty Fjords Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Ketchikan Misty Fjords Map 1 2021

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Ketchikan Misty Fjords Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Craig Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Craig Map 8 2021

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Craig Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Hoonah Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Hoonah 2021

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Hoonah Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Wrangell Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Wrangell Map 1 2021

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Wrangell Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Petersburg Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Petersburg Map 1 2021

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Petersburg Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Yakutat Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Yakutat Map 1 2021

Map 1 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Yakutat Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 7 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Craig Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Craig Map 7 2021

Map 7 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Craig Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Ketchikan Misty Fjords Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Ketchikan Misty Fjords Map 2 2021

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Ketchikan Misty Fjords Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Petersburg Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Petersburg Map 2 2021

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Petersburg Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Sitka Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Sitka Map 2 2021

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Sitka Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Wrangell Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Wrangell Map 2 2021

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Wrangell Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Yakutat Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Tongass MVUM - Yakutat Map 2 2021

Map 2 of the Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Yakutat Ranger District (RD) of Tongass National Forest (NF) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Tongass NF https://www.fs.usda.gov/main/tongass/home https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tongass_National_Forest The Tongass National Forest in Southeast Alaska is the largest national forest in the United States. Most of its area is part of the temperate rain forest WWF ecoregion, itself part of the larger Pacific temperate rain forest WWF ecoregion, and is remote enough to be home to many species of endangered and rare flora and fauna. The Tongass encompasses islands of the Alexander Archipelago, fjords and glaciers, and peaks of the Coast Mountains. An international border with Canada (British Columbia) runs along the crest of the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains. The forest is administered from Forest Service offices in Ketchikan. There are local ranger district offices located in Craig, Hoonah, Juneau, Ketchikan, Petersburg, Sitka, Thorne Bay, Wrangell, and Yakutat.
TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST 2019 VISITOR GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS GETTING THE MOST OUT OF YOUR VISIT...............................3 TONGASS FISHERIES....................4 SALMON FACTS............................5 CABINS & CAMPGROUNDS......... 5 KIDS, FISHING AND A CHILDREN’S FOREST.................6 FOREST MAP...............................8-9 TONGASS FACTS...........................9 ANNUAL RAINFALL.......................9 BEAR VIEWING............................10 BEAR ENCOUNTERS....................11 SARKAR LAKE RECREATION AREA.....................12 SUSTAINABLE RECREATION .........................13-14 LEARN MORE...............................15 CONTACT US................ Back Cover Welcome to the Tongass National Forest! At nearly 17 million acres, this is the largest National Forest in the Unites States, and the largest contiguous temperate rainforest in the world. The Tongass National Forest is a public treasure. It is a land of beauty, mystery, and untold natural riches. Since time immemorial, this forest has nourished and sustained rich and unique human cultures. It continues to sustain Alaskan communities and culture today by creating jobs and bringing revenue through tourism, recreation, watersheds, fisheries and timber. The Tongass NF sees more than 2.8 million visitors annually, generating more than $380 million in spending and over 5,000 jobs!* All of this while protecting and maintaining some of the most diverse and beautiful ecosystems in the country. The Tongass has something for everyone. Explore, renew, and refresh among the islands and along the coastline here in the Tongass, and take home exciting memories of adventures in Alaska. We hope you enjoy your time in the Last Frontier and will choose to return often. M. Earl Stewart FOREST SUPERVISOR, TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST 2 Produced by the Tongass National Forest. All photos are courtesy USFS unless otherwise noted. Thank you to the following photographers and writers: Faith L. Duncan, Carla Hart, Cindy Lagoudakis, Ron Medel, Katie Rooks and Libby Sterling. Designed by Timberdoodle Studio. Printed on recycled paper. Getting the Most out of Your Visit KETCHIKAN, REVILLAGIGEDO ISLAND Orient yourself at the Southeast Alaska Discovery Center: attend programs, tour the exhibits, learn the story of civil rights pioneer Elizabeth Peratrovich and watch award-winning movies in the Peratrovich Theater. Hike trails that range in difficulty from a peaceful lakeside walk to a strenuous mountain climb that rewards you with spectacular views. Explore Misty Fjords National Monument via watercraft or air. In April, experience the Hummingbird Festival. CRAIG AND THORNE BAY, PRINCE OF WALES ISLAND Explore the island via Interisland Ferry. Day use areas and hiking trails abound; check at the Hollis ferry terminal for recreation information. Make a reservation at the Thorne Bay District Office for a guided tour of El Capitan Cave from late May through early September. SITKA, BARANOF ISLAND Enjoy camping in Starrigavan Creek Cabin, picnicking and a self-guided nature walk along Starrigavan Bay, and fish viewing in season within the Starrigavan Recreation Area, located 1/4 mile from the ferry terminal. Attend Sitka Summer Music Festival in June or Alaska Day activities in October. Hike numerous miles of trails from the Sitka road system. WRANGELL, WRANGELL ISLAND Retrace John Muir’s footsteps in Wrangell, located at the mouth of the wild Stikine River. Attend mid-summer, Friday-night campfire programs or explore the Rainbow Falls Trail on a self-guided hike. Bring your camera and capture memories at the Anan Wildlife Observatory, a short plane or boat ride away. The Stikine River Bird Festival is held in April and Bearfest is held in July each year. PETERSBURG, MITKOF ISLAND The Petersburg Ranger District maintains several scenic recreation sites, including a newly refurbished, accessible picnic/day-use area and Swan Observatory. The Visitor Information Center in downtown Petersburg offers maps and advice on recreational opportunities. The Tongass Rainforest Festival is held the second week in September. HOONAH, CHICHAGOF ISLAND Take an opportunity to experience authentic Alaska in this quiet community surrounded by ocean, forest and mountains. Stop by the Ranger District Office to find out how to plan your adventure to explore roads and trails, or for information on cabins, NatureWatch, hunting, and fishing. JUNEAU, ON THE MAINLAND Just a short drive from downtown Juneau you’ll find the magnificent Mendenhall Glacier. The Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center has interpretive programs and exhibits, a glacier observatory, a series of interconnected trails, and an interpretive bookstore. Juneau also features attractive campsites and bear viewing opportunities. ANGOON, ADMIRALTY ISLAND Steeped in Alaska Native Tlingit tradition, this community serves as the gateway to Admiralty Island National Monument and Kootznoowoo Wilderness Area. From here yo
United States Department of Agriculture Tongass Archaeology Notes Pictographs In Southeast Alaska By Martin V. Stanford There are two types of rock art in southeast Alaska’s Alexander Archipelago; petroglyphs and pictographs. Petroglyphs were pecked, chiseled or ground into boulders, cobbles or outcrops of bedrock which are usually located in the intertidal areas near salmon streams, fish camps or old villages. Pictographs (Figs. 1-4) on the other hand were painted onto rock walls above the shorelines of the ocean, lakes or rivers and are distributed over a large area, with some painted in very remote locations. This pattern suggests that most pictographs were painted in the spring, summer, or fall, during gathering and trading seasons, rather than near their winter villages, when weather and sea conditions were at their most challenging. Figure 1: The pictograph are of a sun sign top, below a canoe with nine people, a circular face with three eyes and to the right skeletonized human figure. Some pictographs may have been painted in these remote locations by shamans during their quests to obtain spirit helpers (yeik or yek). Forest Service Alaska Region Tongass National Forest R10-RG-226 August 2017 Tongass Archaeology Notes Recent studies show that pictographs are more common than previously thought (Stanford 2011). As of 2016 one hundred and twenty five pictographs have been reported in the state of Alaska with one hundred and eleven of these located in southeast Alaska. Most pictographs were painted on overhanging rock walls or other rock walls that are protected in some way from rain or snow. Even so, over time pictographs become faded due to exposure to water in the form of rain, snow or seeps. However, modern computer graphics software can enhance images of faded pictographs; the results can be dramatic (Figs. 1-4). A few pictographs were painted by someone standing in some kind of watercraft such as a canoe but most pictographs were painted on rock walls that had a rock bench or ledge located below which allowed access to the wall and a place to stand or sit to paint. No pictographs, to date, in southeast Alaska were painted facing north. This may be for ritual reasons or simply because many north facing rock walls tend to contain more moisture and have more lichens or moss making them difficult to apply paint. Most pictographs, except for those painted inside caves, were created relatively recently compared to other sites in Southeast Alaska which can date back to over 10,000 years ago. Four pictograph sites in southeast Alaska have been indirectly radiocarbon dated from associated wood, charcoal or cedar cordage. Adjusted to calendar years these range from AD 1486 to modern times or as far back in time as Christopher Columbus, a time when many camps and villages were present across the region. Other pictographs were painted with motifs showing ships with sails or of ships anchors indicating they were likely painted near the time of contact with 18th or 19th century explorers or fur traders. Figure 2. This pictograph is obscured by lichens. Eight dots appear to orbit a circle dot motif. A canoe with four people and a horned or antlered animal motif appear to the lower right of the circle. The motif to the right may be a representation of an 18th or 19th century ship’s anchor. Tongass Archaeology Notes Most of the pictographs in southeast Alaska were painted using a red to reddishbrown pigment. Ethnographic research has provided some information on the composition of red pigments and how they may have been prepared for pictograph painting. The primary mineral pigment used was deep red hematite (Fe2O3) or iron oxide. Hematite mixed with clay is called red ochre. A binder was added to hold the pigment particles together and to hold the paint onto the rock surface. Some examples of binder ingredients include blood, fish eggs, seed oils, plant resins and juices. A third ingredient of the paint was a vehicle, or a fluid, that made the paint liquid and suitable for application. Plant juices, water, animal oils, and urine have all been used as vehicles. Pictographs in southeast Alaska were likely painted by Tlingit, Tsimshian, or Haida people, or possibly even by the Tsetsaut. Figure 3. The top left figure is thought to be a dragonfly. At center far right and lower left are two very faint canoe motifs. It is not known what the two sets of parallel lines and the two connected circles might represent. The reasons why pictographs were painted are varied. Ethnographic research shows that some pictographs were painted to impress others; to record legends or important events, such as contact with European explorers, encounters with animals, to mark clan territories or to indicate portage locations; to record periods of time; or to mark or warn of burial locations for important people such as shamans or their paraphernalia. While many of the pictographs may represent recognizable animals or things s
Many petroglyphs are so old that the present inhabitants are unable to interpret them. AN ANCIENT HISTORY United States Department of Agriculture The more recent rock art drawings are usually realistic representations of animals, fish, or supernatural beings. Archaeologists are just beginning to discover more about the ancient people who inhabited southern coastal Alaska. Even the pictures put there to tell a story are shrouded in mystery. One of the ways to determine the relative age of rock art symbols is by association SE with other rock art sites or by comparing designs. Abstract designs may be older than representational drawings. Some symbols are obviously more recent because of their association with historic events. When the Tlingits first saw a Russian sailing ship, they told in pictures of its arrival as if it were the return of the Raven, the mythical creator. SE SE SE Rock designs may have recorded important events such as births, deaths, potlatches, legends or contact with others such as European explorers. Some mark Clan territories, indicate portage locations, or record periods of time. While others may mark or warn of burial locations for important people such as shamans and/ or their paraphernalia. However, no one can say absolutely what the artist had in mind while creating many of these images. Therefore, realize what many of these pictographs and petroglyphs actually represent may in fact be very personal and known only to the person who created them. SE Long ago a Tlingit elder interpreted this petroglyph as showing how Raven created the world. e d b SC c SE You will see examples of both Southeast and Southcentral Alaskan rock art in this brochure. For easier identification, all the pictographs and petroglyphs have been labelled according to their area of origin. Next to each drawing from Southeast you will find the letters “SE” and next to each from Southcentral, there will be an “SC.” PRESERVING OUR HERITAGE a SE a. Raven carrying fire in his bill. b. The box of daylight Raven stole. c. The creation of the earth. d. The North wind brings the weather. e. The Wolf Crest representing the guardian of fresh water. SC The next few years are crucial to the preservation of rock art. Destruction can be from natural or human actions. Vandalism and theft threaten the survival of this important heritage resource. Rock art exists in a great open air museum for which we are all responsible. Be careful how you treat these ligitimate artistic works. Walking on rock art causes the rock and the design to crumble; touching leaves oil residues on the surface; chalking, rubbings and tracings apply pressure to soft rock surfaces, accelerating deterioration. The most destructive action, however, is grafitti. Writing or spray painting on the rocks destroys the integrity of this fragile heritage resource. The Native People who lived along southern coastal Alaska created some of the most outstanding rock art in the world. Take home a memory of their distinctive art by taking photos. ROCK ART Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Southern Coastal Alaska SE PHOTO HINTS: • Use a polarizing filter to reduce glare. • Side lighting is important. • Maximum shadows early in the morning or late evening bring out the design. • Artificial side lighting at night gives best results. • Never chalk, paint or in any way alter the art to enhance your shot, as this proves destructive. • Digital photography offers the ability to enhance the image. Rock art along the coast of Alaska is truly unique. If you think you may have found a new petroglyph or pictograph, or you have witnessed vandalism to an archaeological site, please notify the nearest Forest Service office. When we respect and protect rock art, we help save this vital link with the past for our children’s enjoyment in the future. SE Contact a forest archaeologist at: Chugach National Forest (907) 743-9500 Tongass National Forest (907) 225-3101 www.fs.usda.gov/detail/r10/learning/history-culture USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer, and lender. Forest Service Alaska Region R10-RG-228 July 2017 ART ON THE ROCKS Humans have painted or pecked symbols on rocks or walls of caves for thousands of years. The rock art of southern coastal Alaska offers a unique glimpse of these ancient maritime peoples and their views of the world. There are different styles of rock art found all over the world. Most of the rock art in southern coastal Alaska was made during the last 10,000 years. Seeing these ancient pictures takes us back to a world lost in time, linked to the present only by what the prehistoric artists decided to carve or paint on the living rock. PICTOGRAPH: a design painted on rock with pigments made by mixing grease or salmon eggs with red ochre or charcoal (shown in red). SE SE TREASURES of ANTIQUITY SE SC PETROGLYPH: a design that is pecked or ground into the rock surface.The designs below and the similarly styled designs throughou
Common Trees of Alaska United States Department of Agriculture Prepared by Forest Service Alaska Region R10-XX-XXX August 2009 Mountain hemlock – Tsuga mertensiana Needles • Light- to medium-green on top, with two whitish parallel lines beneath, needles are unequal in length from 1/4 to 7/8 inch long; • Blunt-tipped, soft, shiny, and flat, generally growing from two sides of branch parallel to the ground. Cones • Brown, oval-shaped, 5/8 to 1 inch long; • Thin, papery scales. Bark • Reddish-brown when young, turning graybrown; • Scaly when young, becoming thick and furrowed with age. Size at maturity and life span • 100 to 150 feet in height and 2 to 4 feet in diameter; • 200 to 500 years. Habitat and distribution • Sea level to subalpine areas; • Along Coast Range in central California to the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. Needles • Dark green, white lines on both surfaces, moreor-less equal in length, 1/2 to 1 inch long; • Soft and growing from all sides of the branch in a bottle brush pattern. Cones • Purplish when young, brown when mature; • Cylindrical, 1 to 2-1/2 inches long; • Thin, papery scales. Bark • Divided into narrow flattened ridges, becoming thick and deeply furrowed with age; • Gray when young, turning reddish brown with age. Size at maturity and life span • 50 to 100 feet in height and 10 to 30 inches in diameter, can be prostrate in alpine; • Slow-growing trees, size 18 to 20 inches in diameter at 180 – 260 years; • 400 to 500 years Habitat and distribution • Sea level to 3,500 feet elevation; • From crest of the Sierra-Nevada in California to the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Mountain hemlock – Tsuga mertensiana Western hemlock – Tsuga heterophylla Western hemlock – Tsuga heterophylla Alaska yellow-cedar Cupressus nootkatensis Needles • Scalelike shiny yellow-green. 1/16 to 1/8 inch long; • Springy, fan-shaped sprays of branches, turning up at ends; • Branch sprays flat and symmetrical, bottom side with white stomate markings. Cones • Brown, oval-shaped, 1/2 inch long; • Clustered near end of branches; • Cone scales overlap, woody, and curve outward at maturity. Bark • Fibrous and stringy; • Cinnamon-red when young, becoming gray with age. Size at maturity and life span • 70 to 100 feet in height in Southeast Alaska (growing much taller in southern part of range) and 2 to 4 feet in diameter (occasionally reaching 6 feet); • 300 to 700 years (occasionally 1,000). Habitat and distribution • Coastal forests; • Sea level to 500 feet in elevation; • From northwestern California to Southeast Alaska just south of Frederick Sound. Western redcedar – Thuja pilcata Alaska yellow-cedar – Cupressus nootkatensis Needles • Scalelike, overlapping, sharp pointed, 1/16 to 1/8 inch long; • Yellow-green to deep green; • Top and bottom of branch sprays similar, without apparent white stomate markings. Cones • Spherical about 1/2 inch in diameter; • Green, maturing to brown in 2 years; • Made of 4-6 shield-shaped scales, sharp central point on each scale, scales do not overlap. Bark • Shredding, grayish brown. Size at maturity and life span • Slow-growing trees; • 40 to 100 feet tall, and 1 to 2 feet in diameter; • Shrub-sized and contorted in bogs and at tree line; • Lives up to 1,500 years. Habitat and distribution • Wetland and subalpine forests; • Sea level to tree line; • From Oregon north along coast through Prince William Sound, Alaska. Western redcedar – Thuja plicata Sitka Spruce – Picea sitchensis White spruce – Picea glauca Alaska’s state tree Needles • Dark blue-green, squarish, 5/8 to 1 inch long; • Needles sharp, growing on all sides of branches from woody pegs, a character common to spruce. Cones • Light orange-brown, 2 to 3-1/2 inches long; • Usually found in the top quarter of tree, hanging down from branches; • Papery scales. Bark • Thin and smooth when young, developing scaly plates with age; • Gray, becoming dark purplish brown with age. Size at maturity and life span • 150 to 225 feet in height and 5 to 8 feet in diameter; • Grows to larger size in southern part of its range; • 500 to 700 years. Habitat and distribution • Well-drained, upland and riparian forests; • Sea level to tree line; • From northern California, northwest along the coastline to the Alaska Peninsula. Needles • 3/4 to 1 inch long, blue-green, four-angled with whitish lines on all sides; • Rigid, pointed, but not sharp to the touch; • Usually crowded on upper side of the branch. Cones • 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 inches long, light brown; • Narrowly oblong, nearly stalkless, hanging down; • Scales thin and flexible with smooth margins. Bark • Thin, scaly to smooth; • Gray-brown, with white inner bark. Size at maturity and life span • 40 to 70 feet tall, 6 to 18 inches in diameter; • Reaches 80 to 115 feet tall, 30 inches in diameter; • Tree crown, narrow or spire-like; • Can live an age of 250 to 300 years. Habitat and distribution • From sea level to tree line on a wide variety of habitats; • Throughout southcentral
Lichens of Alaska’s South Coast United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Alaska Region R10-RG-190 July 2011 WHAT IS A LICHEN? Lichens are specialized fungi that “farm” algae as a food source. Unlike molds, mildews, and mushrooms that parasi ze or scavenge food from other organisms, the fungus of a lichen cul vates ny algae and / or blue-green bacteria (called cyanobacteria) within the fabric of interwoven fungal threads that form the body of the lichen (or thallus). The algae and cyanobacteria produce food for themselves and for the fungus by conver ng carbon dioxide and water into sugars using the sun’s energy (photosynthesis). Thus, a lichen is a combina on of two or some mes three organisms living together. Perhaps the most important contribu on of the fungus is to provide a protec ve habitat for the algae or cyanobacteria. The green or blue-green photosynthe c layer is o en visible between two white fungal layers if a piece of lichen thallus is torn off. Most lichen-forming fungi cannot exist without the photosynthe c partner because they have become dependent on them for survival. But in all cases, a fungus looks quite different in the lichenized form compared to its free-living form. HOW DO LICHENS REPRODUCE? Figure 1. Apothecia, fruiting bodies Figure 2. Soralia, small openings on thallus surface. Figure 3. Soredia, dust-like granules. Lichens sexually reproduce with frui ng bodies of various shapes and colors that can o en look like miniature mushrooms. These are called apothecia (Fig. 1) and contain spores that germinate and grow into the fungus. Each fungus must find the right photosynthe c partner in order to become a lichen. Lichens reproduce asexually in several ways. Some lichens have openings on the thallus surface called soralia (Fig. 2). Inside, ny dust-like granules called soredia (Fig. 3) are produced. Soredia contain algae and fungal cells that escape from the parent lichen and grow into a new lichen thallus. Other lichens produce outgrowths that break off and grow into the same lichen they came from. These are called isidia ( ny, cylindrical projec ons, Fig. 4) or lobules (li le flaps of ssue, Fig. 5). These structures are o en very important to no ce for the proper iden fica on of lichens. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGY Lichens come in many shapes, Figure 4. Isidia, tiny projections. sizes, and colors. A lichen thallus has one of three general growth forms: foliose, fru cose, or crustose. Foliose lichens are leaf-like with different upper and lower surfaces. Fru cose lichens are hair-like or bushy with no Figure 5. Lobules, flaps of tissue. obvious difference between upper and lower surfaces. Crustose lichens are so closely a ached to a surface, like paint spots, that the lower surface is not easily observable. Lichens have specialized features enabling them to survive long periods of drought. In a dehydrated, inac ve state they can resist extreme high and low temperatures and s ll func on op mally whenever condi ons become just right. Well adapted for life in marginal habitats, lichens produce more than 500 unique biochemical compounds that serve to control light exposure, repel herbivores and microbes, and discourage compe on from plants. Among these are many pigments and an bio cs that are useful to humans. Lichens are considered to be nature’s pioneers because they colonize newly exposed surfaces. Lichens containing cyanobacteria fix their own nitrogen from the air into a form usable by other plants as a form of fer lizer. This form of nitrogen is released into the environment as rain washes over the lichens or when lichens die and fall to the ground. These lichen types tend to live in nitrogen-poor habitats such as bare rock surfaces, the forest canopy, or on sandy soils. Lichens provide food for many animals including flying squirrels, black-tailed deer, and mountain goats. Many invertebrates use lichens for food or for shelter. The diverse ecosystems along the south coast of Alaska provide abundant habitats for the more than 1,000 different lichens known to occur here. Some are very rare and cryp c. Many lichens are generalists and can grow in more than one habitat. Some lichens only grow in specific habitats such as upper dal rocks, conifer forests, alpine, or sandy soils near glaciers. LICHENS AND AIR QUALITY MONITORING Lichens are not protected by bark, nor do they possess an external waxy layer to prevent water loss like plant leaves. Lacking roots and other structures to transport food and water, lichens absorb moisture into the thallus directly from the humid air or rainfall, and can become quickly saturated like a sponge. Lichens dry out by losing moisture through evapora on when windy or dry condi ons exist. As drying occurs, elements and compounds that entered with moisture from the surrounding environment become concentrated in the lichen. During high rainfall periods, mobile nutrients and pollutants are slowly leached from the lichen. In this way lichen
Wildflowers of the National Forests in Alaska United States Forest Service Department of Alaska Region Agriculture R10-RG-201 MAR 2012 Liverleaf wintergreen Pyrola asarifolia Evergreen perennial, to 16" tall. Leaves stalked, arising from plant’s base, oval, with smooth margins, leathery and shiny. Flowers pink, numerous, bellshaped, attached to upper half of leafless central stalk. In forests and thickets from Juneau to north and west. Early blueberry Vaccinium ovalifolium Deciduous shrub, average 6' tall. Leaves with smooth to slightly toothed margins. Flowers pink to bronze, urn-shaped, emerge before or with the leaves. Fruit a spherical, dull or shiny, deep-blue to blackish berry. Common in forest understory, or in forest openings from sea level to subalpine. Edible. Alaska blueberry (pink-bronze flowers & shiny berries) is included here. PINK Fool's huckleberry Menziesia ferruginea Deciduous shrub, to 10' tall. Leaves with smooth margins, bluish-green, somewhat hairy. Flowers light pink to bronze, urn-shaped. Fruit, dry capsule. Common in forest understory from sea level to subalpine. Also called rusty menziesia, or false azalea. Northern bog rosemary Andromeda polifolia var. polifolia Evergreen shrub, to 15" tall, spindly habit. Leaves alternate along stem, leathery, edges rolled under, distinct web-like vein pattern above, powdery white beneath. Flowers pink, urnshaped. Common in peat bogs. Sea level to subalpine. Poisonous. Bog laurel Kalmia microphylla Evergreen shrub, to 20" tall, spindly. Leaves opposite along stem, dark green, leathery, shiny, with 1 main vein visible on top, edges rolled under, whitish beneath. Flowers pink to lavender, saucer-shaped, about 3/4" across. Peat bogs in southeast Alaska from sea level to subalpine. Poisonous. 2 Alpine azalea Kalmia procumbens Evergreen dwarf shrub, mat forming, appressed to the soil or exposed rock faces. Heavily branched with somewhat shiny leaves ¼” long or less, narrowly oval, with under-rolled leaf margins. Tiny flowers (a little less than ¼” wide) white to magenta, open bell-shaped with 5 shallow petals, upward facing. Fruit a dry capsule. Common in the alpine. Wandering fleabane Erigeron peregrinus var. peregrinus Perennial herb with a single stem to 20" tall. Leaves few, arising from base of plant, narrow toward base, stem leaves narrowly lance-shaped to oblong. Single daisy-like flower-head with light pink to purple ray flowers. Center of flowerhead yellow. Common in meadows and muskegs, from sea level to alpine. MAGENTA Rubus arcticus Small perennial herb to 6" tall. Erect stem with solitary flower and 2-5 leaves. Leaves 3-lobed, or with 3 leaflets, somewhat toothed, finely hairy. Flower with 5 deep pink to magenta petals, about 1" across. Fruit deep red, similar to a blackberry, about 2/3" across. Beach meadows, bogs, wet meadows. Delicious fruit highly prized for pies and jams. PINK Nagoonberry Salmonberry Rubus spectabilis Deciduous shrub to 13' tall. Stems prickly. Leaves with 3 sharply-toothed leaflets. Solitary flowers with 5 deep pink petals, 1" across. Fruit similar to a raspberry, yellow to red. Plant grows rapidly, forming dense thickets. Common in disturbed areas, forest edges, subalpine meadows. Fruit edible but watery and rather insipid, good for sauces and jam. Fireweed Chamerion angustifolium Perennial herb, from 3-10' tall. Unbranched stem erect with numerous lance-shaped leaves, flowers on upper half of stem. Many showy flowers to 1.5" across, with 4 deep pink petals. Produces fluffy airborne seeds. Can form spectacular stands in disturbed or burntover areas. Spring shoots are edible. Nectar produces excellent honey. 3 Dwarf fireweed Chamerion latifolium Perennial herb from 1-3' tall. Stem variously branched, reclining to erect. Leaves oval, margins smooth, fleshy with whitish "bloom". Flowers deep pink, large (1.5" across). Common in sandy areas, river bars, recently deglaciated areas, rocky areas in subalpine and alpine. Also called river beauty. Pretty shooting star Dodecatheon pulchellum Perennial herb, to 18" tall, leaves and flowering stems arising from plant's base. Leaves lance-shaped to spoonshaped, blunt, margins smooth. Showy flowers in few-flowered clusters atop leafless stem. Deep pink petals sweep back from the white, yellow and dark purple "center" or point of the flower. Abundant in coast­al and forest meadows, to alpine. MAGENTA Tall mountain shooting star Dodecatheon jeffreyi Perennial herb, to 18" tall, leaves and flowering stems arising from plant's base. Leaves lance-shaped to spoonshaped, blunt, margins smooth. Showy flowers in few-flowered clusters atop leafless stem. Deep pink petals sweep back from the white and dark purple "center" or point of the flower. Common in bogs. Mountain Indian paintbrush Castilleja parviflora var. parviflora Perennial herb, stems clustered, erect, to 18" tall. Leaves 3-5 lobed, hairy. "Flowers", deep pink to magenta, clustered on upp
Mushrooms of the National Forests in Alaska United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Alaska Region R10 - RG -209 FEB 2013 Introduction The coastal temperate rainforests of the Tongass and Chugach national forests often produce prolific fruitings of mushrooms in late summer and fall. For many Alaskans, mushrooms are a source of food. For others, they are a source of pigments for dyeing wool and other natural fibers. Still others merely enjoy their beauty. However, all Alaskans should appreciate these fungi for, without them, there would be no forests here. This brochure presents an introduction to mushrooms and illustrates a number of the more common and interesting of our local species to help Alaskans and visitors to better understand and enjoy our magnificent national forests. Unlike most plants, birds, and mammals, very few mushrooms have common names. Thus, while we have used common names where they exist, many of the species in this brochure can be referred to only by their scientific names. But, never fear. If you can talk with your kids about Tyrannosaurus rex, you can handle mushroom names! What is a mushroom? Mushrooms are produced by some fungi (singular: fungus), and their primary purpose is to make and spread tiny reproductive propagules called spores, which function much like plant seeds. After long being considered primitive plants, fungi now are accepted as their own kingdom. Unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food, and their cell walls contain chitin rather than cellulose. Interestingly, chitin also is found in insect exoskeletons, providing evidence that the fungi are more closely related to animals (including us!) than they are to plants. Mushrooms arise from a mycelium (plural: mycelia), which is the actual “body” of the fungus and is comprised of a network of many tube-like microscopic filaments called hyphae (singular: hypha). Hyphae grow at their tips and are able to infiltrate a wide variety of substrates such as wood, leaf litter, soil, and even left-over pizza. Mushrooms to most people are umbrella-shaped structures with plate-like gills on the underside of their caps. However, besides the gilled mushrooms, there are others in many shapes and sizes, and they produce their spores in a variety of ways. Other major groups include chanterelles, boletes, polypores, spine-fungi, club- and coral-fungi, puffballs, jelly-fungi, cup-fungi, morels, false morels, and elfin saddles. Figure 1 shows the parts of a gilled mushroom. Learning the terminology will make it much easier for you to communicate with others about mushrooms and to make use of tools for identifying them. 2 U.S. Forest Service, Alaska Region Patch (remnant of universal veil) Cap (pileus) Cap margin Gills (lamellae) Ring (remnant of partial veil) Stalk (stipe) Volva (remnant of universal veil) Figure 1. Parts of a gilled mushroom. How do fungi reproduce? The primary purpose of a mushroom is to disperse spores into the environment in hopes that they will land in a location with suitable moisture, temperature, and nutrient conditions to germinate and grow into a new mycelium. Each mushroom is capable of producing anywhere from thousands to billions of spores, but only an incredibly tiny fraction of them are successful. Reproduction cannot occur unless the mycelium of one mating type merges with the mycelium of a compatible type. Once this has happened, sexual reproduction, including the formation of mushrooms and production of spores, can occur, completing the life cycle (Figure 2). Ecological Roles of Fungi While fungi are found in almost every environment, mushroom-forming species are especially prevalent in forests. There they play critical roles in nutrient cycling, soil aggregation, and water retention, as well as provide a food source for animals large and small. In general, the three main lifestyles of mushroom-producing fungi in forests are decomposer, mycorrhizal partner, and parasite. Mushrooms of the National Forests in Alaska 3 Figure 2. Life cycle of a typical mushroom fungus. Along with bacteria and other organisms, fungi break down all of the forest’s plant, animal, and microbial matter and make its components available for new generations of life. Fungi are particularly important in breaking down tough plant debris, as they are the only organisms capable of decomposing lignin, a major component of wood and other plant tissues. Many fungi form mycorrhizal (“fungus root”) associations with plants (Figure 3). This is mutually beneficial for both fungi and plants, as the plants receive nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as water and protection from soil pathogens, and the fungi get sugars produced by the plants. All of Alaska’s trees require mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, as do nearly all other plants. Relatively few parasitic fungi produce mushrooms. Most of them, such as honey mushrooms (genus Armillaria) and some polypores (such as Phaeolus schweini
Selected Invasive Plants of Alaska 2004 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Alaska Region R10-TP-130B Produced by State & Private Forestry, Forest Health Protection When trying to identify an unknown plant, color photos often help. This pocket guide provides a selection of invasive plants found across Alaska today. This booklet is not intended to take the place of more comprehensive reference guides, but to help those unfamiliar with these species to begin to recognize them, as the first step towards taking action. Non-native invasive plants displace native vegetation, degrade wildlife habitat, and negatively affect human health, the economy, and the environment. Factors such as geographic isolation and harsh winters have protected Alaska from large-scale invasive plant infestations in the past. Recently, however, some of the most harmful noxious weeds of the lower 48 states have begun to grow and spread in Alaska. Many of the invasive plants featured in this booklet have been responsible for significant economic losses and environmental damage across North America over the past two centuries. Other species featured here (Siberian peashrub and European bird cherry) have been dependable components of Alaska’s urban landscape, but were included because they have recently been observed spreading aggressively into Alaskan wildlands and natural areas. There are many ways invasive plants are introduced to Alaska. Seeds and plant parts can travel in the root balls of nursery stock, in animal feed, tires, recreational equipment, or as components of wildflower seed mixes. Movement of people and equipment within natural areas and site-disturbing projects, such as road-building and construction, can create inroads for invasive plants. Alaskans have the chance to prevent invasive plant infestations before they become so widespread that control is costly and eradication impossible. This invasive plant booklet is designed to assist with identifying some of the most problematic species that are now moving along the roads, streams and beaches of Alaska. Thank you for doing your part to insure that these invasive plant species, and others like them, do not spread into Alaska's wildlands. Photos provided by the Forest Service or the UAF Cooperative Extension Service unless noted. NATIONAL PARK SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA FAIRBANKS Department of the Interior College of Rural Alaska Cooperative Extension Service Spotted Knapweed on Turnagain Arm In Alaska we are concentrating on prevention, early detection, and rapid response. Prevention: Keeping these invasive plant species from becoming established in Alaska is the highest priority. This booklet is a tool to help identify some of the species of greatest concern in Alaska. Early Detection & Rapid Response: Not only is it important to recognize these plants, but it is imperative that we find small infestations before they become too difficult to control. For example, spotted knapweed has been found five times within Alaska, but luckily these sites were discovered when the populations were less than 100 plants each. The Alaska Soil and Water Conservation Districts are in the process of forming “Cooperative Weed Management Areas” (CWMAs) across the state. The CWMAs will be actively involved in the detection, monitoring, and treatment of problematic invasive plant populations. For additional information about invasive plants in Alaska: Contact your local UAF Cooperative Extension Service office or appropriate local land management agency. Or visit: http://www.uaf.edu/coop-ext http://www.fs.fed.us/r10/spf/fhp/ http://www.cnipm.org/index.html To view or contribute to the state-wide database of exotic plants: http://akweeds.uaa.alaska.edu/akweeds2.html This document was produced by: Michael Shephard, USDA Forest Service, State & Private Forestry Tom Huette, USDA Forest Service, State & Private Forestry Jamie M. Snyder, UAF Cooperative Extension Service (see back pages for index) Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Sunflower Family • A perennial that grows to five feet tall with erect, ridged, branching stems. Leaves curled, wavy, oblong, alternate on stem with woolly hairs on underside. Leaves arise directly from the stem without a distinct leaf stalk. Flowers are purple-pink in clusters at the ends of branches. • Forms colonies via an extensive horizontal and vertical root system; can eventually cover acres. Also spreads by windblown seeds. Young plants appear as basal rosettes that bolt in late summer. Grows in fields, pastures, forests, and along roadsides, ditches, and river banks. • Restricts recreational land use, scratches and infects animal skin, and produces allelopathic chemicals to suppress surrounding vegetation. Very difficult to eradicate once established. Sunflower Family Forest Service • Alaska Region, September 2004 • www.fs.fed.us/r10/spf/fhp/ 1 Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) Bull Th

also available

National Parks
USFS NW