"Duncan Lake and Sturgeon River" by Lisa , public domain

Kodiak

National Wildlife Refuge - Alaska

The Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge is located on the Kodiak Archipelago in southwestern Alaska, United States. The refuge includes the southwestern two-thirds of Kodiak Island, Uganik Island, the Red Peaks area of Afognak Island and all of Ban Island in the archipelago. The refuge contains seven major rivers and about 100 streams. It is a spawning ground for all five species of Pacific Ocean salmon, steelhead, Dolly Varden, and several other fish species; as well as a nesting ground for 250 species of bird, many of which feed on salmon. The refuge has only six native species of mammals: Kodiak bear, red fox, river otter, ermine, little brown bat and tundra vole. The non-native mammals Sitka black-tailed deer, mountain goat, Roosevelt elk, caribou, marten, red squirrel, snowshoe hare, and beaver were introduced to the archipelago between the 1920s and 1950s and are now hunted and trapped. An estimated 2,300 brown bears inhabit the refuge, and an estimated 1,200 bald eagles nest here every year. The climate of the refuge is that of southern Alaska, mild and rainy. Many areas in the refuge are densely forested with Sitka spruce at lower elevations. There are grasslands in drier areas, shrub habitats dominated by dense alder, and alpine habitats at higher elevations. The refuge contains several small glaciers.

brochures

Birds at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Kodiak - Birds

Birds at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Bears at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Kodiak - Bears

Bears at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Ayakulik River in Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Kodiak - Ayakulik River

Ayakulik River in Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Uganik River in Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Kodiak - Uganik River

Uganik River in Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Celebrating 75 years of Conservation at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Kodiak - 75 years of Conservation

Celebrating 75 years of Conservation at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Alaska. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Kodiak NWR https://www.fws.gov/refuge/kodiak/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kodiak_National_Wildlife_Refuge The Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge is located on the Kodiak Archipelago in southwestern Alaska, United States. The refuge includes the southwestern two-thirds of Kodiak Island, Uganik Island, the Red Peaks area of Afognak Island and all of Ban Island in the archipelago. The refuge contains seven major rivers and about 100 streams. It is a spawning ground for all five species of Pacific Ocean salmon, steelhead, Dolly Varden, and several other fish species; as well as a nesting ground for 250 species of bird, many of which feed on salmon. The refuge has only six native species of mammals: Kodiak bear, red fox, river otter, ermine, little brown bat and tundra vole. The non-native mammals Sitka black-tailed deer, mountain goat, Roosevelt elk, caribou, marten, red squirrel, snowshoe hare, and beaver were introduced to the archipelago between the 1920s and 1950s and are now hunted and trapped. An estimated 2,300 brown bears inhabit the refuge, and an estimated 1,200 bald eagles nest here every year. The climate of the refuge is that of southern Alaska, mild and rainy. Many areas in the refuge are densely forested with Sitka spruce at lower elevations. There are grasslands in drier areas, shrub habitats dominated by dense alder, and alpine habitats at higher elevations. The refuge contains several small glaciers.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge and the Kodiak Archipelago Birds Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1941 to preserve and protect the pristine habitat of the brown bear and Introduction Kodiak is the largest island in the Gulf of Alaska. A thirty mile span of notoriously treacherous ocean, Shelikof Strait, separates the island from the Alaska mainland. Spruce forest blankets lowlands in the eastern third of the archipelago, while to the west, tundra prevails. A backbone of mountains rising to over 4,000 feet runs the length of Kodiak Island. Over 1,000 miles of coastline borders the Kodiak Refuge alone. In winter the archipelago is important to sea ducks and other aquatic migratory birds whose Emperor Geese ©Michael Quinton other wildlife. The Refuge comprises more than two-thirds of Kodiak Island and a small portion of Afognak Island. combined populations number well over a million birds. A wide variety of upland and marine habitats, and temperatures moderated by the Gulf of Alaska, give Kodiak the greatest diversity of wintering birds in the State. Summer brings nesting birds from land and sea. Bank Swallows arrive from South America and puffins fly in from deep North Pacific waters. Many nesting species are year-round residents. While Kodiak is not in a major migratory bird pathway, a good variety of migrants can be seen in small numbers. This checklist contains 247 species that have been recorded in the archipelago. Most of these have also been found on the Refuge. A Abundance Codes Bird names in italics represent birds recorded on Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge Abundant, species is very numerous in all proper habitat; the region regularly hosts great numbers of the species; sighting likelihood excellent. C Common, species occurs regularly in most proper habitat; sighting likelihood good. u Uncommon, species usually present in relatively small numbers, or higher numbers unevenly distributed; sighting likelihood fair. R Rare, species occurs regularly in the region but in very small numbers; sighting likelihood fair to poor. + Species has been recorded no more than a few times in a season; usually occurs singly; sighting likelihood very poor. • nesting confirmed in archipelago ___ divides families Sp S F W Seasons Spring, March-May Summer, June-August Fall, September-November Winter, December -February Common Name Sp S F W _____ Greater White-fronted Goose U + R _____ Emperor Goose c + u c _____ Snow Goose + + + _____ Brant c r + + _____ Cackling Goose u r r + _____ Canada Goose• u u u u _____ Trumpeter Swan r + r + _____ Tundra Swan• u u u r _____ Wood Duck + _____ Gadwall• c u c c _____ Eurasian Wigeon u + r r _____ American Wigeon• c c c u _____ Mallard• a c a a _____ Eastern Spot-billed Duck + _____ Blue-winged Teal ++ _____ Cinnamon Teal ++ _____ Northern Shoveler c r r + _____ Northern Pintail• a c u u _____ Green-winged Teal• c c c u Common Name _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Red_____ breasted Mergansers _____ ©Rich MacIntosh _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Canvasback r r r Redhead r + r r Ring-necked Duck r + r r Tufted Duck r + + r Greater Scaup• a c a a Lesser Scaup• u r u u Steller’s Eider c + u c Spectacled Eider + + King Eider c r u c Common Eider• u u u u Harlequin Duck• cccc Surf Scoter c u c c White-winged Scoter a c a a Black Scoter• a u a a Long-tailed Duck a r a a Bufflehead c+cc Common Goldeneye u r u u Barrow’s Goldeneye• c u c c Smew + + Hooded Merganser ++++ Common Merganser• cccc Red-breasted Merganser• c c c c Willow Ptarmigan• cccc Rock Ptarmigan• cccc Red-throated Loon• u u u r Pacific Loon r + c u Common Loon• cccc Yellow-billed Loon r + r r Pied-billed Grebe + Horned Grebe c r c c Red-necked Grebe• u r u u Laysan Albatross u u u + Black-footed Albatross ccc+ Short-tailed Albatross + r r + Northern Fulmar a a a c Mottled Petrel u u u Pink-footed Shearwater +++ Flesh-footed Shearwater ++ Buller’s Shearwater + r r Sooty Shearwater a a c r Short-tailed Shearwater a a c r Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel• c c c u Leach’s Storm-Petrel• u u u Sp S F W Double-crested Cormorant• u u u u Red-faced Cormorant• u u u r Pelagic Cormorant• cccc Great Blue Heron Great Egret r + r r ++ Areas Included Most of the Refuge boundary follows the mean high tide line, largely excluding marine waters and offshore islets, as well as land surrounding the villages of Larsen Bay, Karluk, Akhiok, and Old Harbor. For the purposes of this list, the Kodiak Archipelago includes all islands from Tugidak Island to Shuyak Island and marine waters from the middle of Shelikof Strait extending eastward to the continental shelf. Common Name _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ __
Kodiak bear... So you want to see a Bear Viewing Etiquette Practicing proper bear viewing etiquette will improve the quality of your experience and leave minimal impact on the animals and their habitat. Whether you are a fisherman, photographer, or a bear viewer, following a few simple rules will prevent your enthusiasm from inadvertently becoming harassment. Displaying courtesy in bear country is a vital aspect of your visit. Learn as much as you can about bears, their needs, and their behavior before you go into the field. Simple rules to follow are: • Select the viewing spot with care. Choose an open viewing area. Avoid bedding areas and vegetation that reduces visibility. A slightly elevated site is preferred. Avoid travel corridors and bear feeding areas. • Be alert to your surroundings. • Watch for bear travel routes, sign and tracks. • Human movement should be consistent and predictable. Move slowly, pause often, and look around. Stay with the group. • Don’t let bears learn that people are a source of food. Be responsible with your food, garbage and fish, especially in or near the viewing area. Feeding wild animals is unwise and forbidden by State law. • Photographers should use telephoto lenses, as getting too close for that perfect shot will stress the bears. • Maintain quiet while entering and leaving the viewing area. • Eliminate excess noise. • Avoid situations of close approach or poor visibility that can lead to surprise encounters. Be aware of wind direction, as bears trust their sense of smell. • Special caution should be taken around sows with cubs and bears protecting a food source. Bears can react explosively to anything they perceive as a threat. • Overnight camping should not take place in the immediate bear viewing area or in high traffic areas. • Self-guided viewers should get advice from local professionals concerning accepted bear viewing behavior. • If the bear reacts to your presence, evaluate the situation. Are you too close? • Be respectful of other humans using the area, whether they be sport fishermen, photographers, hikers, or viewers. • Recognize that animals other than bears and plant life deserve your courtesy and stewardship. • Practice good personal hygiene by not smoking and properly disposing of items such as toilet paper. • Follow the advice of your guide, and don’t press for special privileges. • Leave the viewing area in good shape for the next users. • Egress from the area is as important as how you get there. Be safe and cautious. Although bear viewing is often referred to as a “non-consumptive use,” every human visit to bear country has an impact on bears and their habitat. Some bears are seen by multiple viewers, causing potentially cumulative stress. Be aware of the lasting effects of your viewing experience: • On the bears and the habitat • On the people who will go there after you • On the message you take to others This brochure is intended to be an introduction to bear viewing. It is important to learn as much as you can before your trip. Recommended sources of information are: Bear Facts (brochure), for specific information on bear encounters Living in Harmony with Bears (brochure) These brochures and additional literature are available at the following locations: Alaska Department of Fish & Game 907-486-1880 or www.state.ak.us/adfg/wildlife Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge 907-486-2600 or www.r7.fws.gov/nwr/kodiak Kodiak Island Convention & Visitor’s Bureau 907-486-4782 or 800-789-4782 or www.kodiak.org for information on guides, air and water transportation, and lodges. Created by KUBS, Kodiak Unified Bear Subcommittee of the Kodiak Fish & Game Advisory Board So you want to see a Kodiak bear... Many people come to Alaska to see the wildlife, and seeing a bear in the wild is often at the top of the list. Bears are intelligent animals with complex characteristics. Observing them in their natural surroundings is a rewarding and exhilarating experience, but they are as wild as their Alaska home. Like the weather here, wildlife viewing can be dangerous if you go unprepared. You are a privileged visitor in the bears’ environment. Educated decisions can help you create a safe visit for both you and the bear. Your bear viewing experience begins when you make the decision to visit Kodiak. Carefully considered choices such as where you will go, how you can get there, and guiding options will enhance your visit. Bears and people are different in the way they perceive and react to their worlds. To humanize a bear is disrespectful, misguided, and can lead to inappropriate, sometimes dangerous, interactions. The Kodiak experience While you are a guest in bear country, be aware that your surroundings also include other animals, plants and the terrain. The complete Kodiak experience allows you to learn about bear behavior and natural history, and share the outdoors with wildlife. As you visit bears in their home, treat them with respect and you will come away wit
Ayakulik River Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge The Ayakulik River is one of Kodiak Island’s two popular remote Chinook salmon sport fisheries. In recent years the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (responsible for managing the sport fishery) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (responsible for managing Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge) have heard public concerns over visitor satisfaction during this fishery, which have included issues such as prime fishing holes being monopolized by visitor camps, large groups staying for extended periods of time, garbage being left or buried along the river, and general overcrowding. In response to these concerns, during 2003 and 2004 both agencies, along the local Fish and Game Advisory Committee and other stakeholders, conducted a public process to determine what type of fishing experience visitors wanted and how these preferences could be accommodated. As a part of this process the advisory committee appointed a stake holder group charged with developing recommendations for implementation of a future management policy reflecting the interests of users. In order to survey visitor preferences and opinions and also document current visitation levels, during both years the agencies initiated a visitor census which was conducted between June 1 and July 7. Also during this time, the Fish and Wildlife Service established a series of voluntary camping closure zones to alleviate congestion around 7 popular fishing sites, including 2 areas frequented by brown bears. Results of the two year census indicated that presently overall visitor satisfaction during the fishery is high and that continuation of the voluntary camp closures is paramount to maintaining a high visitor satisfaction level. At this time the stakeholder workgroup remains active to periodically review updated information on social aspects of the fishery collected by the agencies, and during the future will consider any recommendations for regulating certain aspects of visitor use. As you leave the fishery this year, you may be asked to rate your experience in terms of your satisfaction level vs. pre-trip expectations. You will also have the opportunity to provide your ideas on future management policy. What you and other visitors say will be summarized and presented to the work group, which will use the summary as the basis for their recommendations. 4.) Pack It In – Pack It Out! 1.) To maintain visitor satisfaction levels, the agencies and work group agreed on the following measures for the 2006 fishery season: 1.) Voluntary camping closures around 7 popular fishing holes, including 2 areas frequented by brown bears are mapped on the reverse side of this brochure. Area closures will be posted at the up- and down-stream limits. All camping and fishing sites must be maintained in a neat and sanitary manner. All items transported to the Ayakulik River must be removed when you leave, including equipment, food and all garbage (burying garbage is prohibited). Leaving your trash behind is considered littering and you will be cited. Trash burning is allowed, but not recommended. The wet climate and lack of firewood make burning incomplete. Pick through the ashes for unburned metals, foil and plastic then pack these out on the plane. 2.) Also shown is the ADF&G weir, which has a boat gate for passage, and a marked 17b easement which allows camping, loading, and unloading (limited to a 24-hour stay) near the mouth of the river. Toilet paper is trash too. Pack it out or burn it when not using latrines. When at Bare Creek, use latrines provided by Kodiak Refuge. 3.) Store food and garbage in bear proof containers available from the Kodiak Refuge on a first come first serve basis. Aircraft pickups in the lagoon are made from this spot when conditions allow. Conditions are poor this year. 4.) Dispose of fish offal in the river in riffles, at the downstream end of pools and away from camps. 5.) Electric fences to protect food and personal property are helpful in deterring bears and foxes. 6.) To avoid bear problems or unintentional waste, we recommend you not retain fish until the last day of your departure. Never stake a live or cleaned fish in the river by your camp. 2.) During the peak of the king salmon fishery, June 1 – June 30, ADF&G and Kodiak Refuge recommend keeping your group size to 6 or fewer and your stay to 7 days or less. 3.) A survey of visitors exiting the fishery at Ayakulik Lagoon will be conducted by ADF&G to evaluate satisfaction levels and provide an opportunity for input on implementation of any future management measures. Visitor Guidelines: 1.) Disturbance of archaeological and historical sites is prohibited (16 USC 470aa) and is punishable by fines up to $100,000 and a year in jail. 2.) Monopolizing fishing areas is discouraged. 3.) Discharge of firearms is valid only for hunting or for defense of life or property. State of Alaska defense of life or property provisions (5AAC 92.41
East Arm Uganik Bay A 35 36 p T28S T29S Lower Uganik River 32 Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge 31 NWR Boundary A Suggested camping site Voluntary Camping Closure 4 3 µ Bear concentration area 1 2 6 M k La R26W R25W h us e 9 10 Mus 11 h Cr . 12 A A A AA 7 USFWS camp n A p Uganik Lake A 16 15 14 0 13 0.5 1 18 1.5 Miles 2 Uganik River Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge Welcome! The Uganik River is one of Kodiak Island’s most popular remote silver salmon sport fisheries. In recent years Refuge staff have heard public concerns about issues such as fishing holes being monopolized, large groups staying for extended periods of time, bears being lured for viewing, disruption of bear feeding areas, improper garbage disposal, and general unruly behavior. Refuge managers are committed to allowing every visitor a reasonable opportunity to enjoy this fishery, provided that Refuge resources are not adversely affected. The best way to ensure this is for visitors to be considerate of one another, apply ethical camping practices, and allow wildlife to share this resource without human disruption or food habituation. It is also recommended that there be no overnight camping downstream of Mush Creek (see map). The stretch of river beyond this point is a recognized bear concentration area and camping should be avoided. Camping above Mush Creek will disperse public use along the river corridor and lessen the human impact to bears feeding in the lower river. You will find a map with suggested camping sites on the other side of this flyer. Please help us protect the opportunity for all visitors to partake in this fishery by heeding these guidelines. If voluntary measures are ineffective, managers may seek alternative measures to regulate use of the Uganik River. We hope you enjoy your stay. Visitor Guidelines: 1.) Voluntary camping closure below Mush Creek. As you’re headed downstream, Mush Creek will be on the left just before the first sharp 90 degree bend (look for the signs). 2.) Monopolizing fishing areas is unethical and strongly discouraged. Make room for fellow fishermen and camp a reasonable distance from recognizable fishing sites. 3.) Disturbance of archaeological and historical sites is prohibited (16 USC 470aa) and is punishable by fines up to $100,000 and a year in jail. 4.) Discharge of firearms is authorized only for hunting or for defense of life or property. State of Alaska defense of life or property provisions (5AAC 92.410) must be followed when dealing with nuisance or threatening bears. Problems must be reported immediately to the Refuge Manager and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 5.) All camping and fishing sites must be maintained in a neat and sanitary manner. Pack It In – Pack It Out: 1.) All items transported to the Uganik River must be removed when you leave, including equipment, food and garbage (burying garbage is prohibited). 2.) Trash burning is allowed, but not recommended. Use only dead and downed wood for fires. The wet climate and lack of dry firewood often make burning incomplete. Pick through the ashes for unburned materials and pack them out. 3.) Toilet paper is trash too. Pack it out or burn it. 4.) Store food and garbage in bear proof containers, available from Kodiak Refuge on a first come first serve basis. 5.) Dispose of fish offal in the river in riffles, at the downstream end of pools, and away from camps. 6.) Electric fences to protect food and personal property are helpful in deterring bears and foxes. 7.) To avoid bear problems or unintentional waste, we recommend you not retain fish until the last day of your departure. Never stake a live or cleaned fish in the river by your camp. For sportfishing and hunting regulations and the brochure “Bear Facts,” please contact: Alaska Department of Fish and Game 211 Mission Road, Kodiak, Alaska, 99615 907-486-1880 Email: carrie.butler@alaska.gov For Refuge information and “Leave No Trace” brochures, please contact: Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge 1390 Buskin River Rd, Kodiak, AK, 99615 907-487-2600 (toll free, 888-408-3514) Email: Lecita_Monzon@fws.gov
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Celebrating 75 years of Conservation! Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge © Jeff Jones Can you imagine a Kodiak without bears? Neither can we. Originally established to protect brown bears and their habitat, Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge celebrates seventy-five years this August! the first live-trapping of brown bears in Alaska. For nearly eight decades, refuge biologists have pioneered scientific studies to better understand, monitor, and manage refuge resources. Concern from an emerging local guiding industry, their clients, and conservation partners supported protection for the bears; on August 19th, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a proclamation that set aside nearly 2 million acres, “for the purpose of protecting the natural feeding and breeding range of the brown bears and other wildlife on Uganik and Kodiak Islands, Alaska.” Educational programs inspire youth involvement as champions of Kodiak wildlife and habitat; this year, the Refuge also celebrates the 20th anniversary of Salmon Camp, a beloved and awardwinning science summer camp. Staff continue this legacy with current academic partnerships: researching bear and salmon interactions on a large landscape scale, investigating changes in climate and the nesting ecology of the rare Kittlitz’s murrelet, and initiating a pilot study of berries and their importance to bears. USFWS Established During a Time of War For at least 7,500 years, people and bears have coexisted on the Kodiak Archipelago. Increasing pressure from civilization at the turn of the 20th century led to a declining Kodiak brown bear population. At the same time, the world began to take notice of the incredible size and unique natural history of the iconic animal. USFWS Discover YOUR Kodiak Refuge One of Alaska’s oldest and best-known wildlife refuges, Kodiak provides access to a stunning diversity of landscapes and wildlife and attracts thousands of visitors annually. The recreational experience of a lifetime, both visitors and residents seek the remote adventure of observing bears in their natural habitat, fishing for wild salmon, or hunting the misty fjords and rugged mountains. A bounty of plants, fish, and wildlife sustains local communities and a culture of subsistence. Stewardship & Scientific Legacy A gem among America’s public lands, today the Refuge plays a global conservation role as a steward for interdependent species within one of the world’s few remaining intact ecosystems. Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge has a rich history of cutting-edge scientific research, from early cooperative work with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries on salmon research at Karluk Lake to This Special Place As we celebrate the history of the refuge and reflect on our relationship with this special place, we have the opportunity to think about the next 7500 years: a future of conservation, education, and stewardship of Kodiak’s wildlife and habitat. Please join us in the journey!

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