"P1050409" by Mike Linksvayer , public domain

Anthony Chabot

Wild Plants

brochure Anthony Chabot - Wild Plants

Wild Plants of Anthony Chabot Regional Park and Lake Chabot Regional Park, parts of East Bay Regional Park District. Published by East Bay Regional Park District.

Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park Common Name Version A Photographic Guide Sorted by Form, Color and Family with Habitat Descriptions and Identification Notes Photographs and text by Wilde Legard District Botanist, East Bay Regional Park District New Revised and Expanded Edition - Includes the latest scientific names, habitat descriptions and identification notes Decimal Inches .1 .2 .3 .4 1/8 1/4 .5 .6 1/2 .7 .8 .9 3/4 1 .5 2 .5 3 .5 4 .5 5 .5 6 .5 7 .5 8 .5 9 1 1/2 2 1/2 3 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 6 1/2 7 1/2 8 1/2 9 English Inches Notes: A Photographic Guide to the Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park More than 2,000 species of native and naturalized plants grow wild in the San Francisco Bay Area. Most are very difficult to identify without the help of good illustrations. This is designed to be a simple, color photo guide to help you identify some of these plants. This guide is published electronically in Adobe Acrobat® format so that it can easily be updated as additional photographs become available. You have permission to freely download, distribute and print this guide for individual use. Photographs are © 2014 Wilde Legard, all rights reserved. In this guide, the included plants are sorted first by form (Ferns & Fern-like, Grasses & Grass-like, Herbaceous, Woody), then by most common flower color, and finally by similar looking flowers (grouped by genus within each family). Each photograph has the following information, separated by '-': COMMON NAME (Scientific Name) Origin & Longevity Family Name (Bloom date range) Habitat ID Characteristics Additional notes Revision: 3/7/2014 According to The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition (JM2) and other references (not standardized). According to JM2 and eFlora (ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html). Native, Naturalized, or Waif (not reproducing without human care). Annual, Biennial, Perennial, or a combination. Common family name according to JM2, Period during the year when the plant blooms, according to JM2 and other sources. '-' if plant does not bloom (ie. Ferns). Habitat description according to JM2 and other sources. Plant description with identification characteristics and other notes, based on multiple sources including: Annotated Checklist of the East Bay Flora, Second Edition (2013), JM2, Plants of the San Francisco Bay Region (Revised Edition), and Weeds of California and Other Western States. Occasionally, an additional note may appear (ie. NOXIOUS weed, INVASIVE weed, Fed & Calif. ENDANGERED, etc.). Fern-like - Green/Brown BRACKEN FERN (Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens) Native Perennial - Bracken Family - - Pastures, woodland, meadows, hillsides, partial to full sun - Leaf blades widely-triangular, gen 0.5-5' long, gen 3x divided, hairy underneath. Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family CALIFORNIA MAIDENHAIR (Adiantum jordanii) Native Perennial - Brake Fern Family - - - Shaded hillsides, moist woodland - Leaves 8-28" long with many rounded symmetrical segments, each with < 4 irregular lobes. Cultivated. Sudden Oak Death carrier. COFFEE FERN (Pellaea andromedifolia) Native Perennial - Brake Fern Family - - - Generally rocky or dry areas - Fronds 6-30" long, stem light brown. Leaf segments blunt, 0.24-0.6" long, 0.12-0.4" wide. Page 1 GOLDENBACK FERN (Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis) Native Perennial - Brake Fern Family - - - Gen shaded, sometimes rocky or wooded areas - Leaves triangular, 1.2-4" long, undersides either granular green or powdery gold. Revision: 3/7/2014 Fern-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 2 WESTERN LADY FERN (Athyrium filix-femina var. cyclosorum) Native Perennial - Cliff Fern Family - - - Woodland, along streams, seepage area - Leaves gen 12-39" long, broadest near middle, 1-2 divided, ultimate divisions rounded. COMMON HORSETAIL (Equisetum arvense) Native Perennial - Horsetail Family - - Streambanks, wet meadows, springs, other wet, shaded places - Sterile stems 4-24" tall, 6-14 sheath teeth. Fertile stems 4-13" tall, 6-10 sheath teeth. MOSQUITO FERN (Azolla filiculoides) Native Perennial - Mosquito Fern Family - - - Common. Ponds, slow streams - Floating aquatic fern, green to red. Stem gen 0.4-1.2" long. Leaves oval, gen ~0.06" long by 0.04" wide. NITROGEN fixing. POLYPODY FERN (Polypodium calirhiza) Native Perennial - Polypody Family - - - On plants, rocky cliffs or outcrops, roadcuts, often granitic or volcanic, rarely dunes - Leaf blades 4-8" long, often widest above base, deeply lobed. COASTAL WOOD FERN (Dryopteris arguta) Native Perennial - Wood Fern Family - - - Locally common. Open, wooded slopes, caves - Leaf 12-24” long,5-12” wide, divided 1-2 times. Segments generally with spine-tipped teeth. WESTERN SWORD FERN (Polystichum munitum) Native Perennial - Wood Fern Family - - Common. Wooded hillsides, shaded slopes, rarely cliffs, outcrops - Fronds gen 20-48" long, divided once. Segments usually separate, teeth point to tips, scaly rachis. COMMON ARROW-GRASS (Triglochin maritima) Native Perennial - Arrow-grass Family (Apr–Aug) - Coastal salt marshes, interior saline, brackish, alkaline marshes - Plant 16-43" tall, dense-tufted. Leaves 4-32" long, 0.08-0.2" wide. Leaf ligule tip entire to notched. NARROW-LEAVED CATTAIL (Typha angustifolia) Native Perennial - Cattail Family (May–Aug) - Nutrient-rich freshwater to brackish marshes, wet disturbed places - Plant 4.9-9.8' tall. Leaves gen < 0.4" wide. Flower cluster gap > 0.4". Revision: 3/7/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 3 BROAD-LEAVED CATTAIL (Typha latifolia) Native Perennial - Cattail Family - (Jun–Jul) Unpolluted to nutrient-rich freshwater (brackish) marshes - Plant 4.9-9.8' tall. Widest leaves 0.4-1.1" wide. Flower cluster with no gap between flower types. DUNE BENT GRASS (Agrostis pallens) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Jun–Aug) - Common. Open meadows, woodland, forest, subalpine Lower leaf blades <= 0.2" wide, flat to inrolled. Flower cluster 2-8" long, < 0.8" wide; narrow and arching when young. SILVER HAIR GRASS (Aira caryophyllea) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jun) Sandy soils, open or disturbed sites - Flower cluster > 0.6" wide, diffuse with long slender branches. Spikelets about 0.1" long with 2 extended awns. SLENDER WILD OAT (Avena barbata) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Mar–Jun) Disturbed sites - Plants gen 24-32". Spikelets 0.8-1.2" long. Awns 0.8-1.8" long. Lemma tip bristles >= 0.1" long. Seeds EDIBLE whole or ground for flour. INVASIVE weed. WILD OAT (Avena fatua) Naturalized Annual Grass Family - (Apr–Jun) - Disturbed sites Plants 1-5' tall. Spikelets 0.7-1.3" long. Low awn 1-1.6" long. Lemma tip bristles < 0.04" long. Seeds EDIBLE whole or ground for flour. INVASIVE weed. RATTLESNAKE GRASS (Briza maxima) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) Shaded sites, roadsides, pastures, weedy on coastal dunes - Stem 8-35" tall. Spikelets 0.4-0.75" long, resemble rattlesnake rattles. INVASIVE weed. LITTLE QUAKING GRASS (Briza minor) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) Shaded or moist, open sites - Stem 3-20” tall. Spikelets 0.1-0.2” long, resemble tiny rattlesnake rattles. CALIFORNIA BROME (Bromus carinatus var. carinatus) Native Perennial - Grass Family (Apr–Aug) - Coastal prairies, openings in chaparral, plains, open oak and pine woodland -Plant 20-40” tall. Flower cluster 6-16” long. Spikelet 0.8-1.6” long. Lemma 0.5-0.8” long, hairy, awn 0.3-0.6” long. Revision: 3/7/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 4 RESCUE GRASS (Bromus catharticus var. catharticus) Naturalized Annual-Perennial - Grass Family - (Apr–Nov) - Open, disturbed places Plant 8-48” tall. Flower cluster 3-12” long, ~ open. Spikelet flattened, 0.6-1.2” long. Lemma 0.4-0.7” long, awn < 0.2” long. RIPGUT GRASS (Bromus diandrus) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) - Open, gen disturbed areas - Plant 6-40" tall. Spikelet 1-2.8" long. Lemma body 0.8-1.2" long, awn > 1.2" long. Barbed seeds can stick in flesh of animals. INVASIVE weed. SOFT CHESS (Bromus hordeaceus) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) - Fields, disturbed areas - Plant 4-26” tall. Leaf hairy. Flower cluster 1-5” long, dense, some stalks > spikelet. Spikelet 0.5-0.9”. Lemma 0.26-0.4”, awn 0.16-0.4”. INVASIVE weed. FOXTAIL CHESS (Bromus madritensis subsp. madritensis) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Apr–Jan) - Disturbed areas, roadsides - Plants 4-20" tall. Stem and sheathes smooth. Flower cluster branches visible, lower spikelets erect, > stalk. RED BROME (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Mar–Jun) - Disturbed areas, roadsides - Plant 4-20". Flower cluster condensed, branches obscure, < spikelets. Stem & sheathes hairy. INVASIVE weed. SMOOTH PAMPAS GRASS (Cortaderia selloana) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family (Sep–Mar) - Disturbed sites - Plant 6-13' tall. Leaf blades 0.1-0.5" wide, sheathes smooth. Cultivar, rarely escaped. INVASIVE weed. BRISTLY DOGTAIL GRASS (Cynosurus echinatus) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (May–Jul) - Open, disturbed sites - Tufted. Stem 4-28” long. Leaf blade 0.1-0.6” wide. Flower cluster 0.4-1.6” long, 1-sided. Fertile and sterile spikelets. INVASIVE weed. ORCHARD GRASS (Dactylis glomerata) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family (May–Aug) - Disturbed, often moist sites - Stems 2-5, 12-79”+ tall. Leaf blade 0.12-0.24” wide. Flower cluster 1.6-8” long. Spikelets crowded on 1 side. Lemmas short-awned at tip. INVASIVE weed. Revision: 3/7/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 5 CALIFORNIA OAT GRASS (Danthonia californica) Native Perennial - Grass Family (Apr–Aug) - Gen moist meadows, open woodland - Stem 12-52” tall. Flower cluster 0.8-2.4” long. Spikelets 3-6, 0.5-1” long, awn 0.16-0.5” long. ANNUAL HAIR GRASS (Deschampsia danthonioides) Native Annual - Grass Family (Mar–Aug) - Moist to drying, open sites, meadows, streambanks, vernal pools, occ alkali soil - Stem 4.5-24” long. Lemmas 2, ~0.1”, awns from below middle 0.1-0.4” & bent. SLENDER HAIR GRASS (Deschampsia elongata) Native Perennial - Grass Family (May–Sep) - Wet sites, meadows, lakeshores, shaded slopes - Densely clumped. Stem 4-28” long. Glumes =, 0.1-0.2”. Lemmas 2, ~0.1”, awns from middle 0.04-0.2” & straight. SMOOTH CRAB GRASS (Digitaria ischaemum) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Sep–Nov) Disturbed areas - Stem 6-20" long, rooting at lower nodes. Leaf blade smooth, 0.6-4.7" long. Spikelets ~0.1" long, 3 per node. SALT GRASS (Distichlis spicata) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Apr–Sep) - Salt marshes, coastal dunes, moist, alkaline areas Stem 4-20” long. Leaves 0.8-4” long, flat, stiff. Flower cluster 0.8-3” long, narrow. Spikelets straw-colored to purple, 2-20/group, 0.24-0.8” long. BARNYARD GRASS (Echinochloa crus-galli) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Jun–Oct) Gen wet, disturbed sites, fields, roadsides - Stem 12-39" long. Leaf blades to 25" long, 0.2-1.2" wide. Spikelet 0.1-0.16" long, floret ~0.14" long, 1 per node. Awns 0-2” long on same plant. WESTERN WILD-RYE (Elymus glaucus subsp. glaucus) Native Perennial - Grass Family (Jun–Aug) - Open areas, chaparral, woodland, forest - Tufted. Stem 12-55" tall. Leaf 0.2-0.5" wide, flat. Spikelets0.3-0.6" long, 2-4 per node. Lemma awn 0.4-1.2" long. BIG SQUIRRELTAIL (Elymus multisetus) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (May–Jul) - Open, sandy to rocky areas - Tufted. Stem 6-24" tall. Leaf 0.06-0.2" wide. Spikelet 0.4-0.6" long. Glume divisions needle-shaped, lemma awn 1-4" long. Revision: 3/7/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 6 BEARDLESS WILD RYE (Elymus triticoides) Native Perennial - Grass Family - ( Jun–Jul) - Dry to moist, often saline, meadows - Plant 18-50” tall, from rhizomes. Flower cluster 2-8” long. Spikelets generally 2/node. Lemmas 3-7, 0.2-0.5” long, awn to 0.12” long. BROME FESCUE (Festuca bromoides) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (May–Jun) Uncommon. Dry, disturbed places, coastal-sage scrub, chaparral - Stem < 20". Inflor 0.6-6" tall, dense, lower branches erect. Spikelet 0.2-0.4" long, awn 0.1-0.3" long. HAIRY FESCUE (Festuca microstachys) Native Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jun) - Disturbed, open, gen sandy soils - Stem 6-29". Spikelet 0.2-0.4" long, awn 0.1-0.5" long. Glumes & lemma smooth or hairy. RYE GRASS (Festuca perennis) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family - (May–Sep) - Dry to moist disturbed sites, abandoned fields - Stem 20-40" tall. Spikelet 0.2-0.9" long, > glume, awned or awnless. Sterile shoots at base. INVASIVE weed. RED FESCUE (Festuca rubra) Native Perennial Grass Family - (May–Jul) - Sand dunes, grassland, subalpine forest - Plant 12-32", hairy, clumped, w/closed sheath. Generally with rhizomes. Spikelets 0.4-0.5", florets 3-10, awns < 0.16" long. COMMON VELVET GRASS (Holcus lanatus) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family - (Jun–Aug) - Moist sites, roadbanks, cult fields, meadows Plant 8-39" tall, very hairy. Glumes 0.12-0.24", purple; florets 0.12-0.16" w/hooked awn. INVASIVE weed. FOXTAIL BARLEY (Hordeum jubatum subsp. jubatum) Native Annual-Perennial - Grass Family - (May–Jul) - Roadsides, disturbed areas, meadows, marshes - Stem 8-32", densely tufted. Leaf blades to 6" long. Central lemma awn 1-3.5" long. MEDITERRANEAN BARLEY (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum) Naturalized Annual Grass Family - (Apr–Jun) - Dry to moist, disturbed sites - Stem 4-20". Leaf blades to 32" long, auricles < 0.08". Central lemma awn 0.25-0.7" long. INVASIVE weed. Revision: 3/7/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 7 HARE BARLEY (Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Feb–May) - Moist, gen disturbed sites. Common - Stem 12-43" tall. Central spikelet stalk ~0.06" long. Central floret << lateral florets. INVASIVE weed. JUNE GRASS (Koeleria macrantha) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (May–Jul) - Dry, open sites, clay to rocky soils, shrubland, woodland, conifer forest - Stem 8-32" long. Flower cluster condensed, shiny, branches short-hairy. Spikelet ~0.2" long, no awns. CALIFORNIA MELIC (Melica californica) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Apr–May) - Open or rocky hillsides, oak woodland, conifer forest Stem 16-55". Leaf 0.06-0.2" wide. Spiklet 0.2-0.6" long, w/3-7 fertile florets; sterile tip widest above middle, tip squared. TORREY'S MELIC (Melica torreyana) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Mar–Jun) - Chaparral, conifer forest - Stem 12-40" tall. Leaf blade 0.04-0.1" wide. Spikelet 0.14-0.28" long w/1-2 florets; sterile tip widest above middle to 0.06", short-hairy lemmas. HARDING GRASS (Phalaris aquatica) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family - (Apr–Aug) - Disturbed areas, roadsides - Plant 16-79" tall, tufted. Flower cluster 0.6-6" long, unbranched. Lower florets 1 or or unequal. Glume wing untoothed. INVASIVE weed. ANNUAL BLUE GRASS (Poa annua) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Feb–Sep) - Abundant. Disturbed moist ground - Plant 1-8” tall. Leaf blade 0.04-0.12” wide, soft. Flower cluster 0.4-4” long, triangular. Lemmas 0.1-0.16” long. BULBOUS BLUE GRASS (Poa bulbosa subsp. vivipara) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family (Mar–Jul) - Disturbed places - Plant 6-24” tall, densely tufted. Leaf blades 0.04-0.08” wide. Flower cluster 1-4” long. Spikelets replaced wtih leafy bulblets. ONE-SIDED BLUE GRASS (Poa secunda subsp. secunda) Native Perennial - Grass Family (Mar–Aug) - Common. Dry slopes to saline/alkaline meadows to alpine - Plant 6-40” tall, densely tufted. Flower clusters congested. Spikelets gen 0.3-0.4” long. Lemmas 0.16-0.2” long, backs rounded. Revision: 3/7/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 8 RABBITFOOT GRASS (Polypogon monspeliensis) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Aug) - Moist places, along streams - Stem 8-39". Leaf 0.4-8" long, 0.16-0.24" wide. Flower cluster 0.4-6.7" long, plume-like. Glume awn > 0.14". Lemma awn gen < 0.1". INVASIVE. WATER BEARD GRASS (Polypogon viridis) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family - (May–Jun) - Common. Disturbed areas, wet areas, ponds, streambanks -Stem 4-40” long, trails. Leaf blades flat, 0.08-0.4” wide. Spikelet ~ 0.1” long, no awn, whorled clusters. FOOTHILL NEEDLE GRASS (Stipa lepida) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Mar–Jun) - Dry slopes, chaparral, grassland, savanna, coastal scrub - Stem 14-39" tall. Leaf blade 4.7-9.1" long, narrow. Glumes 0.2-0.6" long. Awn 0.8-2" long. SMILO GRASS (Stipa miliacea var. miliacea) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family - (Mar–Sep) - Salt marshes, streambanks, chaparral, open woodland, disturbed - Stems green, large tufts, sheaths lt. Inflor arching. INVASIVE weed. PURPLE NEEDLE GRASS (Stipa pulchra) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Mar–Jun) - Oak woodland, chaparral, grassland - Stem 14-39" long. Leaf blade 4-8" long. Glumes 0.5-0.8" long, ~equal. Awn 1.6-4" long, last segment straight. BALTIC RUSH (Juncus balticus subsp. ater) Native Perennial - Rush Family - (Jul–Nov) Moist to ± dry sites - Stem 14-43" tall, round, not twisted. No leaf blade. Flowers generally 0.1-0.2" long. TOAD RUSH (Juncus bufonius var. bufonius) Native Annual - Rush Family - (May–Sep) - Damp sunny ground, gen disturbed - Stem gen 1-4" tall, gen brached from base, ~0.04" wide. Flower cluster open. Flowers 0.16-0.3" long. SPREADING RUSH (Juncus patens) Native Perennial - Rush Family - (Jun–Oct) - Marshy places, creeks, seeps - Plant 12-41" tall, densely tufted. Stems blue-gray-green & distinctly grooved when fresh. Stamens 6. Revision: 3/7/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 9 IRIS-LEAVED RUSH (Juncus xiphioides) Native Perennial - Rush Family - (Jul–Oct) - Wet places - Plant 16-32" tall. Leaf blades 0.2-0.5" wide, flat, Iris-like. Heads many, few-flowered. Anthers 6, < filaments, flowers self-pollinating. TALL NUTSEDGE (Cyperus eragrostis) Native Perennial - Sedge Family - (May–Nov) - Vernal pools, streambanks - Leaves basal. Flower cluster bracts 4-8. Spikelets 0.2-0.8" long, oblong, in heads to 1.6" wide. Seeds short-stalked. GRAND HOUND'S TONGUE (Cynoglossum grande) Native Perennial - Borage Family (Feb–May) - Chaparral, woodland - Stem 1-3'. Leaf stalk 3-6". Leaf blade 3-6" cm long, broadly oval. Flowers bright blue w/inner white teeth. BROADLEAVED FORGET-ME-NOT (Myosotis latifolia) Naturalized Perennial - Borage Family (Feb–Jul) - Moist, disturbed, shady places - Stem < 28" long, base woody. Leaves to 0.8" wide. Flowers light blue, 0.2-0.4" wide. INVASIVE weed. BABY BLUE-EYES (Nemophila menziesii var. menziesii) Native Annual - Borage Family (Feb–May) - Meadows, grassland, chaparral, woodland, slopes - Plant 4-12". Lower leaves w/6-13 lobes. Flowers bright blue w/white center, 0.2-1.6" wide. CALIFORNIA PHACELIA (Phacelia californica) Native Perennial - Borage Family - (Mar–Sep) Bluffs, open slopes, road cuts, chaparral, woodland - Plant tufted, stiff-hairy. Leaves gen pinnate w/big terminal leaflet. Flowers 0.16-0.28" long, lavender. FIESTA FLOWER (Pholistoma auritum var. auritum) Native Annual - Borage Family (Mar–Jun) - Ocean bluffs, talus slopes, woodland, streambanks, canyons - Stem 8-47" tall. Leaf lobes 7-13. Flowers 0.3-0.6" long, 0.4-1.2" wide, purple, with bractlets. BLUE DICKS (Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. capitatum) Native Perennial - Brodiaea Family (Mar–Jun) - Open woodland, scrub, desert, grassland - Plant 2-28" tall. Flowers blue-purple, not narrowed in the middle. Stamens 6. Early spring bloomer. Revision: 3/7/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 10 FORK-TOOTHED OOKOW (Dichelostemma congestum) Native Perennial - Brodiaea Family (Apr–Jun) - Open woodland, grassland - Plant 12-35" tall. Flowers blue-purple, narrowed above ovary. Stamens 3. Late spring bloomer. ITHURIEL'S SPEAR (Triteleia laxa) Native Perennial - Brodiaea Family - (Apr–Jun) Common. Open forest, conifer or foothill woodland, grassland on clay soil - Flower stem 4-28". Leaves 8-16", 0.16-1" wide. Flowers blue, blue-purple or white, 0.7-1.9" long. MEDITERRANEAN LINSEED (Bellardia trixago) Naturalized Annual - Broom-rape Family (Apr–Jun) - Disturbed grassland. - Plant sticky-hairy. Stem 6-32" tall. Leaves lance-shaped, toothed. Flowers 0.8-1" long, 2-lipped: upper lip pink, lower lip white. INVASIVE. COMMON OWL'S-CLOVER (Castilleja densiflora subsp. densiflora) Native Annual - Broom-rape Family - (Mar–May) - Grassland - Plant 4-16" tall. Leaves 0.8-3.1" long, narrow-lobed. Flower cluster gen rose-purple. Flower upper lip straight. PURPLE OWL'S-CLOVER (Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta) Native Annual - Broom-rape Family - (Mar–May) - Open fields, grassland Plant sticky, short-hairy. Flower cluster tipped white, pale yellow or rose. Flower upper lip hooked, fuzzy. DWARF OWL'S CLOVER (Triphysaria pusilla) Native Annual - Broom-rape Family - (Apr–Jun) Grassland - Plant 2-8" tall, yellow-brown or purple, hairy. Leaves 0.2-1.2" long, 3-9-lobed. Flowers purple (yellow), 0.16-0.28" long, in leaf axils. GIANT TRILLIUM (Trillium chloropetalum) Native Perennial - Bunchflower Family - (Apr–May) Edges of redwood forest, chaparral, gen moist slopes, canyon banks in alluvial soils - Flowers dark purple to white, sessile. Petals 2.6-4" long, odor rose-like or spicy. PARRY'S LARKSPUR (Delphinium parryi subsp. parryi) Native Perennial - Buttercup Family (Apr–Jun) - Chaparral, oak woodland - Leaves w/finger-like divisions, hairless. Flowers 3-60, blue. Lower petals 2-lobed, both sides hairy. Revision: 3/7/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 11 SPREADING LARKSPUR (Delphinium patens subsp. patens) Native Perennial - Buttercup Family - (Mar–Jun) - Grassland, open woodland Stem 4-35" long. Leaves glabrous, divided into few-toothed lobes. Flowers few, bright or dark blue-purple. PURPLE SANICLE (Sanicula bipinnatifida) Native Perennial - Carrot Family - (Mar–May) Open grassland, gen on serpentine, or pine/oak woodland - Plant 5-24" tall. Leaves 1.6-7.5" long, 1-2x divided on a winged central axis. Flowers dark purple. Fruits prickly. NARROW-LEAF MILKWEED (Asclepias fascicularis) Native Perennial - Dogbane Family (May–Oct) - Dry ground, valleys, foothills - Plant gen hairless. Stem leaves narrow, 3-5 in whorls. Flowers green-white to purple-tinged, ~0.25" long. GREATER PERIWINKLE (Vinca major) Naturalized Perennial - Dogbane Family (Mar–Jun(Jan)) - Coastal bluffs, sheltered places, esp along stream beds - Plant sprawling. Leaf blade ~ 2.8" long, oval. Flower purple-blue, 1.2-2" wide at top. INVASIVE weed. FOUR-SPOT (Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera) Native Annual - Evening Primrose Family - (Apr–Aug) - Common. Open, grassy or shrubby places - Buds erect. Petals < 0.6", lavender to dark red. Ovary 8-grooved. Sepals 1's or 2's. RUBY CHALICE CLARKIA (Clarkia rubicunda) Native Annual - Evening Primrose Family (May–Aug) - Openings in woodland, forest, chaparral near coast - Stem < 5' long. Buds erect. Petals 0.4-1.2", rose w/red base. Sepals united. Stigma > anthers. ELEGANT CLARKIA (Clarkia unguiculata) Native Annual - Evening Primrose Family - (Apr–Sep) Common. Woodland - Buds nodding. Axis erect. Petals 0.4-1" long, pink to dark-red, clawed. Sepals united; sepals & ovary w/spreading hairs to 0.1". PANICLED / WEEDY WILLOWHERB (Epilobium brachycarpum) Native Annual - Evening Primrose Family - (Jun–Sep) - Common. Dry open or disturbed woodland, grassland, roadsides - Plant 8-79" tall, diffuse. Petals 2-15 mm long, white to rose-purple. Revision: 3/7/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 12 COMMON WILLOWHERB (Epilobium ciliatum subsp. ciliatum) Native Perennial - Evening Primrose Family - (Jun–Oct) - Common. Disturbed places, moist meadows, streambanks, roadsides - Plant 20-48" tall, smooth or short-hairy. Petals 2-6 mm, white to pink. LONG-BEAKED FILAREE (Erodium botrys) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Mar–Jul) - Dry, open or disturbed sites - Stem 4-35" tall, coarse-hairy. Leaves lobed. Petals pink, 0.3-0.5" long. Sepals w/reddish tip. Fruit beak 2-4.7" long. REDSTEM FILAREE (Erodium cicutarium) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Feb–Sep) - Open, disturbed sites, grassland, scrub - Stem 4-20". Leaves compound, leaflets dissected. Sepal tip bristly. Petal pink to purple. Fruit beak 0.8-2". INVASIVE. GREENSTEM FILAREE (Erodium moschatum) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Feb–Sep) - Open, disturbed sites - Stem 4-24", short-hairy. Leaves compound, leaflets toothed. Sepal tip glabrous. Petals 0.4-0.6" long, pink. Fruit beak 0.8-1.6" long. CUT-LEAVED GERANIUM (Geranium dissectum) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family - (Mar–Jul) - Open, disturbed sites - Stem 3-28" tall, rough-hairy. Leaf blades deeply divided. Petals violet-red, 0.1-0.25" long w/notched tips. Flower stalk sticky. INVASIVE. HAIRY DOVE'S FOOT GERANIUM (Geranium molle) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Feb–Aug) - Open to shaded sites, disturbed ground - Stem 4-17" tall. Petals red-purple, 0.1-0.4" long, notched. Sepals awnless. Fruit smooth, wrinkled. DOUGLAS IRIS (Iris douglasiana) Native Perennial - Iris Family - (May–Jul) - Common. Grassy places, esp near coast - Stem 6-20" tall. Leaves 0.4-0.9" wide. Perianth tube 0.04-0.12" long, petals 0.6-1.2" wide, stigmas triangular. NOXIOUS weed. WESTERN BLUE-EYED-GRASS (Sisyrinchium bellum) Native Perennial - Iris Family (Mar–May) - Common. Open, gen moist, grassy areas, woodland - Stem < 25" tall. Leaves iris-like. Petals 6, blue-purple with dark veins, 0.4-0.7" long. Revision: 3/7/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 13 GRASS-POLY (Lythrum hyssopifolia) Naturalized Annual-Perennial - Loosestrife Family - (Apr–Oct) - Marshes, drying pond margins, disturbed ground - Stem 4-24". Leaves 0.2-1.2" long, ~ elliptical. Petals pink, 0.1-0.2" long. 2 awl-like appendages. INVASIVE weed. FIELD MADDER (Sherardia arvensis) Naturalized Annual - Madder Family - (Mar–Jul) Pastures, disturbed areas, grassland, dry meadows, oak woodland - Stem 2.8-6.3" long. Leaves in whorls of 5-6, 0.2-0.5" long. Flowers pink or lavender, the 4 lobes < tube. BULL MALLOW (Malva nicaeensis) Naturalized Annual - Mallow Family - (Mar–Jun) - Disturbed places - Stem 0.7-2'. Leaf blade 1.2-4.7" wide, 5-7 shallow lobes. Bractlets egg-shaped,0.16-0.2" long. Petals pink to blue-violet, 0.2-0.5" long. COMMON CHECKERBLOOM (Sidalcea malviflora subsp. malviflora) Native Perennial Mallow Family - (Mar–Jul) - Coastal prairie, scrub, open forest - Plant 6-24" tall. Middle leaves not linear-lobed. Petals 0.4-1" long, pink to rose, gen white veined. RED MAIDS (Calandrinia ciliata) Native Annual Miner's Lettuce Family - (Feb–May) - Common. Sandy to loamy soil, grassy areas, cult fields Petals 0.2-0.6" long, bright pink to red, round-tipped. Fruit < 0.1" longer than bracts. CLASPING HENBIT (Lamium amplexicaule) Naturalized Annual-Biennial - Mint Family (Apr–Sep) - Disturbed sites, cult or abandoned fields - Stem 4-16" long. Leaf blades 0.4-1" long, upper stalkless. Flowers red-purple, gen 0.4-0.7" long. COYOTE-MINT (Monardella villosa subsp. villosa) Native Perennial - Mint Family (May–Aug) - Dry rocky slopes, oak woods, chaparral - Plant < 20" tall. Leaves ovate, 0.4-0.9" mm long. Flower head 0.4-1.2" wide. Flowers pink to purple. THYMELEAF BEARDSTYLE (Pogogyne serpylloides) Native Annual - Mint Family (Mar–Jun) - Grassy, brushy areas - Plant inconspicuous. Stem 1-8" long, low-growing. Flowers 0.1-0.2" long, lavender, in dense clusters. Revision: 3/7/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 14 RADISH (Raphanus sativus) Naturalized Annual Mustard Family - (May–Jul) - Disturbed areas, fields - Stem 16-51" long. Petals 0.6-1" long, white to purple. Fruit a fat cylinder w/constrictions between seeds. INVASIVE weed. STARFLOWER (Trientalis latifolia) Native Perennial - Myrsine Family - (Apr–Jul) - Shaded places, esp woodland - Stem 2-12". Leaves 1-3.5" long, 0.4-2" wide, egg-shaped; stem leaves in 1 whorl near stem tip. Flower gen pink to rose, 0.3-0.6" wide. JEWELED ONION (Allium serra) Native Perennial - Onion or Garlic Family - (Apr–May) Common. Grassy slopes - Flowers pink to rose, crowded, 10-40. "Petals" about 0.2" long, ± erect, ± lance-shaped, papery and folded over fruit when in fruit. SPANISH CLOVER (Acmispon americanus var. americanus) Native Annual - Pea Family (May–Oct) - Coast, chaparral, waterways, roadsides, disturbed areas - Plant 2-24", hairy. Flowers white to pink, solitary, bract lobes >> flower tube. SMALL-FLOWER LOTUS (Acmispon parviflorus) Native Annual - Pea Family - (Mar–May) Abundant. Coastal bluffs to oak/pine or fir woodland, open or disturbed areas - Flowers pinkish, solitary, 0.2" long, on stalk with bracts. Not hairy. LEATHER ROOT (Hoita macrostachya) Native Perennial - Pea Family - (May–Aug) Streamsides, marshes, spring-moist places Stem erect, < 6.6' tall, much-branched. Leaflets 0.8-4" long, both sides sticky. Flowers ~0.4" long, blue to purple. PERENNIAL SWEET PEA (Lathyrus latifolius) Naturalized Perennial - Pea Family - (Apr–May) Disturbed areas, esp roadsides - Stem smooth, robust, broadly winged. Leaflets in 2's. Flowers 0.8-1.2" long, bright pink. Escaped ornamental. PACIFIC PEA (Lathyrus vestitus var. vestitus) Native Perennial - Pea Family - (Feb–Jul) - North: Conifer forest. South: chaparral & oak woodland Stem wings to 0.02" wide. Leaves gen elliptic. Flowers 0.5-0.7" long, pale lavender to purple. Revision: 3/7/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Anthony / Lake Chabot Regional Park - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 15 MINIATURE LUPINE (Lupinus bicolor) Native Annual - Pea Family - (Mar–Jun) - Abundant. Open or disturbed areas - Plant 4-16", hairy. Flower 0.16-0.4" long, banner longer than wide, upper keel ciliate near tip, pedicel < 0.12". Fruit 0.12-0.24" wide. SUMMER LUPINE (Lupinus formosus var. formosus) Native Perennial - Pea Family (Apr–Sep) - Dry clay soils, grassland, open areas under pines, gen in valleys - Plant 8-32", low growing. Leaves hairy. Flowers purple, hairless, summer/fall blooming. CHICK LUPINE (Lupinus microcarpus var. microcarpus) Native Annual - Pea Family (Mar–Jun) - Abundant. Open or disturbed areas, occ seeded on roadbanks - Plant 4-32", hairy. Leaves smooth above. Flowers gen pink to purple. Flower bracts shaggy. SKY LUPINE (Lupinus nanus) Native Annual Pea Family - (Mar–Jun) - Abundant. Open or disturbed areas - Plant 4-24" tall, hairy. Flowers blue to pink to white, 0.2-0.6" long; banner as wide as long. Flower stalk gen > 0.12" long. ARROYO LUPINE (Lupinus succulentus) Native Annual - Pea Family - (Feb–May) - Abundant. Open or disturbed areas, often seeded on roadbanks - Plant 8-40" tall, fleshy, sparsely hairy. Flowers 0.5-0.7" long, whorled, gen blue-purple, petal claws short-hairy. RANCHERIA CLOVER (Trifolium albopurpureum) Native Annual - Pea Family (Mar–Jun) - Abundant. Dunes, grassland, wet meadows,

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