State Historic Park - California
Fort Ross State Historic Park is in Sonoma County, California, including the former Russian fur trading outpost of Fort Ross plus the adjacent coastline and native coast redwood forests extending inland. Fort Ross, active from 1812 to 1842, was the southernmost settlement in the Russian colonization of the Americas.
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https://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=449 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Ross_State_Historic_Park Fort Ross State Historic Park is in Sonoma County, California, including the former Russian fur trading outpost of Fort Ross plus the adjacent coastline and native coast redwood forests extending inland. Fort Ross, active from 1812 to 1842, was the southernmost settlement in the Russian colonization of the Americas.
Fort Ross State Historic Park Our Mission The mission of California State Parks is to provide for the health, inspiration and education of the people of California by helping to preserve the state’s extraordinary biological diversity, protecting its most valued natural and cultural resources, and creating opportunities for high-quality outdoor recreation. In 1812, Russian and Alaskan explorers and traders established Fort Ross at Metini, a centuries-old Kashaya California State Parks supports equal access. Prior to arrival, visitors with disabilities who need assistance should contact the park at (707) 847-3286. If you need this publication in an alternate format, contact firstname.lastname@example.org. CALIFORNIA STATE PARKS P.O. Box 942896 Sacramento, CA 94296-0001 For information call: (800) 777-0369. (916) 653-6995, outside the U.S. 711, TTY relay service www.parks.ca.gov Discover the many states of California.™ SaveTheRedwoods.org/csp Fort Ross State Historic Park 19005 Highway 1 Jenner, CA 95450 (707) 847-3286 © 2001 California State Parks (Rev. 2014) Pomo coastal village. F ort Ross State Historic Park, one of the oldest parks in the California State Park System, was established in 1906. Located on the Sonoma coast 11 miles northwest of Jenner on Highway 1, the 3,386-acre park preserves North America’s southernmost Russian settlement. The Fort Ross Colony was founded in 1812 by members of the Russian-American Company, who built it with the help of Alaskan Alutiiq natives. Northwest of the fort, the old Call Ranch House and buildings represent the ranching era that followed the Russian settlement. Park facilities include a visitor center with interpretive exhibits and a research library, a museum bookstore, gardens, the Russian Cemetery and the Historic Orchard. The fort and its buildings have a sweeping view of the Pacific Ocean, coastal terraces and densely forested ridges. Winter storms frequently batter the coastline with gale-force winds. Normal annual rainfall averages 44 inches, with 35 inches falling between November and April. Spring can be windy, and summer often brings a thick layer of fog. PARK HISTORY Native People Metini was a village between the Gualala River and the Russian River that had been occupied for centuries by the Kashaya band of Pomo people. Archaeological evidence shows that Kashaya Pomo would move their villages from ridgetops to camps in the foothills and along the coast, according to the season. At the shore, they found plentiful supplies of abalone, mussels, fish, and a rich variety of sea plants. The Kashaya harvested sea salt for domestic use and trading. Plants, acorns, deer and smaller mammals provided abundant foods inland. The Kashaya Pomo excelled in the art of basket making. They wove intricate containers of wooly sedge grass and bulrush roots, redwood bark, willow and redbud branches. The baskets were used for cooking and storing food, trapping fish or animals, toys, cradles, gifts and ceremonies. Some baskets were colored with wild walnut juice and berries and decorated with beads, quills or feathers. One prized feather came from the red spot on a red-winged blackbird. The Kashaya bartered with the neighboring Coast Miwok, who lived south of the Russian River near Bodega Bay. Kashaya first encountered non-native people when Russians came to Metini. Russians in North America Beginning in 1742, promyshlenniki (Russian serfs or native Siberian contract workers) began to leave the Siberian mainland by ship to seek fur-bearing marine mammals on and near the many islands to the east. In 1784 Gregory Shelikov built the first permanent Russian settlement on Kodiak Island, in what is now Alaska. The organization he led became the RussianAmerican Company in 1799, when Tsar Paul granted the company a charter giving it monopoly over all Russian enterprises in North America. The Russian-American Company established colonies from Kodiak Island to Sitka in present-day Alaska, as well as in Hawaii. The operation expanded when American ship captains contracted with the RussianAmerican Company for joint ventures, using native Alaskans to hunt sea otters along the coast of Alta and Baja California. Otter pelts were highly valued in trade with China, and large profits flowed to company shareholders, including members of Russian nobility. The Russian-American Company’s chief manager, Alexander Baranov, sent his assistant, Ivan Kuskov, to locate a California site that could serve as a trading base. Kuskov arrived in Bodega Bay on the ship Kodiak in January of 1809 and remained until late August. He and his party of 40 Russians and 150 Alaskans explored the entire region, taking more than 2,000 sea otter pelts back to Alaska. Artifacts of settlement life Kuskov returned to California to establish a Russian outpost at Metini, 18 miles north of Bodega Bay. The site had plentiful water, forage and pasture, and a nearby supply of coast redwood for construction. The village’s relative
1,400 s i an s O 00 R i ve r N Healdsburg 0 A 60 1,2 M 00 O 1 00 FORT ROSS SHP 116 Sebastopol 1,0 Jenner 12 Santa Rosa C 400 Visitor Amenities Ru 101 S 1,2 O 800 0 80 12 00 d oa R R 0 oa d M 00 ey er s 00 G 1,0 ra de Picnicking Picnic facilities are located near the Visitor Center parking lot and next to the historic Call Ranch House to the west. Visitors may also picnic in the fort compound and at the Fort Ross Sandy Cove Beach. d R os s Roa 80 600 E Fo rt C 0 0 ,4 Cr 1 e ek 1,200 Fort Ross 1 Ocean Access 1,000 Visitors may walk to Sandy Cove Beach, a protected beach just below the fort, and along the coastal terrace above the Fort Ross North Cove. Ocean access points with unpaved parking are located at Windermere Point one mile north of the park entrance, and on the marine terrace which can be reached by way of the Reef Campground entrance two miles south of the fort. During open seasons abalone and rock fish may be found in the coastal waters. Scuba divers can explore the wreck of the S.S.Pomona, a unique example of the 19th century maritime history. Russian Cemetery C 800 Sandy Cove 0 20 1, ch ul rwater Park G N U nde Reef Campground 0 60 Mi ll 120 60 0 Please Remember ul dge Bri Trail to Fort 20 0 ss rt Ro Reef Fo m be r Northwest Blockhouse 80 To the Ocean To Sandy Cove y 600 Well Officials' Quarters Restroom Accessible Trail to Fort (Except Christmas and Thanksgiving Days) Southeast Blockhouse G Park Boundary Highway Paved Road Trail River/Creek Water Park Boundary Campground Picnic area Elevation grid Rift zone Rocky shore Restrooms 18 Je Picnic Area anch Call Ruse Ho 400 0 a Largest Eucalyptus Tree Rotchev House 20 Park Hours 10:00 AM to 4:30 PM Daily 1,000 hw ig Barn 30 0 Monterey Cypress Grove Call Chapel 12 Picnic Area Kuskov House 0 C oast H el Parking Lot Restroom Day Use Area 30 Dogs are allowed only in the main parking area and in the campground. They must be on a six-foot leash at all times and be in a tent or vehicle at night. All natural and cultural features in the park are protected. Enjoy your visit to Fort Ross State Historic Park! G Fort Ross State Historic Park Visitor Center Ti To Highway One ch 60 w A Fort Ross30 Cove 30 60 0 40 E Northwest Cape Sandy Cove The Reef Campground two miles south of Fort Ross on Highway One has twenty primitive campsites that are located in a wind-protected canyon. Tables, stoves and food lockers are available. Flush toilets and drinking water are nearby, although shower facilities are not provided. The campground is not suitable for large recreational vehicles because of very limited turning space. The campground is open April through November. 40 1, rt ra e N Orchard is Center Call Ranch House er G 800 O 200 iv s d Z 1 R Camping T ay la er 1,400 F igh w a l ey I Coas tH 18 PA s R oa d F 20 60 00 1,0 Ros M R 30 G ua Fort 1,2 h lc l Ko 00 oad s R s o R 0 20 1,2 600 40 10 Russian Trough Spring Fort Ro ss Ti m b e r C o v e C r e e k n S 800 0 Y N T ea E 0 5 APPROXIMATE SCALE IN MILES A Timber Cove 1 U Oc 1403 40 Windermere Point 0 1,000 u 101 San Francisco 0 1,40 R er c 0 D 200 m 1 POINT REYES NATIONAL SEASHORE N 40 0 Petaluma Novato Ro a d A 60 607 400 w N 0 G vi e A Fort Ross State Historic Park Bodega Bay ci fi Sea S 60 Pa The park is located on the Sonoma County Coast, 11 miles northwest of Jenner on Highway One, and two hours driving time north of San Francisco. The park contains about 3,200 acres. In addition to the fort compound, there is a visitor center with interpretive exhibits, a museum bookstore, staff offices and a research library. Visitors may walk past the Call Ranch House and gardens, and they may visit the Russian Cemetery and the Old Russian Orchard. Ample parking is available. The Visitor Center and adjacent restroom are accessible. Portions of the fort compound and permissible close-in parking are barrier free, but access level will vary for different individuals. Other State Parks in the area are Salt Point State Park and Kruse Rhododendron State Reserve, eight miles north. Sonoma Coast State Beach is fourteen miles south. 18 30 1 u lc h Ranger Offices: (707) 847-3286 Interpretive and Educational Programs: (707) 847-4777 Museum Bookstore and Fort Ross Interpretive Association Offices: (707) 847-3437 www.mcn.org/1/rrparks/fortross
Fort Ross 1812 Bicentennial 2012 State Historic Park The mission of Fort Ross 2012 is to commemorate the 200 years of natural, cultural and human history of Fort Ross (known today as Fort Ross State Historic Park), increase public interest and preserve the rich and vital legacy for future generations through a series of special events featuring the diverse influences of many people, including Kashaya and Coast Miwok Indians, Russians, Native Alaskans, Spaniards, Mexicans and Americans. (707) 847-3286 www.parks.ca.gov Fort Ross 2012 is a joint project of California State Parks, the Renova Fort Ross Foundation and the 501(c)(3) nonprofit Fort Ross Conservancy, who together promote the historical and educational benefits of Fort Ross and the surrounding areas. Задача программы «Форт Росс - 2012» – отметить 200-летие со дня основания Форта Росс (исторического парка штата Калифорния), привлечь более широкое внимание к его богатому наследию, отражающему влияние культур и традиций разных народов, в том числе индейцев кашайя и береговых мивок, русских, алеутов, испанцев, мексиканцев, американцев и сохранить его для будущих поколений. A walking tour of the compound at Fort Ross State Historic Park Крепость Росс путеводитель he history of Fort Ross—a National Historic Landmark—features a unique blend of diverse cultural groups. These groups include Russians, Kashaya Pomo, Coast Miwok and Southern Pomo Indians, Aleutian and Kodiak Islanders, and Creoles—the children of Russian men and Native North American women. Settlement Ross, derived from the word for Russia (Rossiia), was established by the RussianAmerican Company. This commercial hunting and trading company had been chartered by Emperor Paul I in 1799. The Company controlled all Russian exploration, trade, and settlement in North America, with permanent outposts in the Kurile Islands, the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and a brief settlement in Hawaii. Alexander Andreyevich Baranov, the Company’s chief manager, supervised the entire North Pacific area. Baranov directed his chief deputy, Ivan Alexandrovich Kuskov, to establish a colony in California to find food for Alaska and to hunt fur-bearing sea otters. Kuskov arrived in California in 1812 with a party of 25 Russians and 80 native Alaskans from Kodiak and the Aleutian Islands. Using Alaskan laborers, Kuskov used local trees to construct the fort at Ross in May of 1812. Ivan Kuskov First manager of Fort Ross История национального исторического памятника Форт Росс отражает уникальный сплав культур разных народов: русских, индейцев кашайя помо и южной группы помо, береговых мивок, жителей Алеутских островов и Кадьяка, «креолов» (детей коренных американок – алеуток и индеанок – и русских). Cеление Росс (от «Россия») было основано Российско-Американской компанией. Эта торговопромышленная компания была утверждена в 1799 г. указом императора Павла I. Компания имела монополию на пушной промысел, торговлю и колонизацию Северной Америки. Постоянные фактории (промысловые поселения) были основаны на Курильских, Алеутских островах, на Аляске и – кратковременно – на Гавайях. Александр Андреевич Баранов, главный правитель всех русских северных тихоокеанских поселений, отправил своего заместителя Ивана Александровича Кускова в Калифорнию для основания колонии с целью обеспечения провизией Аляски и охоты на морскую выдру. В 1812 года Кусков прибыл в Калифорнию с 25 россиянами и 80 коренными жителями Аляски с Кадьяка и Алеутских островов (русские называли их «алеутами») и c помощью алеутов в мае 1812 года из древесины растущих поблизости деревьев начал строительство крепости Росс. Иван Кусков первый правитель Форта Росс Alexander Rotchev Last manager of Fort Ross Александр Ротчев последний правитель Форта Росс KASHAYA POMO—THE FIRST people OUTSIDE THE MAIN GATE NATIVE ALASKAN VILLAGE SITE The Russian-American Company brought Native Alaskans to the settlement to hunt sea mammals and provide a workforce for the colony. The Native Alaskan Village dwelling site, located outside the main gate, was the primary residential area for single Native Alaskan men and families, as well as interethnic households of Native Alaskan men and local Native Californian women. The village was situated on the marine terrace on the ocean side of the fort compound. The Alaska natives brought their qayaqs—swift, maneuverable kayaks. They hunted the valuable sea otter and other marine mammals along the California coast. bhe СТЕН КРЕПОСТИ МЕСТОНАХОЖДЕНИЕ ПОСЕЛЕНИЯ АЛЕУТОВ Российско-Американская компания привезла сюда коренных жителей Аляски («алеутов») для добычи морских млекопитающих и в качестве рабочей силы. Поселение алеутов находилось сразу у главного входа в крепость, на прибрежной террасе у океана; здесь жили и холостяки, и семьи; в том числе смешанные семьи мужчин-алеутов и местных калифорнийских женщин. Алеуты привезли с собой каяки (байдарки) – лёгкие маневренные лодки, которые использовались для добычи ценной морской выдры у поб