San Pasqual Battlefield

State Historic Park - California

San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park honors the soldiers who fought in the 1846 Battle of San Pasqual, the bloodiest battle in California during the Mexican-American War. The battle was fought between United States troops under the command of General Stephen Kearny, and the Californio forces under the command of General Andres Pico on December 6, 1846. The 50-acre (200,000 m2) park is next to the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, at San Pasqual Valley Road, south of Escondido, California on Highway 78 in San Diego County.The park is open only on weekends, and features a visitor center with displays about the cultural history of the San Pasqual Valley, exhibits, and a movie about the battle. Living history presentations are held at the park, with volunteers from the San Pasqual Battlefield Volunteer Association.
https://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=655 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Pasqual_Battlefield_State_Historic_Park San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park honors the soldiers who fought in the 1846 Battle of San Pasqual, the bloodiest battle in California during the Mexican-American War. The battle was fought between United States troops under the command of General Stephen Kearny, and the Californio forces under the command of General Andres Pico on December 6, 1846. The 50-acre (200,000 m2) park is next to the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, at San Pasqual Valley Road, south of Escondido, California on Highway 78 in San Diego County.The park is open only on weekends, and features a visitor center with displays about the cultural history of the San Pasqual Valley, exhibits, and a movie about the battle. Living history presentations are held at the park, with volunteers from the San Pasqual Battlefield Volunteer Association.
San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park Our Mission The mission of California State Parks is to provide for the health, inspiration and education of the people of California by helping to preserve the state’s extraordinary biological diversity, protecting its most valued natural and cultural resources, and creating opportunities for high-quality outdoor recreation. The concept of “Manifest Destiny” held that the United States had a divine right to expand its borders from California State Parks supports equal access. Prior to arrival, visitors with disabilities who need assistance should contact the park at (760) 737-2201. This publication is available in alternate formats by contacting: CALIFORNIA STATE PARKS P. O. Box 942896 Sacramento, CA 94296-0001 For information call: (800) 777-0369 (916) 653-6995, outside the U.S. 711, TTY relay service www.parks.ca.gov Discover the many states of California.TM San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park 15808 San Pasqual Valley Road Escondido, CA 92027 (760) 737-2201 Detail of Battle of San Pasqual painting by Col. Charles Waterhouse, USMCR © 2009 California State Parks Printed on Recycled Paper the Atlantic to the Pacific. After the battle at San Pasqual, that concept came closer to reality. F rom high on the slope of a south-facing hill, San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park commands a sweeping view of the San Pasqual Valley. The park also overlooks the site of the bloodiest battle fought in California during the U.S.-Mexican War. During this skirmish, American forces sought to take California, and Mexican forces sought to keep it. At the end of the battle, both sides would claim victory. THE BATTLE OF SAN PASCUAL Early on December 6, 1846, General Stephen W. Kearny led a contingent of the First Dragoons into battle with a group of Californios (persons of Hispanic descent living in California after the Mexican Revolution) in what is now the San Pasqual Valley. Led by Captain Andrés Pico, brother of Pío Pico, one of the last governors of Mexican California, the Californios were resisting American military occupation of their homeland. United States vs. Mexico When President James K. Polk took office in March 1845, relations between the U.S. and Mexico were already severely strained. While Texas was still under Mexican rule, the U.S. had made it the 28th state of the Union. In anger, Mexico quickly broke off relations with the U.S. and began to prepare for the possibility of war. Realizing the potential of Mexican California’s coastline to maritime trading, Polk sent an envoy to Mexico with an offer to purchase California. When Mexico refused, President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor and his troops south to the Rio Grande River, into territory claimed by both sides. The U.S. claimed that the Rio Grande was Mexico’s border with Texas, but Mexico said that the border was the Nueces River, 150 miles farther north. Taylor’s men built a small fort across from the city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas. This action brought a detachment of Mexican cavalry across the Rio Grande to attack the U.S. patrol, killing or wounding 16 American soldiers. Citing that Mexico had “invaded our territory and shed American blood,” Polk declared war on Mexico. The San Pascual Pueblo The native northern Kumeyaay, known as the Ipai, were the largest indigenous group in today’s San Pasqual Valley. After the missions were secularized, mission lands were divided into large ranchos. In 1835 the Mexican government established the San Pascual (“Pasqual” is used today) Pueblo with 81 native residents. Following the death in Stained glass images of American soldiers (left) and a Californio (right), on view at visitor center 1874 of their highly respected chief, Capitán José Pedro Panto, non-Indians increasingly homesteaded the remaining acreage in the valley. With the formal eviction of native people in 1878, the pueblo ceased to exist, so its residents resettled elsewhere. Stephen W. Kearny In June 1846, Colonel Stephen W. Kearny and his soldiers were ordered by President Polk to take Santa Fe for the U.S. The First Dragoons left Fort Leavenworth (in what is now Kansas) and peacefully seized Santa Fe. In October Kearny, now a Brigadier General, led the Dragoons to California, where he met frontier scout Kit Carson. Carson told him that Commodore Robert F. Stockton had raised the American flag over San Diego, and California was now in American hands. Believing the war over, Kearny sent most of his troops back to Santa Fe. Guided by Kit Carson, Kearny continued to San Diego with about 100 men. On December 5, the First Dragoons met Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie, sent to escort Kearny to San Diego. Gillespie told Kearny that Andrés Pico was camped at San Pascual village with a force of insurgents. Andrés Pico Captain Andrés Pico and his brother, Pío Pico, owned the Rancho Santa Margarita, which was near the San Pasqual Valley. Andrés Pico had led his group of local Californio ranchers
Rattlesnakes Warning Rattlesnakes are found routinely on the hiking trails here at San Pasqual SHP. Rattlesnakes are an important part of the native ecosystem. Rattlesnakes are protected within parks. If you encounter a rattlesnake on the hiking trail or in the park please inform staff. Be alert while you are at the park. Snakes can been seen year around, however, most sightings are during the spring and summer months. If bitten, remain calm and call 911. Nature Trail The San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park nature trail has been designed to offer the park visitor an opportunity not only to view the area of the battle, but also to experience the beauty of the San Pasqual flora and fauna. On the nature trail, the visitor can find some of the resources that the California Indian inhabitants utilized. At each post, the pamphlet lists uses of the particular plant or physical feature. We hope that your walk along the nature trail will add to your appreciation of the Valley’s environment and the resourcefulness of its original inhabitants. Volunteer Association The San Pasqual Battlefield Volunteer Association is a non-profit organization that works in conjunction with California State Parks, and supports living history www.spbva.org programs, assists with the visitor center, operations, outreach programs and provides general support. They are always looking for more members. San Pasqual Battlefield SHP NATURE TRAIL California State Parks supports equal access. Prior to arrival, visitors with disabilities who need assistance should contact the park at (760) 737-2201. If you need this publication in an alternate format, contact interp@parks.ca.gov. CALIFORNIA STATE PARKS P.O. Box 942896 Sacramento, CA 94296-0001 For information call: (800) 777-0369 (916) 653-6995, outside the U.S. 711, TTY relay service www.parks.ca.gov © 2006 California State Parks (Rev. 2014) 2. Engelmann Oak (Quercus engelmanni) The acorns of the Engelmann Oak, and other species of oak, were used to make a flour or acorn meal. Acorns were a diet staple for many tribes throughout California; they are high in fat, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals, and an excellent source of fiber. They were processed by being pounded in a mortar, sifted, and leached several times with water to remove the bitterness of the high content of tannic acid. Gathering, processing, storing, and cooking acorns were important and time-consuming activities that were an integral part of daily life. 3. Our Lord’s Candle or Chaparral Yucca (Hesperoyucca whipplei) The fiber of this Yucca was used but not as extensively as the Mojave Yucca found on the coast and in the desert. The stalks were used for food, often roasted and sometimes boiled. Roasted, dried stalks were also ground into flour and used to form cakes. Yucca The flowers of the Yucca could be eaten after they were cooked in water. Image courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden 4. Wild Buckwheat (Erigonum fasciculatum) California Indians gathered the flowers and roots of the buckwheat plant to make a tea to sooth stomach ailments. 5. White Sage White (Salvia apiana) Sage California Indians used white sage medicinally to treat respiratory problems. They would gather the young branches before they began to flower and dry the leaves for later use. The dried leaves were made into tea for chest colds and coughs and steam treatments when congested. The smoke from the dried sage leaves was used in sweathouses. Sage was also used as a deodorant. When preparing for a hunt, the fresh leaves were crushed and used under the armpit to disguise the scent of body odor. Crushed leaves were also mixed with water and used as shampoo. 6. Laurel Sumac (Malosma laurina) Bark of the Laurel Sumac was made into tea and given to the mother after childbirth. 7. California Gnatcatcher The California Gnatcatcher lives in coastal sage scrub vegetation. They will eat small insects and spiders. 8. Sagebrush (Artemisia californica) Leaves of this plant were chewed when fresh to cure colds, ground into a poultice for ant bites, boiled and used in a bath to treat measles. Sagebrush tea was used as a hair tonic and to treat sore eyes and stomach disorders. 9. San Pasqual Valley The California Indian traveled throughout the scenic valley of San Pasqual to take advantage of seasonal availability of wild plants and migrating game. During the summer they would travel to the coast where temperatures were cooler. © CSP, Faith Rumm 1. Beale-Carson Monument The monument depicts Lt. Edward F. Beale and Kit Carson hailing Commodore Robert Stockton. Beale and Carson had journeyed to San Diego from San Pasqual to get help for General S.W. Kearny and his troops stranded on Mule Hill. 10. Hunting Grounds On occasion, you may spot one of the following animals that were hunted by the California Indians using throwing sticks and bows and arrows; mule deer, rabbits, squirrels, wild fowl and small rodents. Early or late in the day you may have the

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