Sutters Fort

State Historic Park - California

Sutter's Fort was a 19th-century agricultural and trade colony in the Mexican Alta California province. It was built in 1839 and originally called New Helvetia (New Switzerland) by its builder John Sutter. The fort was the first non-Indigenous community in the California Central Valley. The fort is famous for its association with the Donner Party, the California Gold Rush, and the formation of Sacramento. It is notable for its proximity to the end of the California Trail and Siskiyou Trails, which it served as a waystation. After gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill (also owned by Sutter) in Coloma, the fort was abandoned. The adobe structure has been restored to its original condition and is now administered by California Department of Parks and Recreation. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1961.

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Boundary Map of the Mother Lode BLM Field Office in California. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Mother Lode - Boundary Map

Boundary Map of the Mother Lode BLM Field Office in California. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

https://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=485 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutter's_Fort Sutter's Fort was a 19th-century agricultural and trade colony in the Mexican Alta California province. It was built in 1839 and originally called New Helvetia (New Switzerland) by its builder John Sutter. The fort was the first non-Indigenous community in the California Central Valley. The fort is famous for its association with the Donner Party, the California Gold Rush, and the formation of Sacramento. It is notable for its proximity to the end of the California Trail and Siskiyou Trails, which it served as a waystation. After gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill (also owned by Sutter) in Coloma, the fort was abandoned. The adobe structure has been restored to its original condition and is now administered by California Department of Parks and Recreation. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1961.
Our Mission Sutter’s Fort State Historic Park The mission of California State Parks is to provide for the health, inspiration and education of the people of California by helping to preserve the state’s extraordinary biological diversity, protecting its most valued natural and cultural resources, and creating opportunities for high-quality outdoor recreation. Sutter’s Fort was a gateway, a private kingdom, a symbol of both hope and oppression. Above all else, it represented California State Parks supports equal access. Prior to arrival, visitors with disabilities who need assistance should contact the park at (916) 445-4422. If you need this publication in an alternate format, contact interp@parks.ca.gov. CALIFORNIA STATE PARKS P.O. Box 942896 Sacramento, CA 94296-0001 For information call: (800) 777-0369 (916) 653-6995, outside the U.S. 711, TTY relay service www.parks.ca.gov Sutter’s Fort State Historic Park 2701 L Street Sacramento, CA 95816 (916) 445-4422 www.parks.ca.gov/suttersfort © 2011 California State Parks (Rev. 2017) a dream of what could be. S tep back in time. Situated in the heart of midtown Sacramento, Sutter’s Fort State Historic Park gives a glimpse into the very beginnings of Sacramento and California’s development in the early 19th century. Today’s fort is an oasis from the urban hustle beyond its gates, as well as a center for living history. Special events, period furnishings, a trade store, and rich detail add to our understanding and experience of early California. A LONG JOURNEY TO CALIFORNIA Though he considered himself Swiss, Johann Augustus Sutter was born in 1803 at Kandern, Baden, Germany — close to the Swiss border. As a youth, Sutter was an apprentice in a publishing house in Basel, Switzerland. Later, he operated a dry goods and drapery shop. To escape mounting debts and a rocky marriage, Sutter fled Switzerland in 1834. He left his wife and family behind, sailing to the United States to seek his fortune. Between 1835 and 1839, he borrowed and swindled his way across the west as a trader, reinventing himself along the way. After stops in Hawaii and Alaska, Sutter landed on the American River in 1839 with dreams of an agricultural empire. dwellings, corrals, and outbuildings. As many as 300 people may have worked at the fort during the day. Sutter’s Fort, sketched in 1846 by Lt. J.W. Revere, U.S. Navy BUILDING A FORT Construction began on the fort in 1840. Sutter used local Nisenan Indians and the Hawaiians he had brought with him as his labor force. They erected an adobe compound, with walls 2.5 feet (0.75 meters) thick and 15-18 feet (4.5-5 meters) tall. Various sources claim that the compound was as wide as 425 by 175 feet, though the original measurements are unknown. Today’s reconstructed compound area is 312 by 156 feet (95 by 47 meters), slightly smaller than the original fort. Within the fort walls were sleeping quarters, carpenter and blacksmith shops, a gunsmith, distillery, bakery, grist mill, and blanket factory. Sutter’s office and living quarters were in the fort’s central building. Outside the walls stood THE DREAM OF NEW HELVETIA Sutter was granted Mexican citizenship in 1840. The 48,827-acre (19,670-hectare) New Helvetia land grant was given to him in 1841. In exchange, he was expected to maintain order among local Indian tribes. He was authorized to issue land grants and passports to American immigrants. Sutter purchased Fort Ross from the Russian government in 1841. He offered $30,000 on credit, payable over four years. This brought him necessary supplies, such as lumber, cannons, and hardware. Needing military support, Governor Manuel Micheltorena appointed Sutter “Captain of Sacramento troops” in 1845, giving him more land in exchange for his service. The vast agricultural empire Sutter now controlled was approximately 191,000 acres (nearly 300 square miles) between present-day Sacramento and Redding. Though Sutter represented the Mexican government, he was friendly with Americans as well. During the Bear Flag revolt in June 1846, Sutter was briefly held prisoner by the Americans, but soon regained his freedom. LIFE AT THE FORT Sutter’s Fort was a popular emigrant destination. The generous — sometimes to a fault — Sutter provided shelter and supplies to many weary settlers. Others became skilled workers at the fort. Sutter and his employees helped rescue the Donner Party in 1847. Plagued by misfortune on the trail to California, the party was trapped in the Sierra by the worst snows on record. Sutter sent supplies and men to help rescue the survivors. Wheat, barley, peas, beans, cotton, fur trading, and a distillery provided Sutter with vital provisions and income. He exported wheat to Russian settlements in Alaska. Cattle and sheep ranching produced valuable hides and wool. A larger grist mill and a sawmill were planned to enhance Sutter’s growing empire. SUTTER AND California indians Sutter’s treatment of California Indians is controversi
Nuestra Misión Parque Estatal Histórico Sutter’s Fort La misión de California State Parks es proporcionar apoyo para la salud, la inspiración y la educación de los ciudadanos de California al ayudar a preservar la extraordinaria diversidad biológica del estado, proteger sus más valiosos recursos naturales y culturales, y crear oportunidades para la recreación al aire libre de alta calidad. El Fuerte de Sutter fue una entrada, un reino privado, un símbolo tanto de esperanza como de opresión. Sobre todo, California State Parks apoya la igualdad de acceso. Antes de llegar, los visitantes con discapacidades que necesiten asistencia deben comunicarse con el parque llamando al (916) 445-4422. Si necesita esta publicación en un formato alternativo, comuníquese con interp@parks.ca.gov. CALIFORNIA STATE PARKS P.O. Box 942896 Sacramento, CA 94296-0001 Para obtener más información, llame al: (800) 777-0369 o (916) 653-6995, fuera de los EE. UU. o 711, servicio de teléfono de texto. www.parks.ca.gov Sutter’s Fort State Historic Park 2701 L Street Sacramento, CA 95816 (916) 445-4422 www.parks.ca.gov/suttersfort © 2011 California State Parks (Rev. 2017) representaba un sueño de lo que podría ser. U na vuelta atrás en el tiempo. Ubicado en el corazón del centro de Sacramento, el Parque Histórico Estatal Fuerte de Sutter brinda un atisbo de los inicios del desarrollo de Sacramento y de California a principios del siglo XIX. Actualmente, tras sus puertas, el fuerte no es solo un oasis para escapar del bullicio urbano, sino también un centro de historia viviente. Los eventos especiales, los muebles de época, un almacén y una gran riqueza de detalles nos ayudan a comprender mejor y a experimentar cómo fueron los inicios de California. UN LARGO VIAJE A CALIFORNIA Aunque se consideraba suizo, Johann Augustus Sutter nació en 1803 en Kandern, Baden, Alemania, cerca de la frontera con Suiza. En su juventud se desempeñó como aprendiz en una editorial en Basilea, Suiza. Luego trabajó en una tienda de productos secos y de mercería. Con el objeto de escapar de grandes deudas y de un matrimonio inestable, Sutter dejó Suiza en 1834. Dejó a su esposa y familia y se embarcó hacia los Estados Unidos en búsqueda de fortuna. Entre los años 1835 y 1839, pidió préstamos y participó en estafas a medida que se abría Bosquejo del Fuerte de Sutter en 1846 de Lt. J. W. Revere, Armada de los Estados Unidos. paso hacia el oeste como comerciante, reinventándose a sí mismo en el proceso. Luego de realizar paradas en Alaska y Hawái, Sutter desembarcó en el Río de los Americanos en 1839 con el sueño de erigir un imperio agrícola. LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DEL FUERTE La construcción del fuerte comenzó en el año 1840. Sutter hizo uso del trabajo de los indios Nisenan y de los hawaianos que había llevado consigo como mano de obra. Construyeron un complejo de adobe con muros de 2.5 pies (0.75 metros) de espesor y de entre 15 y 18 pies (4.5-5 metros) de alto. En numerosas fuentes se afirma que el complejo tenía un ancho de 425 por 175 pies, aunque se desconocen las medidas originales. Actualmente, el área reconstruida del complejo es de 312 por 156 pies (95 por 47 metros) un poco más pequeña que el fuerte original. Dentro de los muros del fuerte había dormitorios, talleres de carpintería y de herrería, un armero, una destilería, una panadería, un molino de granos y una fábrica de mantas. El despacho de Sutter y las habitaciones en las que vivía se encontraban en el edificio central del fuerte. Fuera de los muros se encontraban viviendas, corrales y edificaciones anexas. Se estima que en el fuerte trabajaban unas 300 personas durante el día. EL SUEÑO DE LA NUEVA HELVETIA Sutter obtuvo la ciudadanía mexicana en 1840. La concesión de tierras para la Nueva Helvetia de 48,827 acres (19,670 hectáreas) se le otorgó en 1841. A cambio de ello, se le exigía que se encargara de mantener el orden entre las tribus indígenas locales. Sutter estaba autorizado para emitir concesiones de tierra y pasaportes a los inmigrantes estadounidenses. En 1841, le compró el Fuerte Ross al gobierno ruso. Ofreció $30,000 en crédito pagaderos en cuatro años. Ello le proporcionó los suministros necesarios tales como maderas, cañones y herramientas. Debido a la necesidad de apoyo militar, el Gobernador Manuel Micheltorena designó en 1845 a Sutter como “Capitán de las tropas de Sacramento” y le otorgó más tierras a cambio de sus servicios. El vasto imperio agrícola que ahora se encontraba bajo el control de Sutter era de aproximadamente 191,000 acres (cerca de 300 millas cuadradas) y se ubicaba entre lo que hoy es Sacramento y Redding. A pesar de que Sutter representaba al gobierno mexicano, también era amistoso hacia los estadounidenses. En junio de 1846, durante la Rebelión de la Bandera del Oso, Sutter fue tomado como prisionero por los estadounidenses por un corto lapso, pero volvió a obtener la libertad rápidamente. LA VIDA EN EL FUERTE El fuerte de Sutter era un destino popular
Important Information • Chaperones must stay with students at all times. • No food, beverages or gum inside any of the sites. • Park staff reserves the right to cancel groups arriving more than 10 minutes after the scheduled arrival time. • Groups without reservations are admitted on a space available basis. Payments for admission by check or cash only. Holding capacities strictly enforced. Our Mission The Mission of the California Department of Parks and Recreation is to provide for the health, inspiration and education of the people of California by helping to preserve the states’s extraordinary biological diversity, protecting its most valued natural and cultural resources, and creating opportunities for high quality outdoor recreation. California State Parks Historic Sites Visitor Information Guide • Commercial tour companies will be charged regular admission price at the park where applicable. • School groups with reservations will be admitted free of charge at all venues unless otherwise noted. • Requests for special assistance for persons with disabilities should be identified when making reservations with Reserve America. • Due to the number of no-shows at the Historic Sites venues, groups that fail to show for a reserved venue will be invoiced $25.00 per no show. • Fees subject to change. School group reservations call toll free: (866) 2404655 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m., 7 days a week Pacific Standard Time. Commercial group reservations call toll free:(866) 361-5111 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. M-F. For additional site information, maps and teacher background materials, Visit the California State Parks Website at: www.parks.ca.gov. HISTORIC STATE PARK SITES STATE CAPITOL MUSEUM 10th and L Street Guided tours provide an understanding of California’s complex and dynamic legislature. In addition, the guides interpret the Capitol’s history, architecture and symbols. Historic offices offer a glimpse into the Capitol’s past and museum rooms convey a perspective on current issues. Maximum 35 people. Wheelchair accessible. Listening devices upon request. (1 hr - Guided Tour) LELAND STANFORD MANSION 4th – 12th grades only. Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park, a National Historic Landmark, was the 19th century home of Leland and Jane Stanford. Today the Mansion welcomes leaders from around the world as the State’s official reception center and public museum. Allow 30 minutes for this guided tour. There are adult and youth fees; children five and under are free. For more information, call (916) 3246088 or (916) 324-0575 and press 03. THE CALIFORNIA MUSEUM FOR HISTORY, WOMEN AND THE ARTS The California Museum offers fun and educational programs and tours. Students have the opportunity to learn about California and the nation through the gallery-based programs. Developed by an experienced educator with specific reference to California’s curriculum standards, the Museum offers a range of resources California State Parks does not discriminate against individuals with disabilities. To receive this publication in an alternate format contact the California State Parks Concessions & Reservations Division at (916) 653-7733. CALIFORNIA STATE PARKS P.O. BOX 942896 SACRAMENTO, CA 94296-0001 For Information Call: (800) 777-0369 (916) 653-6995, Outside the U.S. (888) 877-5738, TTY (888) 877-5379, Without TTY www.parks.ca.gov Cover photo: Marshall Gold Discovery SHP © 2009 California State Parks for discovery and learning to classroom teachers. These resources are provided in a ready format that encourages and supports the efforts of teachers in addressing the natural and cultural diversity of California, the growth of the world-class economy, and the workings of our democracy. The Museum features exhibits on pioneering families, California Mission art, and the Remarkable Women Series with Latinas: the Spirit of California. For more information on our current exhibits, check our website at www. californiamuseum.org. CALIFORNIA STATE INDIAN MUSEUM 26th & K Street The museum displays a comprehensive collection of artifacts relating to California Indian culture. Wheelchair accessible. Groups without reservations are admitted on a space available basis. Carrying capacity enforced. (30 min Self-guided Tour) for 2nd floor of Central Building. (1 hr - Sound-Assisted, Self-guided Tour) GOVERNOR’S MANSION SHP 16th & H Street Elegant Victorian mansion built in 1877. Former home to California’s governors from John Pardee through Ronald Reagan. No strollers allowed. Due to limited holding capacity, large drop-in groups not advised. Wheelchair lift available. For information regarding this site, call (916) 323-3047. (40 min - Guided Tour) MARSHALL GOLD DISCOVERY SHP Highway 49 in Coloma This is the site of the discovery at Sutter’s MiII that triggered the California Gold Rush. Groups with a valid reservation must check in at the park entrance within an hour before or after their scheduled arrival time. For Bekeart’s gold California

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