Diamond Head

State Monument - Hawaiʻi

Diamond Head is a volcanic tuff cone on the Hawaiian island of Oʻahu and known to Hawaiians as Lēʻahi. The Hawaiian name is most likely derived from lae (browridge, promontory) plus ʻahi (tuna) because the shape of the ridgeline resembles the shape of a tuna's dorsal fin. Diamond Head is part of the system of cones, vents, and their associated eruption flows that are collectively known to geologists as the Honolulu Volcanic Series, eruptions from the Koʻolau Volcano that took place long after the volcano formed and had gone dormant. The Honolulu Volcanic Series is a series of volcanic eruption events that created many of Oʻahu's well-known landmarks, including Punchbowl Crater, Hanauma Bay, Koko Head, and Mānana Island in addition to Diamond Head.

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Driving Map of Oʻahu (Oahu) in Hawaii. Published by the Hawaii Visitors & Convention Bureau.Oʻahu - Driving Map

Driving Map of Oʻahu (Oahu) in Hawaii. Published by the Hawaii Visitors & Convention Bureau.

Vintage map of Hawaiian Islands - Oahu 1951. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Oʻahu - Vintage USGS Map - Oahu 1951

Vintage map of Hawaiian Islands - Oahu 1951. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

brochures

A Visitor's Guide to Hawaiʻi State Park Resources and Recreational Opportunities. Published by Hawaii State Parks.Hawaiʻi State Parks - Visitor's Guide

A Visitor's Guide to Hawaiʻi State Park Resources and Recreational Opportunities. Published by Hawaii State Parks.

Brochure about Hiking Safely in Hawaiʻi. Published by Hawaii State Parks.Hawaiʻi State Parks - Hiking Safely

Brochure about Hiking Safely in Hawaiʻi. Published by Hawaii State Parks.

Diamond Head SM https://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dsp/parks/oahu/diamond-head-state-monument/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond_Head,_Hawaii Diamond Head is a volcanic tuff cone on the Hawaiian island of Oʻahu and known to Hawaiians as Lēʻahi. The Hawaiian name is most likely derived from lae (browridge, promontory) plus ʻahi (tuna) because the shape of the ridgeline resembles the shape of a tuna's dorsal fin. Diamond Head is part of the system of cones, vents, and their associated eruption flows that are collectively known to geologists as the Honolulu Volcanic Series, eruptions from the Koʻolau Volcano that took place long after the volcano formed and had gone dormant. The Honolulu Volcanic Series is a series of volcanic eruption events that created many of Oʻahu's well-known landmarks, including Punchbowl Crater, Hanauma Bay, Koko Head, and Mānana Island in addition to Diamond Head.
HOW THE CRATER WAS FORMED THE EARLY HISTORY The pronounced seaward summit, deeply eroded ridges, and ovoid-shaped crater are evidence of Lë‘ahi’s very dynamic geological history. The creation of O‘ahu began around 2.5 to 4 million years ago with volcanic eruptions from 2 shield volcanoes. A period of extensive erosion followed, leaving the Ko‘olau and Waiçanae Mountain Ranges as the remnants of these volcanoes. After about 1.3 million years of volcanic inactivity, the southeastern end of the Ko‘olau Range erupted. These eruptions occurred under the ocean, where the magma was broken down into ash and fine particles by the water and steam. Blown into the air, these particles were cemented together into a rock called tuff which created tuff cones, such as Lë‘ahi. Lë‘ahi is believed to have been formed about 300,000 years ago during a single, brief eruption. The broad crater covers 350 acres with its width being greater than its height. The southwestern rim is highest because winds were blowing ash in this direction during the eruption. Since the eruption, the slopes of the crater have been eroded and weathered by rain, wind, and the pounding of the sea. A coral reef now protects the seaward slopes of the crater. Today, Lë‘ahi (Diamond Head) is the most recognized landmark in Hawai‘i. It was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1968 as an excellent example of a tuff cone. It is said that Hi‘iaka, sister of the fire goddess Pele, gave Lë‘ahi its name because the summit resembles the forehead (lae) of the ‘ahi fish. Another translation is “fire headland” and refers to the navigational fires that were lit at the summit to assist canoes travelling along the shoreline. The heiau (temple) built on the summit was dedicated to the god of wind as protection against strong updrafts that could put out these navigational fires. Today, the Diamond Head Light, built in 1917, provides a visual aid for navigation. In the late 1700s, Western explorers and traders visited Lë‘ahi and mistook the calcite crystals in the rocks on the slope of the crater for diamonds. Thus, the name Diamond Head became the common name for the crater. ENVIRONMENT The semi-arid climate, the steep rocky slopes, and the shallow soil of Diamond Head support mostly low shrubs and herbs. Botanists believe that the crater was once covered by a dryland forest, but only a few native ‘ilima Hawaiian species, such as ‘ilima, remain. Rainwater collects on the crater floor in the winter, creating a small lake that was frequented by native ducks and waterbirds until the early 1900s. Most of the plants and animals you see in the crater today were introduced to Hawai‘i after the 1800s. Dominant plants are the kiawe, a relative of the mesquite, and koa haole. Both of these plants were brought in as cattle feed and have adapted well to the hot, dry conditions. You may see some of the common introduced birds, such as cardinals, doves, and sparrows. From this observation station, observers could triangulate targets and aim artillery and mortar fire from Batteries Randolph and Dudley at Fort DeRussy in Waikïkï and Battery Harlow at Fort Ruger on the outer slopes of the crater. Consisting of 4 levels, the exterior of the Fire Control Station was camouflaged with rubble embedded in concrete. Slits with metal shutters on each level provided seaward viewing for potential sea and air attacks. The 4 levels and the summit were accessed by a spiral staircase and ladders between the levels. Additional coastal defense was provided by long range guns installed on the outer slopes and rim of the crater around 1915. Diamond Head was prepared to defend O‘ahu from attack but no artillery was ever fired during a war. The military features of Diamond Head are part of the Fort Ruger Historic District. DIAMOND HEAD (Le‘ahi) STATE MONUMENT MILITARY HISTORY With its panoramic view from Koko Head to Wai‘anae, the summit of Diamond Head was an ideal site for the coastal defense of O‘ahu. In 1904, Diamond Head was purchased by the Federal government and designated for military use. Fortification began in 1908 with the construction of gun emplacements and an entry tunnel through the north wall of the crater from Fort Ruger known as the Kapahulu Tunnel. Batteries were built to house the coastal artillery. A total of 5 batteries were built at Diamond Head Crater: Harlow (1910) on the northern exterior, Dodge and Hulings (1913) which tunnel through the eastern crater wall, Birkhimer (1916) which is largely below ground inside the crater, and Battery 407 (1943) which tunnels through the southern wall of the crater and faces seaward. Fire Control Station Diamond Head was built at the summit between 1908-1910 and housed instruments and plotting rooms to direct artillery fire from several batteries. This fortification was an engineering marvel of its time. Honolulu, O‘ahu Department of Land & Natural Resources DIVISION OF STATE PARKS 1151 Punchbowl Street, Room 310 Honolulu
Hawai‘i State Parks A Visitor's Guide to Park Resources and Recreational Opportunities STATE OF HAWAI‘I Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of State Parks Cover photograph of the Makua-Keawaula Section of Ka‘ena Point State Park, O‘ahu with remnants of the former railroad bed around Ka‘ena Point. Railroad at Ka‘ena Point, ca.1935 Hawaiian Historical Society Aloha and Welcome to Hawai‘i State Parks! Hawai‘i is the most remote land mass on earth. Its reputation for unsurpassed natural beauty is reflected in our parks that span mauka to makai (mountains to the sea). Hawai‘i’s state park system is comprised of 50 state parks, scenic waysides, and historic sites encompassing nearly 30,000 acres on the 5 major islands. The park environments range from landscaped grounds with developed facilities to wildland areas with rugged trails and primitive facilities. Outdoor recreation consists of a diversity of coastal and wildland recreational experiences, including picnicking, camping, lodging, ocean recreation, sightseeing, hiking, and pleasure walking. The park program protects, preserves, and interprets excellent examples of Hawai‘i’s natural and cultural history. The exceptional scenic areas are managed for their aesthetic values and developed for their superb views. We invite you to experience Hawai‘i, learn about its unique resources and history, and participate in outdoor recreation by visiting our parks. As you visit, please help us protect Hawai‘i’s fragile and irreplaceable resources for future generations by heeding the rules and posted safety signs. For more information, visit our websites at: http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dsp/ http://dlnr.hawaii.gov Use Caution - Be Safe Dangers and hazards exist in our parks and natural areas. Trails may be narrow and muddy with steep drop-offs. Flash floods can occur in streams with little warning. Ocean waves can knock you off your feet and sweep you out to sea. To have a safe park visit, stay on designated trails, heed safety signs, and do not cross streams when water levels rise. Always check weather conditions before going and use official sources of information to plan your visit. Funding for the printing of this brochure provided by the Hawai‘i Tourism Authority. -2- TABLE OF CONTENTS General Information 4 Permits 5 Camping & Lodging Permits 5 Permits for Nāpali Coast State Park 6 Group Use Permits 9 Special Use Permits 9 Forest Reserve Trails 9 Hunting and Fishing 9 General Park Rules 10 Safety Tips 10 Water Safety 11 Outdoor Safety 12 Interpretive Program 13 Park Guide 16 Park Descriptions Island of Hawai‘i 14 Island of Kaua‘i 21 Island of Maui 24 Island of Moloka‘i 25 Island of O‘ahu 26 STATE PARKS KEY SP SHP SHS SM SPR SRA SRP SSS SW SWP State Park State Historical Park State Historic Site State Monument State Park Reserve State Recreation Area State Recreation Pier State Scenic Shoreline State Wayside State Wilderness Park FACILITIES ACTIVITIES Cabins/Lodging Beach Activities Campgrounds Snorkeling & Diving Picnic Areas Fishing Boat Ramps Hiking (Trail over 1 Scenic Lookouts Walking (Paved path less than 1 mile long) Food Concession Boat Tours mile in length) (Concessionaire) -3- Revised 5/17 GENERAL INFORMATION State parks are open year-round. Fees are charged for various accommodations, guided tours of ‘Iolani Palace, and riverboat cruises on the Wailua River. Entry and parking fees are charged at some parks. Refer to the attached fee schedule, check the website, or call the telephone numbers provided for more information about fees, hours, and special uses. For permits and information, contact the district offices and park concessionaires (*) listed below. FEES, PERMIT REQUIREMENTS, AND OFFICE HOURS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. HAWAI‘I DISTRICT O‘AHU DISTRICT KAUA‘I DISTRICT MAUI DISTRICT *THE LODGE AT KŌKE‘E *MĀLAEKAHANA (KAHUKU SECTION) 1151 Punchbowl Street,#310 Honolulu, HI 96813 (808) 587-0300 Hours: Monday to Friday 8:00am to 3:30pm 75 Aupuni Street, #204 Hilo, HI 96720-4245 (808) 961-9540 Hours: Monday to Friday 8:00am to 3:30pm 54 S. High Street, #101 Wailuku, HI 96793 (808) 984-8109 Hours: Monday to Friday 8:00am to 3:30pm 3060 Eiwa Street, #306 Līhu‘e, HI 96766-1875 (808) 274-3444 Hours: Monday to Friday 8:00am to 3:30pm P.O. Box 367 Waimea, HI 96796-0367 (808) 335-6061 www.thelodgeatkokee.net Contact: info@thelodgeatkokee.net Hours: 9:00am to 4:00pm NOTE: Offices are closed on weekends and State holidays. Please check website for current operator contact information. *HE‘EIA STATE PARK Kama‘aina Kids (808) 235-6509 (fax: 235-6519) information@heeiastatepark.org www.heeiastatepark.org REFUNDS & CHANGES NO REFUNDS WILL BE GIVEN IF REQUESTED LESS THAN 15 DAYS IN ADVANCE OF CHECK-IN DATE. Refunds for credit card purchases will be credited electronically to your account, minus non-refundable administrative fee and
5/8/01 4:24 PM Page 1 During the Hike In An Emergency What is Na Ala Hele? Stay on the Trail Call 911: Ask for Fire/Rescue. Tell them which trail Most accidents happen when hikers leave the established trail and disregard warning signs. Staying on the trail greatly reduces your chances of having a serious fall or getting lost. Hawaiian forests are not like mainland forests—the growth is very dense, and it is easy to become disoriented. Thick overgrowth can mask dangerously steep drop-offs. Thin, sharp lava rock can crack beneath your weight above deep holes or lava tubes. you’re on and what happened. Na Ala Hele (NAH) is the State of Hawai‘i Trail and Access Program. NAH was initially created in response to public concern about the increasing loss of access to trails and the threat to historic trails from development pressures. Currently, NAH is also increasingly engaged in multiple trail use and management issues such as regulating commercial use, conducting trail improvement for resource management, improving user safety, disseminating trailrelated information, and determining the current ownership of historic government trails in efforts to protect these routes for potential use by future generations. Be Visible: Wear or wave a brightly colored item in an open area during the day. At night, use a flashlight or camera flash. Be Noisy: Use a whistle to attract attention. Stay Calm: Objectively assess your situation before mak- Stay Together ing any decision. Stay calm and positive. Hikers separated from their partners are more apt to make a wrong turn or lose the established trail. Keep track of each other, and regroup periodically, especially near junctions or when the trail gets obscure. Monitor everyone’s condition. Dehydration, sunstroke, hypothermia, and fatigue can hit even experienced hikers. chances of getting into further trouble, especially after dark, by staying in one place. This is why it is important to notify someone of your hike location and destination. Avoid Undue Risks Stay Warm: Wind and Climbing waterfalls and following narrow ridgelines or gulches off the trail can place you in danger. Rock climbing is extremely dangerous due to the crumbly and porous nature of the volcanic rock. There have been fatal accidents from crumbling rock...don’t take the chance. rain can drain your body of warmth, and be life-threatening. Get out of the wind and use your rain gear or extra clothes to stay warm. Stay Put: You will be found more quickly and reduce the When might you need emergency assistance? • When an injury or illness prevents walking. • When extremely bad weather hits. • When it’s too dark to see. • When you’re extremely fatigued or dehydrated. • When you’re disoriented or lost. Monitor the Weather Keep an eye on the sky. When hiking into valleys or crossing streams, be mindful of rain conditions along the mountain top or ridges that can suddenly raise the water level in the stream. Use extreme caution if attempting to cross a swollen stream...rushing water is very powerful. It is better to find an alternative route, or wait until the water subsides. Watch the Time Hawai‘i does not have daylight savings time, and night falls quickly in the tropics. Getting a late start increases the possibility of getting caught in the dark. Know your turnaround time and stick to it to allow enough time to return. If you’re caught by darkness, stay put unless you are very familiar with the trail and have a flashlight. Hiking Safely This brochure is subject to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and offers all persons the opportunity to participate in programs or activities regardless of race, color , national origin, age, sex, or disability. Further, it is agreed that no individual will be turned away from or otherwise denied access to or benefit from any program or activity that is directly associated with a program of the recipient on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (in educational activities), or disability. • When you’re stranded, scared, and unable to move. Na Ala Hele deeply appreciates any public interest and desire to assist in the stewardship of trails in Hawai‘i. Trails require continuous attention to insure the quality of the trail experience, the safety of the trail users, and for the proper management of the natural and cultural resources. Na Ala Hele relies frequently on community volunteers for providing the essential person-power to conduct trail restoration or construction projects. For more information, contact the Na Ala Hele staff on your island: O‘ahu: Maui, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i: Kaua‘i: Big Island: I N H A W A I ‘ I (808) 973-9782 (808) 873-3508 (808) 274-3433 (808) 974-4217 A portion of the content of this brochure was originally created throu

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