Puʻu O Mahuka Heiau

State Historic Park - Hawaiʻi

Puʻu o Mahuka Heiau State Historic Site on the North Shore of Oʻahu is the largest heiau on the island located on a hilltop overlooking Waimea Bay and Waimea Valley. From its commanding heights, sentries could once monitor much of the northern shoreline of Oʻahu, and even spot signal fires from the Wailua Complex of Heiaus on Kauaʻi, with which it had ties. Puʻu o Mahuka means "Hill of Escape." Hawaiian legends have it that from this point, the volcano goddess Pele leaped from Oʻahu to the next island, Molokaʻi. At the start of Makahiki, the four months of Hawaiian New Year, an observer standing at Kaʻena Point would see the Pleiades (Makaliʻi) rising out of Pu'u o Mahuka Heiau just after sunset. The site can be reached from Pupukea Homestead Road (Highway 835), which starts at Kamehameha Highway (Highway 83) across from Pupukea fire station.

maps

Driving Map of Oʻahu (Oahu) in Hawaii. Published by the Hawaii Visitors & Convention Bureau.Oʻahu - Driving Map

Driving Map of Oʻahu (Oahu) in Hawaii. Published by the Hawaii Visitors & Convention Bureau.

Vintage map of Hawaiian Islands - Oahu 1951. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Oʻahu - Vintage USGS Map - Oahu 1951

Vintage map of Hawaiian Islands - Oahu 1951. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

brochures

A Visitor's Guide to Hawaiʻi State Park Resources and Recreational Opportunities. Published by Hawaii State Parks.Hawaiʻi State Parks - Visitor's Guide

A Visitor's Guide to Hawaiʻi State Park Resources and Recreational Opportunities. Published by Hawaii State Parks.

Brochure about Hiking Safely in Hawaiʻi. Published by Hawaii State Parks.Hawaiʻi State Parks - Hiking Safely

Brochure about Hiking Safely in Hawaiʻi. Published by Hawaii State Parks.

Puʻu O Mahuka Heiau SHP https://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dsp/parks/oahu/puu-o-mahuka-heiau-state-historic-site/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pu%CA%BBu_o_Mahuka_Heiau_State_Monument Puʻu o Mahuka Heiau State Historic Site on the North Shore of Oʻahu is the largest heiau on the island located on a hilltop overlooking Waimea Bay and Waimea Valley. From its commanding heights, sentries could once monitor much of the northern shoreline of Oʻahu, and even spot signal fires from the Wailua Complex of Heiaus on Kauaʻi, with which it had ties. Puʻu o Mahuka means "Hill of Escape." Hawaiian legends have it that from this point, the volcano goddess Pele leaped from Oʻahu to the next island, Molokaʻi. At the start of Makahiki, the four months of Hawaiian New Year, an observer standing at Kaʻena Point would see the Pleiades (Makaliʻi) rising out of Pu'u o Mahuka Heiau just after sunset. The site can be reached from Pupukea Homestead Road (Highway 835), which starts at Kamehameha Highway (Highway 83) across from Pupukea fire station.
The land division or ahupua‘a of Waimea was the major political and religious center of northern O‘ahu. Waimea Valley offered fertile agricultural lands, abundant fresh water, rich offshore marine resources, and good surfing and canoe landing sites. The ali‘i and kähuna sought areas such as Waimea to reside. To support this ruling center, the maka‘ainana cultivated fields of kalo (taro) and sweet potato on the valley floor and fished in Waimea Bay. Housesites were scattered throughout the valley. At the valley mouth are 2 large heiau; Pu‘u o Mahuka on the north and Kupopolo on the south. In the valley is Hale o Lono, a heiau dedicated to the god Lono. Religious ceremonies to Lono were held during the annual Makahiki season to promote fertility of the resources. Soon after Western contact, the people left the taro fields to cut sandalwood in the upper valley. By the 1860s, the population was reduced by disease, floods, and famine. STATE OF HAWAI‘I Department of Land & Natural Resources Division of State Parks Special recognition is given to Nä Hoa o Pu‘u o Mahuka, a community volunteer group and curators of Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau. E mälama no këia mua aku Traditionally, food items were left as offerings at a heiau. Please do not wrap or move rocks and do not leave items such as coins, incense, or candles as they cause long‐term damage. ST Heiau artwork by Ipo Nihipali. A AWAI TE I H KS 1930s photo of Waimea Valley with Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau. Credit: Bishop Museum Archives Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1962 in recognition of its importance to Hawaiian culture and history. Also in 1962, the 4‐acre property encompassing the heiau was placed under the jurisdiction of State Parks to preserve this significant site for future generations. In the 1960s, the path through the heiau was created. Today, we ask that you observe the site from outside the walls and do not enter the site to avoid further damaging the walls and paving. PA R The upper enclosure of Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau conforms to the generalized pattern for a luakini heiau. The altar area at the east end probably held the anu‘u tower, ki‘i images, and lele altar. Thatched buildings were constructed on the level stone paving in the western portion. The ledges along the interior side of the walls may have been where participants sat during religious ceremonies. 1. Lananu‘u mamao or anu‘u (oracle) tower where religious services were conducted and the gods spoke to the kähuna and high ali‘i. This structure often measured 20 feet or more in height and was a pole frame covered with kapa. 2. Ki‘i or carved wooden images placed by the altar and the entrance to oversee the site. 3. Lele altar where offerings for the gods were placed. Often a raised wooden platform. Artist's rendering of Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau as a luakini heiau, circa 1750. Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau is the largest heiau (religious site or temple) on O‘ahu, covering almost 2 acres. The name is translated as “hill of escape”. Undoubtedly, this heiau played an important role in the social, political, and religious system of Waimea Valley which was a major occupation center of O‘ahu in the pre‐contact period. Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau may have been constructed in the 1600s. Built as a series of 3 walled enclosures, the stacked rock walls ranged from 3 to 6 feet in height and the interior surface was paved with stone. Within the walls were wood and thatch structures. Such a large heiau would have been built by the maka‘ainana (commoners) under the direction of a high ruling ali‘i nui (chief) and his kähuna (priests). It was not unusual for a heiau to be expanded and modified by a new ruling chief. It appears that the upper, eastern enclosure was constructed first and was the ceremonial focus of the heiau. The other 2 enclosures were added later, probably in the 1700s. In the 1770s, high priest Ka‘opulupulu under O‘ahu chief Kahahana, oversaw this heiau. This was a time of political upheaval and it is likely that the heiau was used as a luakini heiau (sacrifical temple), perhaps for success in war. In 1795, when Kamehameha I conquered O‘ahu, his high priest Hewahewa conducted religious ceremonies at this heiau until 1819 when the traditional religion was abolished. Situated on a ridge with a commanding view of Waimea Valley and the northern shoreline of O‘ahu, this heiau had ties with the heiau at Wailua on Kaua‘i. It is reported that signal fires at these heiau provided a visual communication between the islands. In 1792, Capt. George Vancouver anchored his ship Daedalus off Waimea and sent a party onshore to collect water. A skirmish ensued with the Hawaiians and 3 of Vancouver’s men were killed. Some have suggested that these men were taken to Pu‘u o Mahuka Heiau for sacrifice. After the heiau was abandoned, circa 1819, the site may have been used for other purposes. Some have suggested that the middle enclosure was used for agriculture and the stone mounds are clearing a
Hawai‘i State Parks A Visitor's Guide to Park Resources and Recreational Opportunities STATE OF HAWAI‘I Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of State Parks Cover photograph of the Makua-Keawaula Section of Ka‘ena Point State Park, O‘ahu with remnants of the former railroad bed around Ka‘ena Point. Railroad at Ka‘ena Point, ca.1935 Hawaiian Historical Society Aloha and Welcome to Hawai‘i State Parks! Hawai‘i is the most remote land mass on earth. Its reputation for unsurpassed natural beauty is reflected in our parks that span mauka to makai (mountains to the sea). Hawai‘i’s state park system is comprised of 50 state parks, scenic waysides, and historic sites encompassing nearly 30,000 acres on the 5 major islands. The park environments range from landscaped grounds with developed facilities to wildland areas with rugged trails and primitive facilities. Outdoor recreation consists of a diversity of coastal and wildland recreational experiences, including picnicking, camping, lodging, ocean recreation, sightseeing, hiking, and pleasure walking. The park program protects, preserves, and interprets excellent examples of Hawai‘i’s natural and cultural history. The exceptional scenic areas are managed for their aesthetic values and developed for their superb views. We invite you to experience Hawai‘i, learn about its unique resources and history, and participate in outdoor recreation by visiting our parks. As you visit, please help us protect Hawai‘i’s fragile and irreplaceable resources for future generations by heeding the rules and posted safety signs. For more information, visit our websites at: http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dsp/ http://dlnr.hawaii.gov Use Caution - Be Safe Dangers and hazards exist in our parks and natural areas. Trails may be narrow and muddy with steep drop-offs. Flash floods can occur in streams with little warning. Ocean waves can knock you off your feet and sweep you out to sea. To have a safe park visit, stay on designated trails, heed safety signs, and do not cross streams when water levels rise. Always check weather conditions before going and use official sources of information to plan your visit. Funding for the printing of this brochure provided by the Hawai‘i Tourism Authority. -2- TABLE OF CONTENTS General Information 4 Permits 5 Camping & Lodging Permits 5 Permits for Nāpali Coast State Park 6 Group Use Permits 9 Special Use Permits 9 Forest Reserve Trails 9 Hunting and Fishing 9 General Park Rules 10 Safety Tips 10 Water Safety 11 Outdoor Safety 12 Interpretive Program 13 Park Guide 16 Park Descriptions Island of Hawai‘i 14 Island of Kaua‘i 21 Island of Maui 24 Island of Moloka‘i 25 Island of O‘ahu 26 STATE PARKS KEY SP SHP SHS SM SPR SRA SRP SSS SW SWP State Park State Historical Park State Historic Site State Monument State Park Reserve State Recreation Area State Recreation Pier State Scenic Shoreline State Wayside State Wilderness Park FACILITIES ACTIVITIES Cabins/Lodging Beach Activities Campgrounds Snorkeling & Diving Picnic Areas Fishing Boat Ramps Hiking (Trail over 1 Scenic Lookouts Walking (Paved path less than 1 mile long) Food Concession Boat Tours mile in length) (Concessionaire) -3- Revised 5/17 GENERAL INFORMATION State parks are open year-round. Fees are charged for various accommodations, guided tours of ‘Iolani Palace, and riverboat cruises on the Wailua River. Entry and parking fees are charged at some parks. Refer to the attached fee schedule, check the website, or call the telephone numbers provided for more information about fees, hours, and special uses. For permits and information, contact the district offices and park concessionaires (*) listed below. FEES, PERMIT REQUIREMENTS, AND OFFICE HOURS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. HAWAI‘I DISTRICT O‘AHU DISTRICT KAUA‘I DISTRICT MAUI DISTRICT *THE LODGE AT KŌKE‘E *MĀLAEKAHANA (KAHUKU SECTION) 1151 Punchbowl Street,#310 Honolulu, HI 96813 (808) 587-0300 Hours: Monday to Friday 8:00am to 3:30pm 75 Aupuni Street, #204 Hilo, HI 96720-4245 (808) 961-9540 Hours: Monday to Friday 8:00am to 3:30pm 54 S. High Street, #101 Wailuku, HI 96793 (808) 984-8109 Hours: Monday to Friday 8:00am to 3:30pm 3060 Eiwa Street, #306 Līhu‘e, HI 96766-1875 (808) 274-3444 Hours: Monday to Friday 8:00am to 3:30pm P.O. Box 367 Waimea, HI 96796-0367 (808) 335-6061 www.thelodgeatkokee.net Contact: info@thelodgeatkokee.net Hours: 9:00am to 4:00pm NOTE: Offices are closed on weekends and State holidays. Please check website for current operator contact information. *HE‘EIA STATE PARK Kama‘aina Kids (808) 235-6509 (fax: 235-6519) information@heeiastatepark.org www.heeiastatepark.org REFUNDS & CHANGES NO REFUNDS WILL BE GIVEN IF REQUESTED LESS THAN 15 DAYS IN ADVANCE OF CHECK-IN DATE. Refunds for credit card purchases will be credited electronically to your account, minus non-refundable administrative fee and
5/8/01 4:24 PM Page 1 During the Hike In An Emergency What is Na Ala Hele? Stay on the Trail Call 911: Ask for Fire/Rescue. Tell them which trail Most accidents happen when hikers leave the established trail and disregard warning signs. Staying on the trail greatly reduces your chances of having a serious fall or getting lost. Hawaiian forests are not like mainland forests—the growth is very dense, and it is easy to become disoriented. Thick overgrowth can mask dangerously steep drop-offs. Thin, sharp lava rock can crack beneath your weight above deep holes or lava tubes. you’re on and what happened. Na Ala Hele (NAH) is the State of Hawai‘i Trail and Access Program. NAH was initially created in response to public concern about the increasing loss of access to trails and the threat to historic trails from development pressures. Currently, NAH is also increasingly engaged in multiple trail use and management issues such as regulating commercial use, conducting trail improvement for resource management, improving user safety, disseminating trailrelated information, and determining the current ownership of historic government trails in efforts to protect these routes for potential use by future generations. Be Visible: Wear or wave a brightly colored item in an open area during the day. At night, use a flashlight or camera flash. Be Noisy: Use a whistle to attract attention. Stay Calm: Objectively assess your situation before mak- Stay Together ing any decision. Stay calm and positive. Hikers separated from their partners are more apt to make a wrong turn or lose the established trail. Keep track of each other, and regroup periodically, especially near junctions or when the trail gets obscure. Monitor everyone’s condition. Dehydration, sunstroke, hypothermia, and fatigue can hit even experienced hikers. chances of getting into further trouble, especially after dark, by staying in one place. This is why it is important to notify someone of your hike location and destination. Avoid Undue Risks Stay Warm: Wind and Climbing waterfalls and following narrow ridgelines or gulches off the trail can place you in danger. Rock climbing is extremely dangerous due to the crumbly and porous nature of the volcanic rock. There have been fatal accidents from crumbling rock...don’t take the chance. rain can drain your body of warmth, and be life-threatening. Get out of the wind and use your rain gear or extra clothes to stay warm. Stay Put: You will be found more quickly and reduce the When might you need emergency assistance? • When an injury or illness prevents walking. • When extremely bad weather hits. • When it’s too dark to see. • When you’re extremely fatigued or dehydrated. • When you’re disoriented or lost. Monitor the Weather Keep an eye on the sky. When hiking into valleys or crossing streams, be mindful of rain conditions along the mountain top or ridges that can suddenly raise the water level in the stream. Use extreme caution if attempting to cross a swollen stream...rushing water is very powerful. It is better to find an alternative route, or wait until the water subsides. Watch the Time Hawai‘i does not have daylight savings time, and night falls quickly in the tropics. Getting a late start increases the possibility of getting caught in the dark. Know your turnaround time and stick to it to allow enough time to return. If you’re caught by darkness, stay put unless you are very familiar with the trail and have a flashlight. Hiking Safely This brochure is subject to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and offers all persons the opportunity to participate in programs or activities regardless of race, color , national origin, age, sex, or disability. Further, it is agreed that no individual will be turned away from or otherwise denied access to or benefit from any program or activity that is directly associated with a program of the recipient on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (in educational activities), or disability. • When you’re stranded, scared, and unable to move. Na Ala Hele deeply appreciates any public interest and desire to assist in the stewardship of trails in Hawai‘i. Trails require continuous attention to insure the quality of the trail experience, the safety of the trail users, and for the proper management of the natural and cultural resources. Na Ala Hele relies frequently on community volunteers for providing the essential person-power to conduct trail restoration or construction projects. For more information, contact the Na Ala Hele staff on your island: O‘ahu: Maui, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i: Kaua‘i: Big Island: I N H A W A I ‘ I (808) 973-9782 (808) 873-3508 (808) 274-3433 (808) 974-4217 A portion of the content of this brochure was originally created throu

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