Native Garden Guide
Native Garden Guide for Southestern Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).
U.S. Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho NATIVE GARDENS FOR IDAHO PARTNERSHIP Boise School District Bureau of Land Management (BLM) City of Boise College of Western Idaho Garden City Garden Club Golden Eagle Audubon Society Idaho Department of Fish and Game Mancuso Botanical Services Steppe Environmental U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) West Ada School District WRITTEN BY Holly Hovis, BLM Kristin Lohr, USFWS CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS Anne Halford, BLM Chris Taylor, Boise School District Dave Hopper, USFWS Dusty Perkins, College of Western Idaho Judy Snow, Garden City Garden Club Karen Colson, USFWS Kristin Gnojewski, City of Boise, Parks and Recreation Lynell Sutter, Steppe Environmental Micah Lauer, West Ada School Distsrict Michael Mancuso, Mancuso Botanical Services Sean Finn, Golden Eagle Audubon Society DESIGN Antonia Hedrick, BLM AUGUST 2019 U.S. Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho IDAHO STATE OFFICE 1387 S. Vinnell Way Boise, ID 83709 208-373-4000 Blank Page or good place for Photo Monarch on showy milkweed, A. Hedrick Table of Contents Native Garden Guide 1 INTRODUCTION 2 SECTION A How to Get Started Forming a Team 5 SECTION B Funding and Grants 7 SECTION C Garden Design Design Tips Native Gardens in Southwest Idaho Public Perception Bird Habitat Garden Pollinator Habitat Garden Monarch Garden Sensory Garden Outreach 39 SECTION D Implementation Calculations Site Preparation Material Resources 47 SECTION E Maintenance Maintenance Schedule Maintenance Plan Example 52 SECTION F Master Plant List back cover RESOURCES Sage International Charter School Garden Introduction Welcome to the Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho. This guide was created to help novice gardeners create waterwise, wildlifefriendly gardens using plants suitable for southwest Idaho. The information in this guide will assist backyard gardeners, urban planners, schools, and businesses transform their landscapes into native gardens. All plants listed in this guide are native to Idaho or to adjacent states with the same growing conditions. The purpose of this guide is to: • provide steps for developing and maintaining native gardens • provide examples of garden designs • provide lists of locally adapted native plants • aid in conserving water and attracting birds and pollinators • identify partners, local resources and funding opportunities Why Native Plants? Urban gardens can provide important habitat for animals such as birds and native pollinators (bees, butterflies, moths, hummingbirds). These gardens can be used for nesting, foraging, shelter, and as stopovers during spring and fall migration. Native plants are adapted to the growing conditions in our area, thus requiring less water than introduced plants. They also support more insects, including native pollinators, than nonnative plants. This means more habitat for native bees and more food for insecteating birds! Who needs a bird feeder when you have a native garden? Arrowleaf balsamroot, A. Hedrick 1 Section A How to Get Your Garden Started Some basic steps will help you in creating your garden. Your garden planning time will depend on the size of your garden and the number of interested individuals. A backyard garden can be easily planned and implemented within a few months. A community garden that serves many people may take up to one year of planning prior to installation. Basic Steps for a School or Community Garden 1. Form a team 2. Solicit input from staff, partners, or community 3. Create design 4. Present design to person approving garden 5. Develop schedule and coordinate with contractors or maintenance staff 6. Write grant proposals 7. Raise funds 8. After funding is awarded, refine plant list based on availability and order plants 9. Clear site of existing vegetation 10. Install hardscaping such as boulders and seating 11. Add topsoil if needed 12. Install irrigation 13. Plant 14. Protect plantings with temporary fencing 15. Install interpretive signs 16. Develop and implement garden maintenance plan Go team! Basic Steps for a Home Garden 1. Decide what your garden priorities are (water savings, pollinators, monarch butterflies, birds etc.). 2. Decide how much time you have to spend on a garden (little time = fewer plants that require less work). 3. Choose a design from this guide and adapt it to your space or create your own from the provided plant lists. 4. Figure out the cost of the garden. If you lack the funds, look for fall sales, grow plants from seed, or look for plant donations from fellow gardeners. 5. Clear the area to be planted. 6. Add compost and topsoil, if needed. 7. Install irrigation, if needed. 8. Plant. 9. Keep a planting plan. It helps with maintenance. 10. Mark your plants so you can tell the difference between what you planted and what is a weed. 11. Maintain your garden. 2 Forming a Team If you are planning a community garden you will want to have the support of a garden team. Ideally, you will have a team of people who bring different skills to your group. Formalizing the group in some way, either by giving it a name or working it into an organization program, will help build continuity of the project. Some examples of garden team memberships are listed. • Garden Coordinator—can be a parent or school staff but should definitely be a formal position on the Parent Teacher Association/Organization. They will organize the garden team to complete all the garden activities such as installation and periodic maintenance. • Principal—Your principal will need to be a strong advocate for the garden. They will often need to write support letters for some of the grants or sign off on grant applications. They are also critical as a communication pathway between your team and the rest of the school. • Maintenance Staff—They will be helpful in locating utility lines and irrigation options. They may be conducting some of the work. • Resource Professional—Such as a botanist or biologist. • Teachers and Students—Garden Clubs and Jr. Naturalist Programs are a great way to involve students and give the student body a voice in the garden design. Students at Roosevelt Elementary conduct pollinator counts on native plants in their outdoor classroom. 3 Gathering Input For school and community gardens, gathering input early in the process will foster ownership of the project and promote sustainability. The input you receive will help you tailor the project to the needs of the users of the garden. For example, a community may desire a neighborhood gathering place that could be created by including an open seating area with shade from the sun. An educator may have curriculum objectives that could be met by specific plantings. A sample school questionnaire is included below. —SCHOOL QUESTIONNAIRE— For Teachers • What curriculum topics would you like to teach in a hands-on outdoor nature setting? • How can you meet the needs of the curriculum topics in terms of types of plants or habitats? • Do you prefer on-the-ground seating, boulders, benches, or other options? • Would work tables be useful to you? Do you anticipate using a permanent type easel? • Any other concerns that we should be aware of when designing the garden? • Do your students have special needs that could be addressed in the garden for either access or use? For Students • What would you like to do in an outdoor classroom? • Draw or write what you would like to experience in the nature garden that will be part of our outdoor classroom. • Check activities that interest you: ___Quiet reading time ___Science experiments ___Observing Insects and pollinators ___Wildlife habitat 4 ___Learning recipes using wild native plants ___Identifying plants native to your backyard ___Nature drawing or arts/crafts ___Staging plays Section B Funding You can install a native garden for as little as $100 up to $25,000 and beyond depending on the size of the garden, the amount of labor you are willing to perform yourself, and your access to free materials such as plants, mulch, and tools. Knowing the potential components that you may want to include and the general costs will help you build a budget when writing grant proposals. Costs to consider in your budget: • Soil and rock mulch: $100-$4,000 • Boulders: $350 for 3-5 seat sized rocks • Labor for rock placing and spreading mulch: $1,000-$3,000 • Native plants: $0-$2,000 • Art and interpretive signs: $2,000 for single panel medium sign out of metal and acrylic • Equipment rental: $500-$750 • Irrigation materials: $1,300-$3,500 • Irrigation labor: varies by contractor • Tools (wheelbarrows, shovels, pruning shears,...) • Garden benches, bee boxes, bird bath, bird feeders: cost varies Outdoor amphitheater seating in Hawthorne Elementary’s garden, which doubles as a community gathering area and outdoor student orchestra space. 5 Grants Seek out free labor or material options (e.g., Eagle Scout projects, school PTO, volunteer parents, local garden clubs, master gardener projects, horticulture classes or contact big box stores for donations of materials/grant programs). BLM Master Funding Opportunities, Native Plant Conservation and Restoration Program www.blm.gov/services/financial-assistance-and-grants Boise Public Library Grants www.boisepubliclibrary.org/research-learning/nonprofit-funding-resources/ Boise Public Schools Education Foundation boiseschoolsfoundation.com/college-prep/other-scholarships/ Boise Urban Garden School Grants www.boiseurbangardenschool.org/ The Grants Learning Center www.grants.gov Idaho Botanical Garden Lunaria Grant idahobotanicalgarden.org/lunaria-grant-program/ Idaho Environmental Education Association Grants. www.idahoee.org/ee-educator-grants/ Idaho Native Plant Society; Education, Research, and Inventory Grant idahonativeplants.org/erig/Announcement_for_2016_ERIG.pdf Idaho Power Employee Community Fund www.idahopower.com/NewsCommunity/Community/empCommServFund.cfm Lowe’s Toolbox for Education www.toolboxforeducation.com Micron Community Grants www.micron.com/foundation/community/grants National Environmental Education Foundation Grants www.neefusa.org/grants National Fish and Wildlife Federation Grants www.nfwf.org/whatwedo/grants/Pages/home.aspx Project Learning Tree www.plt.org/resources/greenworks-grants/ The Cornell Lab. Youth and birds. www.allaboutbirds.org/help-fund-your-community-event-with-a-mini-grant-from-celebrate-urban-birds/ Vehicle Grants (e.g., Subaru, toyota, etc) www.subaru.com/csr/soa-foundation.html Wildones Seeds for Education Grant www.wildones.org/seeds-for-education/ 6 Section C Design Tips • Garden Design Gardens of any size or shape create habitat for wildlife and beautiful spaces for people to enjoy. They don’t have to be complicated or expensive. In this section, we present examples of small gardens to help you create a garden of your own, plus tips on design elements for a more polished effect. And remember, all of our garden designs can be scaled down if you are just a beginner and want to start small or they can be expanded if you have the experience and are ready for a larger garden. • The themed gardens in this section are just an inspirational starting point for you. Educational goals can be creatively worked into your garden design. Some schoolyard garden design ideas for early learners include: • an alphabet garden—use plants that begin with the letters of the alphabet and label them • a color garden—use plants of every color. • • • • • • • • • • • Start small! When learning how to garden, start with a small space and select just a few plants. You can always add to your garden later. Clearly delineate your garden with a border or maintained edge to demonstrate that it is a purposeful space. Place tall plants in the back of the garden if your space backs up to a building If your space is visible from both sides, place your tallest plants in the middle of the garden Use anchor species such as large shrubs or trees to create structure and year round interest and round out with seasonally flowering filler perennials. Plant a ground cover or low stature filler plant, or use a thick mulch to suppress weeds. Create depth by contouring the ground with berms and planting taller plants on mounds. Use multiples of plants in groups of 3s or 5s. For larger gardens, use mass plantings of a single species for impact and to suppress weeds. For public gardens, install an interpretive sign that clearly states the purpose of the garden. For school gardens, select plants with spring and fall blooms and plants with winter interest for when students are in school. For community gardens, add seating such as boulders and benches. Anticipate areas of high traffic where garden trampling could occur. Plant masses of rugged plants such as bunchgrasses that can withstand foot traffic or line with shrubs that will prevent entrance to the area. A table of native plants with their growth requirements and benefits is included in Section F. All of these plants are commercially available and perform well in garden settings. The Firewise Garden, Idaho Botanical Garden 7 Native Gardens in Southwest Idaho Public Perception 1. Roosevelt Elementary Outdoor Classroom 908 E. Jefferson St., Boise 83712 2. Hawthorne Elementary Outdoor Classroom 2401 W. Targhee Street, Boise 83705 3. BLM Ethnobotany Garden and Sage-grouse Habitat Demonstration Garden 5948 Development Way, Boise 83705 4. Lewis and Clark Garden, and Firewise Garden at the Idaho Botanical Garden 2355 Old Penitentiary Road, Boise 83712 5. MK Nature Center 600 S Walnut St, Boise 83712 6. Hewlett Packard Campus 11311 W. Chinden Blvd., Boise 83714 7. Chinden Garden Club Garden (Library) 6015 N. Glenwood St., Garden City 83714 8. Sage International Charter School 431 E Parkcenter Blvd., Boise 83706 9. Lowell Elementary School 1507 N 28th St, Boise 83703 10. Peace Valley Public Charter School 1845 S. Federal Way, Boise 83705 11. Boise Fire Station 12 3240 State Highway 21, Boise 83716 12. Lake Hazel Library 10489 W. Lake Hazel Road Road, Boise 83709 13. Suez Water 8248 W Victory Road, Boise 83709 14. Idaho Botanical Garden: Idaho Native Plant Garden, Lewis and Clark Native Plant Garden, Western Waterwise Garden, Firewise Garden and Water Conservation Landscape 2355 N. Old Penitentiary Rd, Boise, ID 83712 15. Liberty Elementary 1740 E. Bergeson St., Boise, ID 83706 Interpretive signs can go a long way to educate the public about your new garden. As with anything new, expect concerns when converting grass to a more natural appearing garden. • When looking for garden space in your community, convert unsightly, weedy areas to beautiful gardens. The community will be more accepting. • Interpretive sign clearly stating garden purpose that is visible to the public. • Clumps (mass) of plantings and structural elements such as walkways, boulders, benches, and art. • Well manicured edges to the garden. • Adequate anchor plants such as shrubs and trees. • Plants that flower throughout the seasons. • Plants that retain their shape. • Plants that don’t sucker or spread. • Use bee houses instead of piles of rock, wood, or leaves for winter insect habitat (page 23). 8 If gardens are in a public setting such as a school or community area the access will need to be Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant. Pathways should be at least 3 ft. wide and surfaced with material that a wheelchair can negotiate, such as pavement or packed crushed rock (decomposed granite). Roosevelt Elementary native garden with border delineated by rocks and maintained edges. Anchor Plants Anchor Plants Anchor Plants Sea s lly ona Flo ing wer Pe ni re n als BLM Boise District ethnobotany garden has seasonally-flowering perennials and anchor plants in the back. 9 Suez Water native garden with border delineated by rocks and maintained edges. Quail garden art in the Suez Water native garden. 10 Plant low-growing plants in front and tall plants in back. 11 Bird Habitat Garden Planting a garden that provides food and shelter will attract birds which, with their bright colors and beautiful songs, will enhance visitor enjoyment of the garden. Birds prefer dense shrubs as hiding places from which they venture out to find food. Most birds eat some combination of seeds, fruits and insects so a garden that provides a little of each is more likely to attract a variety of birds. Larger gardens with trees and art can also provide habitat for nesting and perches where birds will fill the air with song. Features of a bird habitat garden include: • plantings rich in berry producing shrubs • high diversity of seasonal plants with focus on Aster and Buckwheat families for seed eaters • plants such as fireweed and milkweed that support strong insect communities for insect eaters • range of heights of shrubs for nesting/roosting habitat BIRD HABITAT GARDEN SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME BLOOM TIME FLOWER / FOLIAGE COLOR PLANT HEIGHT GROUND COVER AND FILLER Acrtostaphylos uva-ursi Kinickinick Festuca idahoensis Idaho Fescue (Grass) Spring Pink Early Summer Green, Blue-green 6” 18” Gilia aggregata Heuchera cylindrica Pseudoroegneria spicata Scarlet Gilia Alumroot Bluebunch Wheatgrass Early Summer Red Early Summer White Early Summer Yellow 30” 12” FLOWERING PLANTS Asclepias speciosa Eriogonum compositum Eriogonum strictum Erigeron subtrinervis Eriogonum umbellatum Gaillardia aristata Hymenoxys acaulis Tetraneuris acaulis Showy Milkweed Arrowleaf Buckwheat Blue Mountain Buckwheat Threenerve Fleabane Sulfur Buckwheat Blanket Flower Orange Sneezeweed Sundancer Daisy Mid-Summer Early Summer Fall Summer-Fall Spring Mid-Summer Spring Mid-Summer Pale pink, white White-cream White flowers, silver foliage Purple Yellow Red-yellow Yellow-orange Yellow 48” 12” 12” 24”+ 12” 24” 30” 12” White Cream NA 60”+ 96”+ 20’+ TREE AND SHRUB STRUCTURE Spring Amalanchier alnifolia Western Serviceberry Cercocarpus ledifolius Curl-Leaf Mountain Mahogany Spring Juniperus sp. Juniper (Tree) Spring Krascheninnikovia lanata Winterfat Early Summer White, silver 30” Prunus virginiana* Rhus trilobata Sambucus nigra cerulea* Chokecherry Lemonade Bush Blue Elderberry 10’+ 36”+ 10’ Sorbus scopulina Symphoricarpos albus Mountain Ash Snowberry Spring White Spring Yellow Early Summer White flowers, purple/ black fruits Spring White Spring Pink * Very good for birds but requires annual pruning and shaping or will occupy a wide space. 12 13’ 48” 13 Scale: 1 inch = 5 feet This garden = 45’x30’ KK/AR SD/B Mo Blue Mountain Mahogany or Juniper = idaho fescue = bluebunch wheatgrass u KK/AR = kinnickinnic and/or alumroot SB = snowberry SD/B = sundancer daisy and/or blanketflower WF = winterfat ) Bu ckw hea t G a rd e n Ed g e Sulfur Buckwheat SB SB Blue Mou WF SB Shapes show planting areas with 3-5+ plants. Shrub shapes are single plants. Bird Habitat Garden Example SD/B r A r ro w l e a f ntain (o SB Threenerve Fleabane Showy Milkweed ntain (or Arrowlea WF SD/B heat WF f ) Buckw KK/AR Chokecherry or Lemonade Bush Bird Habitat Garden Blanket Flower Blue Mountain Buckwheat Sundancer Daisy Alumroot Snowberry Sulfur Buckwheat 14 Bird Habitat Garden Winterfat Threenerve Fleabane Arrowleaf Buckwheat Showy Milkweed Blue Elderberry Kinnikinnick 15 Bird Habitat Garden Juniper Mountain Ash Oakleaf Sumac Orange Sneezeweed Scarlet Gilia Serviceberry 16 Pollinator Habitat Garden Management for Pollinators: The whir of hummingbird wings and buzzing from bees is the sound of a vibrant pollinator garden. Gardening for pollinators provides beauty to the landscape and habitat for pollinators such as hummingbirds, bees, butterflies, moths, and beetles. A garden that includes a mix of colors, bloom times, and flower shapes will host a large diversity of pollinators that often have unique flower preferences. Often unnoticed, insect pollinators are our most abundant wildlife. They also support other creatures by providing food for birds andbats. Bees pollinate approximately 75 percent of the fruits, nuts, and vegetables in the United States and over 8o percent of flowering plants. Planting a garden for these small creatures can make a big difference to our environment. Features of a pollinator garden include: • plants with staggered blooming times to provide nectar and pollen from spring to fall • a diversity of flower types/shapes for different pollinators • day and evening flowering plants • plants that support both larval and adult phases of pollinating insects • provide nesting habitat such as bare soil areas and dormant plant stems over winter • • • • • • • Use a fine gravel mulch such as decomposed granite or leave some bare areas for groundnesting bees. Include logs and hollow stems for cavity nesting bees. Piles of rocks, leaf litter or logs will provide overwintering habitat or make a bee house for a cleaner look. Water in early morning when mother bees are home in the nest. Daytime watering can flood or obscure nest sites for bees who are out foraging, making it hard to locate their nests when they return. Do not use landscape fabric/barrier in the entire garden. It is impermeable to ground nesting insects. When pruning or thinning, leave 12-15 inch stubs of hollow stems for nesting bees. Following spring pruning of plants, leave cuttings of hollow-stemmed plants bundled on site. Color Preferences of Pollinators bees—blue, purple, white, yellow butterflies—red, orange, yellow, pink, purple moths—white, pale pinks, yellows Flower Shape Preferences of Pollinators long tubular flowers—hummingbirds, moths, butterflies, long-tongued bees disk flowers (daisy shaped)—bumblebees and butterflies bell shaped flowers—long tongued bees and bumblebees bowl flowers (buttercup shaped)—flies, beetles, honey bees and solitary bees pea shaped flowers— honey bees and solitary bees Skipper Butterfly, A. Hedrick 17 POLLINATOR HABITAT GARDEN SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME BLOOM TIME FLOWER / FOLIAGE COLOR PLANT HEIGHT GROUND COVER AND FILLER Antennaria microphylla Acrtostaphylos uva-ursi Cleome lutea* Cleome serrulata* Festuca idahoensis Dwarf Pussytoes Kinickinick Rocky Mountain Bee Plant Yellow Bee Plant Idaho Fescue (Grass) Early Summer Spring Summer Summer Early Summer Pink Pink Purple Yellow Green, Blue-green 5” 6” 48” 60” 18” Asclepias speciosus Showy Milkweed Mid-Summer Pale pink,white 48” Epilobium canum Hummingbird Trumpet Summer Red 8” Eriogonum heracleoides Wyeth Buckwheat Summer Cream 12” Eriophyllum lanatum Wooly Sunflower Summer Yellow 8” Eriogonum microthecum Slender Buckwheat Fall White-Pink 12” Eriogonum strictum Blue Mountain Buckwheat Fall White flowers, silver foliage 12” Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot Summer Purple 24”+ Oenothera caespitosa Tufted Evening Primrose Summer White 6” Penstemon procerus Little Flower Penstemon Spring Purple 12” Sphaeralcea munroana Munro’s Globemallow Summer Orange 24” Spring Summer Fall White White Yellow 60”+ 72” 24”+ Summer Purple 36” FLOWERING PLANTS TREE AND SHRUB STRUCTURE Amelanchier alnifolia Serviceberry Chamaebatiaria millefolium Fernbush Ericameria nauseosus Rubber Rabbitbrush Use a dwarf variety Salvia dorrii Purple Sage *Annual that may be an initial and temporary plant in the garden. Can scatter seed during first year to provide quick impact. Calliope male hummingbird, A. Hedrick 18 19 DP LFP Scale: 1 inch = 5 feet This garden = 45’x30’ WB Rabbitbrush WBW DP DP Rock Wool DP G a rd e n Ed g e DP HT DP Rock Globemallow Rock Bench lower y Sunf SM SM Rocky Mountain or Yellow Bee Plant WB Rabbitbrush DP Shapes show planting areas with 3-5+ plants. Shrub shapes are single plants. Pollinator Habitat Garden Example DP WB Serviceberry = bluebunch wheatgrass HT = hummingbird trumpet DP = dwarf pussytoes LFP = littleflower penstamon SM = showy milkweed WB = wild bergamont WBW = wyeth buckwheat = idaho fescue Su Wool nfl y o w er DP LFP Purple Sage DP DP Rabbitbrush Fernbush Hoary Aster Pollinator Habitat Garden Bluebunch Wheatgrass Littleflower Penstemon Idaho Fescue Rosy Pussytoes Wyeth Buckwheat Fernbush 20 Pollinator Habitat Garden Showy Milkweed Blue Mountain Buckwheat Globemallow Purple Sage Serviceberry Wild Bergamot 21 Pollinator Habitat Garden Hummingbird Trumpet Kinnikinnick Rabbitbrush Rocky Mountain Bee Plant Wooly Daisy Tufted Evening Primrose 22 Mason Bee To create a bee house for leaf cutter or mason bees, drill holes in a log or nontreated piece of wood that is at least 6 inches deep. Drill holes can vary in size between 5/16 and 3/8 inch in diameter. Drill 3-5 inches deep for small diamter holes and 5+ inches deep for larger diameter holes. Do not drill all the way through the wood. Hang in sunny spot at eye level so you can watch the activity! Bee House and Bee Box at Sage International School Butterfly on buckwheat 23 Monarch Butterfly Garden The monarch butterfly is a beautiful orange and black butterfly that is found throughout the United States. They are known best for their long-distance migrations to either Mexico or California to overwinter. The western population of monarchs (those west of the Rocky Mountains) overwinter in California and breed in the western states. The Snake River Plain of Idaho is one of the best breeding areas for monarch butterflies in the West. The western population of monarchs has declined dramatically in the past couple of decades likely due to loss of habitat and pesticides. You can help monarchs by planting a garden with specific features: • Milkweed for caterpillars—the only plant adults will lay their eggs on and the only plant the caterpillars will eat. • Nectar plants for adults with overlapping bloom times from late May to mid October. Monarch butterfly on Showy Milkweed. 24 • • • • Flower colors that attract butterflies—red, orange, yellow, pink, purple. Plantings grouped by color to create a large visual target that can be easily spotted by highflying monarchs Puddling habitat (water and minerals) in the form of damp areas of soil or a shallow dish filled with water and pebbles. No pesticides—herbicides and insecticides. Once milkweed is established, check the underside of leaves for eggs or for caterpillars. The eggs and first phase of the caterpillar are tiny, so look carefully! Once the caterpillar reaches full size, it will form a chrysalis and emerge as a butterfly approximately 10 days later. Milkweed takes two years to bloom if it is grown from seed. MONARCH BUTTERFLY GARDEN SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME BLOOM TIME FLOWER / FOLIAGE COLOR PLANT HEIGHT GROUND COVER AND FILLER Antennaria microphylla Dwarf Pussytoes Early Summer Pink Cleome serrulata* Rocky Mountain Bee Plant Summer Purple 5” 48” FLOWERING PLANTS Asclepias speciosus** Showy Milkweed Mid-Summer Pale pink,white 4 ft Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed Mid-Summer Dark to pale pink 4 ft Asclepias fascicularis** Narrow-Leafed Milkweed Mid-Summer Pale pink 3 ft Erigeron speciosus Showy Fleabane Summer Purple 2 ft Eriogonum compositum Arrowleaf Buckwheat Summer Yellow 1.5 ft Eriogonum microthecum Slender Buckwheat Fall White-Pink 1 ft Eriophyllum lanatum Wooly Sunflower Summer Yellow 1-2 ft Gaillardia aristata Blanketflower Summer Red/yellow 2 ft Helianthus annuus Common Sunflower Summer Yellow 5 ft Heliomeris multiflora Showy Goldeneye Summer Yellow 1 ft Hymenoxys hoopesii Owl’s-Claws Summer-Fall Yellow 2 ft Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot Summer Purple 2+ ft Monardella odoratissima Coyote Mint Summer White/pink 1 ft Sphaeralcea Globemallow Summer Orange 2 ft Solidago canadensis Canada Goldenrod Late summer/fall Yellow 5 ft SHRUB STRUCTURE Ericameria nauseosus Salvia dorrii Rubber Rabbitbrush Purple Sage Fall Summer Yellow Purple 24”+ 36” *Annual likely to reseed. ** Spreads once established Monarch butterfly on Tapertip Hawksbeard Showy Goldeneye 25 Goldenrod etflo wer Purple Sage Rabbitbrush Blank Wild Bergamot Showy Fleabane Blanketflower Sunflowers Showy Milkweed Wild Bergamot Showy Fleabane Blanketflower Showy Goldeneye Arrowleaf Buckwheat G a rd e n Ed g e Shapes show planting areas with 3-5+ plants. Shrub shapes are single plants. Monarch Butterfly Garden Example Goldenrod ower Rabbitbrush Purple Sage B l a n ke tfl 26 Monarch Butterfly Habitat Garden Showy Milkweed Showy Fleabane Blanket Flower Arrowleaf Buckwheat Showy Goldeneye Rabbitbrush 27 Monarch Butterfly Habitat Garden Owls Claws Canada Goldenrod Common Sunflower Purple Sage Coyote Mint Dwarf Pussytoes 28 Monarch Butterfly Habitat Garden Narrow-leaf Milkweed Swamp Milkweed Globemallow Rocky Mountain Bee Plant Slender Buckwheat Wild Bergamot 29 Sensory Garden Awaken your senses with the tart taste of golden currants and the sweet smell of bitterbrush in a sensory garden full of native plants. Gardens can promote learning and memory through sensory stimulation, especially through scented plants such as coyote mint and sagebrush. Creating a physical connection with a garden engages us and draws our attention more fully to the present. When all of our senses are activated, our brain function increases dramatically. This can be an effective tool if you are hosting educational events in your garden. Coyote Mint 30 Features of a sensory garden: • Plants that are hardy to withstand regular handling • A range of contrasting textures and shapes for visual interest • Low-growing plants that are in reach of young explorers • Features such as natural-material wind chimes, art, and rocks with interesting surfaces SENSORY GARDEN SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME BLOOM TIME FLOWER / FOLIAGE COLOR PLANT HEIGHT GROUND COVER AND FILLER Hesperostipa comata Needle and thread grass Spring Green 2 ft Achnatherum hymenoides Indian ricegrass Spring Green 1 – 2 ft Monardella odoratissima Coyote mint Spring - Summer Purple 1 ft. Geum triflorum Prairie smoke Summer Rose-red 1 ft Salvia dorrii Purple sage Spring - Summer Blue - Purple 2 -3 ft Geranium viscossimum Sticky geranium Spring - Summer Pink 2 ft Mentzelia laevicaulis Smoothstem blazingstar Summer Yellow 1 – 3 ft Asclepias fascicularis Narrow-leafed milkweed Summer Pink, White, Purple 2 – 3 ft Oenothera caespitosa Tufted evening primrose Spring - Summer White 6 in FLOWERING PLANTS TREE AND SHRUB ANCHOR PLANTS Cercocarpus ledifolius Curl-leaf mountain mahogany Spring Yellow 10 – 15 ft Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana Mountain big sagebrush Fall Yellow 6 ft Purshia tridentata Bitterbrush Spring Yellow 4-6 ft Ribes aureum Golden currant Spring Yellow 5 ft SENSES SCENT TOUCH VISUAL Coyote mint (leaves) Smoothstem blazingstar (Velcro-like leaves) Prairie smoke (seed heads with feathery plumes) Sagebrush (leaves) Sticky geranium (sticky leaves that trap and partially digest insects) Needle and thread grass (shiny seeds with long tails that blow in wind) Bitterbrush (flowers and leaves) Needle and thread grass (sharp tipped seed head with long tail that curls when moist) Smoothstem blazingstar (large yellow star shaped flowers) Evening primrose (flowers) Curl-leaf mountain mahogany (feathery seed plumes and thick leathery leaves) Sticky geranium (bright pink flowers with nectary guides on petals) TASTE Golden currant (tart ed