Coeur d'Alene Lake

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Lake Coeur d'Alene is a natural dam-controlled lake in North Idaho, located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. At its northern end is the city of Coeur d'Alene. It spans 25 miles (40 km) in length and ranges from 1 to 3 miles (5 km) wide with over 109 miles (175 km) of shoreline. The sparkling waters of Lake Coeurd'Alene, considered one of the most beautiful lakes in the world, offer many different kinds of outdoor recreational activities year-round in a setting of exceptional scenic beauty.

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Rare Plants of Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Rare Plants of Idaho

Rare Plants of Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Native Garden Guide for Southestern Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Native Garden Guide

Native Garden Guide for Southestern Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Plants of the Boise Foothills

A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Coeur d'Alene Lake https://www.blm.gov/visit/search-details/1768/2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Coeur_d'Alene Lake Coeur d'Alene is a natural dam-controlled lake in North Idaho, located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. At its northern end is the city of Coeur d'Alene. It spans 25 miles (40 km) in length and ranges from 1 to 3 miles (5 km) wide with over 109 miles (175 km) of shoreline. The sparkling waters of Lake Coeurd'Alene, considered one of the most beautiful lakes in the world, offer many different kinds of outdoor recreational activities year-round in a setting of exceptional scenic beauty.
U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management | Idaho Rare Plants of Idaho Front cover: Astragalus amnis-amissi, flowers, Lynn Kinter (IDNHP) U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management | Idaho Rare Plants of Idaho Idaho State Office 1387 S. Vinnell Way Boise, ID 83709 Written by Michael Mancuso, Anne Halford and Karen Colson March 21, 2019 Copies available from the BLM Idaho State Office BLM DISTRICT AND FIELD OFFICES IN IDAHO SCALE: 0 50 100 miles LEGEND DISTRICT BOUNDARY DISTRICT OFFICE LOCATION with colocated field office Coeur d'Alene Field Office Field Office Boundary Field Office Location Washington Public Land: BLM-Administered NORTH COEUR D’ALENE DISTRICT Cottonwood Field Office M on ta na Salmon Field Office Challis Field Office IDAHO FALLS DISTRICT Upper Snake Field Office BOISE DISTRICT Owyhee Field Office ii Shoshone Field Office TWIN FALLS DISTRICT Bruneau Field Office Nevada Wyoming Oregon Four Rivers Field Office Jarbidge Field Office Pocatello Field Office Burley Field Office Utah CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION Idaho Distribution Maps Taxonomy Conservation Category and Rank Definitions Glossary of Acronyms Used in the Field Guide 5 BLM DISTRICT AND FIELD OFFICE SPECIES GUIDE 9 13 17 21 25 31 35 41 45 49 53 57 63 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 99 105 109 115 119 123 SPECIAL STATUS PLANT SPECIES Abronia mellifera var. pahoveorum Allium aaseae Astragalus ambyltropis Astragalus amnis-ammissi Astragalus anserinus Astragalus aquilonius Astragalus asotinensis Astragalus atratus var. inceptus Astragalus jejunus var. jejunus Astragalus mulfordiae Astragalus oniciformis Astragalus packardiae Astragalus sterilis Calamagrostis tweedyi Carex aboriginum Carex idahoa Castilleja christii Chaenactis cusickii Eriogonum capistratum var. welshii Howellia aquatilis Lepidium papilliferum Mentzelia mollis Mirabilis macfarlanei Monardella angustifolia Oenothera psammophila Oxytropis besseyi var. salmonensis iii 127 137 141 145 151 157 163 167 Phacelia inconspicua Pinus albicaulis Polemonium elusum Silene spaldingii Spiranthes diluvialis Stanleya confertiflora Thelypodium repandum Trifolium owyheense 170 180 182 ASSOCIATED SPECIES LIST ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND REFERENCES ILLUSTRATIONS iv INTRODUCTION Idaho Bureau of Land Management (BLM) staff need information about Special Status Plant Species to assist with field surveys, setting data collection priorities, making conservation management decisions, and assessing conservation actions. To meet this need, the Idaho BLM State Office has initiated a project to produce an on-line field guide to Idaho BLM Special Status Plant Species. The purpose of this webbased field guide is to help users recognize and identify Special Status Plant Species in the field. The first installment includes 35 Special Status Plant Species. Additional taxa are planned for the future. The guide provides one-stop access to general description, field identification tips, and similar-looking species summaries, as well as basic taxonomic, conservation status, distribution, habitat, and phenology information. The field guide also includes an Idaho distribution map and color images for each species. The field guide is intended to assist agency, academic, consultant, and other biologists charged with conducting field surveys or other conservation-related work for Special Status Plant Species in Idaho. The field guide can also serve members of the public and citizen scientists interested in learning more about Idaho BLM Special Status Plants Species. The guide’s digital, on-line format allows for ready down-loading of hard copies that can be taken into the field or shared with colleagues. Making the guide available in a digital format will enable the species account information to reach a wider audience and be available more quickly compared to print media. The digital format also makes it easier to add more species accounts in the future and to update information about the species already in the guide in a more timely and inexpensive manner. Idaho Distribution Maps Idaho distribution maps in the field guide are based on Element Occurrence locations for each species in the Idaho Fish and Wildlife Information System database (Idaho Department Fish and Game 2018). Distributions are mapped at the Township scale; each Township depicted on the map contains one or more Element Occurrence locations. Occupied Townships are shaded red on the distribution maps. 1 Taxonomy Scientific plant names in the field guide follows the Flora of the Pacific Northwest, 2nd Edition (Hitchcock and Cronquist 2018). Nomenclature for species not included in this book follows the Intermountain Flora (Cronquist et al. 1972, Cronquist et al. 1977, Cronquist et al. 1984, Cronquist 1994, Barneby 1989, Cronquist et al. 1997, Holmgren et al. 2005, Holmgren et al. 2012). Conservation Category and Rank Definitions The field guide includes BLM conservation category and NatureSe
U.S. Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho NATIVE GARDENS FOR IDAHO PARTNERSHIP Boise School District Bureau of Land Management (BLM) City of Boise College of Western Idaho Garden City Garden Club Golden Eagle Audubon Society Idaho Department of Fish and Game Mancuso Botanical Services Steppe Environmental U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) West Ada School District WRITTEN BY Holly Hovis, BLM Kristin Lohr, USFWS CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS Anne Halford, BLM Chris Taylor, Boise School District Dave Hopper, USFWS Dusty Perkins, College of Western Idaho Judy Snow, Garden City Garden Club Karen Colson, USFWS Kristin Gnojewski, City of Boise, Parks and Recreation Lynell Sutter, Steppe Environmental Micah Lauer, West Ada School Distsrict Michael Mancuso, Mancuso Botanical Services Sean Finn, Golden Eagle Audubon Society DESIGN Antonia Hedrick, BLM AUGUST 2019 U.S. Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho IDAHO STATE OFFICE 1387 S. Vinnell Way Boise, ID 83709 208-373-4000 Blank Page or good place for Photo Monarch on showy milkweed, A. Hedrick Table of Contents Native Garden Guide 1 INTRODUCTION 2 SECTION A How to Get Started Forming a Team 5 SECTION B Funding and Grants 7 SECTION C Garden Design Design Tips Native Gardens in Southwest Idaho Public Perception Bird Habitat Garden Pollinator Habitat Garden Monarch Garden Sensory Garden Outreach 39 SECTION D Implementation Calculations Site Preparation Material Resources 47 SECTION E Maintenance Maintenance Schedule Maintenance Plan Example 52 SECTION F Master Plant List back cover RESOURCES Sage International Charter School Garden Introduction Welcome to the Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho. This guide was created to help novice gardeners create waterwise, wildlifefriendly gardens using plants suitable for southwest Idaho. The information in this guide will assist backyard gardeners, urban planners, schools, and businesses transform their landscapes into native gardens. All plants listed in this guide are native to Idaho or to adjacent states with the same growing conditions. The purpose of this guide is to: • provide steps for developing and maintaining native gardens • provide examples of garden designs • provide lists of locally adapted native plants • aid in conserving water and attracting birds and pollinators • identify partners, local resources and funding opportunities Why Native Plants? Urban gardens can provide important habitat for animals such as birds and native pollinators (bees, butterflies, moths, hummingbirds). These gardens can be used for nesting, foraging, shelter, and as stopovers during spring and fall migration. Native plants are adapted to the growing conditions in our area, thus requiring less water than introduced plants. They also support more insects, including native pollinators, than nonnative plants. This means more habitat for native bees and more food for insecteating birds! Who needs a bird feeder when you have a native garden? Arrowleaf balsamroot, A. Hedrick 1 Section A How to Get Your Garden Started Some basic steps will help you in creating your garden. Your garden planning time will depend on the size of your garden and the number of interested individuals. A backyard garden can be easily planned and implemented within a few months. A community garden that serves many people may take up to one year of planning prior to installation. Basic Steps for a School or Community Garden 1. Form a team 2. Solicit input from staff, partners, or community 3. Create design 4. Present design to person approving garden 5. Develop schedule and coordinate with contractors or maintenance staff 6. Write grant proposals 7. Raise funds 8. After funding is awarded, refine plant list based on availability and order plants 9. Clear site of existing vegetation 10. Install hardscaping such as boulders and seating 11. Add topsoil if needed 12. Install irrigation 13. Plant 14. Protect plantings with temporary fencing 15. Install interpretive signs 16. Develop and implement garden maintenance plan Go team! Basic Steps for a Home Garden 1. Decide what your garden priorities are (water savings, pollinators, monarch butterflies, birds etc.). 2. Decide how much time you have to spend on a garden (little time = fewer plants that require less work). 3. Choose a design from this guide and adapt it to your space or create your own from the provided plant lists. 4. Figure out the cost of the garden. If you lack the funds, look for fall sales, grow plants from seed, or look for plant donations from fellow gardeners. 5. Clear the area to be planted. 6. Add compost and topsoil, if needed. 7. Install irrigation, if needed. 8. Plant. 9. Keep a planting plan. It helps with maintenance. 10. Mark your plants so you can tell the difference between what you p
A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills i ii Acknowledgements This field guide evolved through discussions of its need and usefulness with members of the Healthy Hills Initiative. It quickly developed into a group effort. Special thanks go to the following entities: Ada Soil and Water Conservation District www.AdaSWCD.org Healthy Hills Initiative www.HealthyHills.org Southwest Idaho Resource Conservation and Development Council www.IdahoRCD.org Boise State University www.BoiseState.edu Bureau of Land Management: Idaho State Office www.blm.gov/id/st/en.html Cover and title page photo generously donated by Michael Lanza, The Big Outside. www.TheBigOutside.com The authors of this field guide would like to thank the following people for kindly offering their professional advice: Nancy Cole, Antonia Hedrick, Scott Koberg, Bill Moore, Nancy Shaw, Roger Rosentreter, and Brett VanPaepeghem. Thanks to following people who contributed outstanding plant photographs: Matt Fisk, Matt Lavin, Ian Robertson, and Clinton Shock. iii A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills Jamie Utz Michael Pellant Jessica Gardetto Edited by Corey Gucker First edition, 2013 iv Contents Introduction to the foothills ............. 6 - 9 How to use this field guide ….………..… 10 Key to symbols ……………...……………….… 11 Plant profiles …………....…………..… 12 - 159 Shrubs/Trees …….………….… 12 - 23 Forbs ……….………………….… 24 - 121 Grasses ……………………….. 122 - 159 Glossary …………………….………….. 160 - 162 References ……………….………...…. 163 - 164 Index ......................................... 165 - 169 by common name........... 165 - 167 by scientific name........... 168 - 169 5 Introduction to the Boise Foothills Location The foothills north of Boise, Garden City, and Eagle make a beautiful backdrop for the urban areas below. This ecosystem provides city residents unparalleled recreational opportunities, serves as important wildlife habitat, provides clean water to residents, and supports the local economy. The foothills are also home to a wide variety of plants that have important ecological and economic roles. Native plants have naturally evolved with and adapted to the local foothills climate and soils. Nonnative plants are species that were introduced (accidentally or purposefully) to the foothills ecosystem. Both types of plants are important to understanding and appreciating the foothills. This guide provides the user with a tool to identify some of the more common native and nonnative plants found in the lower portion of the Boise Foothills (Figure 1). 55 21 16 44 20 26 84 Figure 1. The blue line on the map above indicates a general boundary that was used to select the plants featured in this field guide. 6 Environment Vegetation in the foothills is a product of the soils, slope, aspect, elevation, and the local climate. Soils are important because their texture, depth, nutrients, and other characteristics govern the types of plants found in this ecosystem. Additionally, aspect (i.e. the direction the slope of a hill faces), elevation, and precipitation are all factors that influence the presence and proportions of foothills plants. Disturbances such as wildfires and off-road vehicle or off-trail use can negatively affect this environment by reducing native plants and encouraging the entry or increase of nonnative invasive plants. Native Plants Plants native to the foothills evolved to withstand hot and dry summers, cold winters, periodic droughts, and infrequent wildfires. A healthy native foothills plant community is dominated by big sagebrush and bitterbrush with a diverse understory of grasses, forbs (wildflowers), lichens, and mosses (Figure 2). Foothills plant communities also contain several rare native plants, which are sparsely distributed and adapted to unique habitats. Figure 2. A healthy foothills plant community is a diverse mixture of shrubs, forbs, and grasses. Healthy native plant communities are resilient to natural disturbances and provide good watershed protection and wildlife habitat. 7 Nonnative Plants Most of the nonnative plants found in the Boise Foothills are of European or Asian origin. Some nonnative plants have desirable characteristics and were purposefully planted to meet land management objectives. However, other undesirable nonnative invasive plants have spread accidentally into the foothills, causing ecological and economic damage. These invasive plants compete with native plants for space, water, and nutrients. Several invasive grasses, exemplified by cheatgrass (Figure 3), increase the frequency and size of wildfires in the foothills, threatening homes and intact native plant communities. The negative impacts of some invasive plants are so severe that they are assigned the classification of noxious weed. A noxious weed is designated by the state of Idaho as any plant having the potential to cause injury to public health, livestock, crops, or other land or property. Figure 3. This photo shows cheatgra

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