Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey

National Conservation Area - Idaho

The Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) has one of the densest populations of nesting raptors. More than 700 pairs of raptors, representing 15 different species, nest on the high canyon walls. Nine additional raptor species use the Snake River area as seasonal hunting grounds during migrations or as wintering areas. Birds of Prey NCA is particularly important for prairie falcons, North America's only indigenous falcon. The area is home to a significant portion of the species' known population. Visitors to the Snake River area can explore the house-size boulders, box canyons, and other evidence left behind by the tremendous flood about 14,000 years ago. At Swan Falls (now Swan Falls Dam), peak discharge of the flood was an astounding 33 million cubic feet/second.

maps

Map of the Wilson Creek Trail System near Murphy in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Wilson Creek - Trail Map

Map of the Wilson Creek Trail System near Murphy in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Map of the Central part of the BLM Boise District in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Boise - District Map Central 100K

Map of the Central part of the BLM Boise District in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Map of the Southern part of the BLM Boise District in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Boise - District Map South 100K

Map of the Southern part of the BLM Boise District in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

brochures

Visitor Guide to Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey - Visitor Guide

Visitor Guide to Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Brochure of Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey - Brochure

Brochure of Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Where are the Birds brochure of Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey - Where are the Birds?

Where are the Birds brochure of Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Raptor Identification Guide for Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey - Raptor Identification Guide

Raptor Identification Guide for Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Guide to Raptors at Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey - Raptors Guide

Guide to Raptors at Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

More about Raptors of Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey - More about Raptors

More about Raptors of Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Field Trip Guide for Swan Falls Road at Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey - Swan Falls Road Guide

Field Trip Guide for Swan Falls Road at Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Owls Coloring Book for Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Junior Explorers - Owls

Owls Coloring Book for Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Raptors Coloring Book for Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Junior Explorers - Raptors

Raptors Coloring Book for Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Raptor Quest Activity Book of Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Junior Explorers - Raptor Quest Activity Book

Raptor Quest Activity Book of Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Rare Plants of Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Rare Plants of Idaho

Rare Plants of Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Native Garden Guide for Southestern Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Native Garden Guide

Native Garden Guide for Southestern Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Plants of the Boise Foothills

A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey NCA https://www.blm.gov/programs/national-conservation-lands/idaho/morley-nelson-snake-river-birds-of-prey https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morley_Nelson_Snake_River_Birds_of_Prey_National_Conservation_Area The Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) has one of the densest populations of nesting raptors. More than 700 pairs of raptors, representing 15 different species, nest on the high canyon walls. Nine additional raptor species use the Snake River area as seasonal hunting grounds during migrations or as wintering areas. Birds of Prey NCA is particularly important for prairie falcons, North America's only indigenous falcon. The area is home to a significant portion of the species' known population. Visitors to the Snake River area can explore the house-size boulders, box canyons, and other evidence left behind by the tremendous flood about 14,000 years ago. At Swan Falls (now Swan Falls Dam), peak discharge of the flood was an astounding 33 million cubic feet/second.
Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area VISITOR GUIDE Access Map Cole Road Exit 44 Cloverdale Road 7 miles Meridian Road Nampa Go wa nR oa d Hollilynn Dr. World Center for Birds of Prey NCA Boundary Melba Baseline Rd. Hill Road CanAda Rd. Melba Rd. McDermott Rd. Rd er nk Si Initial Point North ACCESS MAP to the western portion Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Rd. . Warren Spur Swan Falls Road Nicholson Rd. 78 Kuna-Mora Rd. Poen Rd. Dickman Rd. Ferry Rd Kuna Rd. Kuna Cave Rd. Melmont Road Walter's Ferry Boat Ramp Cole Road Kuna Visitor Center Robinson Road Southside Boulevard 45 Kuna 3 miles 12th Avenue Road Ten Mile Creek Rd. Kuna Road Pleasant Valley Road I-84 Broadway Ave Boise Meridian Victory Lane Victory Lane access routes Celebration Park Guffey Butte sin R d. Dedication Point gravel/dirt road Ba NCA Boundary She a n Co Swan Falls Dam There are no services in the NCA but its surrounding towns such as Kuna are a good place to purchase gasoline and supplies. I-84 Exit 44 to Kuna—8 miles Kuna to Dedication Point—16 miles Kuna to Swan Falls Dam—21 miles Kuna to Celebration Park—20 miles Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area VISITOR GUIDE Access Map (opposite page) Table of Contents Overview Map Welcome..................................................................................................... 1 Morley Nelson............................................................................................ 2 A Place Like No Other............................................................................... 5 Observing Raptors...................................................................................... 7 Raptor Season Charts..................................................................................8 Frequently-Observed Raptors..................................................................... 10 If you find an injured raptor........................................................................ 14 The Peregrine Fund..................................................................................... 16 East NCA Map........................................................................................... 18 Watchable Wildlife Sites............................................................................ 20 Recreation Opportunities............................................................................ 24 Driving Loop Tour...................................................................................... 28 Wildland Fire.............................................................................................. 34 Regulations and Safety................................................................................ 35 Information................................................................................................. 36 Cover: Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) / ©Rob Palmer Above: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) / ©John Tobin Ple asa nt Val ley Roa d e Walter’s Ferry Celebration Park is MELBA Bo MARSING to Swa n Fal ls Roa d KUNA Initial Point National Guard Orchard Training Area Dedication Point Swan Falls Dam MURPHY A R T I L L E RY I M PA C T A R E Halverson Bar Sn NO PUBLIC ak e ACCESS Ri ve r NORTH MAP SCALE 0 3 6 miles LOCATION MAP Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey Idaho National Conservation Area in the BLM Boise District, Idaho Ted Trueblood Wildlife Area GRANDVIEW Interstate Highway Major Road River LAND STATUS BLM ORCHARD NCA Boundary Military Private State Idaho Power Company Idaho National Guard Training Range Restricted Access C OVERVIEW MAP EA Point of Interest Simco Road Y MAP LEGEND MOUNTAIN HOME Mountain Home Air Force Base Snake W River HAMMETT BRUNEAU B ru ne au Cove Recreation Site on C.J. Strike Reservoir Riv Bruneau Sand Dunes State Park er Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus) Photo: ©Rob Palmer Welcome Crags and crevices, the deep canyon of the Snake River, thermal updrafts, and a broad plateau rich in small wildlife provide habitat for the greatest concentration of nesting birds of prey in North America – and perhaps, the world. The Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) was established by Congress in 1993 to recognize and perpetuate the area’s wildlife values. In March 2009, the Omnibus Public Lands Management Act was signed into law. Among other things, this law recognized Morley Nelson as a long-time advocate for birds of prey and the NCA by adding his name to the area’s name. It is now the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. The NCA is managed by the Department of Interior’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The BLM’s mission is to preserve this remarkable wildlife habitat while providing for other compatible uses of the land. Our aim is to manage the area so that birds of prey flourish here, as
SoarOver brochure.indd 1 Photography: Rough-legged Hawk, ©Rob Palmer For more information: Bureau of Land Management Boise District Office 3948 Development Av. Boise ID 83705 208-384-3300 A full color Visitor’s Guide is available at Bureau of Land Management offices in Boise. Visit our website: http://www.blm.gov/id/st/en/prog/ blm_special_areas/birds_of_prey_nca/ SRBOP-gateway.html Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Over 700 pairs, representing 16 raptor species, return here each spring to mate and raise their young. Although raptors are unusually abundant in the NCA, they are solitary animals and can be difficult to observe. Visitors with patience and time are often rewarded with nature’s high flying display. SOAR ON OVER The largest concentration of nesting birds of prey in North America, and perhaps the world, occurs in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA). The steep, craggy cliffs of the Snake River canyon, thermal updrafts, and a broad plateau rich in ground squirrels and jackrabbits make this a place like no other for raptors. ...for a high-flying display 3/21/2012 2:11:22 PM Cloverdale Road Meridian Road Nampa Go wa nR oa d Hollilynn Dr. World Center for Birds of Prey Ten Mile Creek Rd. Kuna Visitor Center Robinson Road Southside Boulevard 45 Kuna Poen Rd. Baseline Rd. Hill Road CanAda Rd. Melba Rd. McDermott Rd. Rd er Si nk Initial Point North ACCESS MAP to the western portion Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Rd. . Warren Spur Swan Falls Road Melba Victory Lane Victory Lane access routes Celebration Park Guffey Butte sin R d. Dedication Point gravel/dirt road Ba NCA Boundary She a 78 Kuna-Mora Rd. Kuna Cave Rd. Nicholson Rd. Ferry Rd Kuna Rd. NCA Boundary Dickman Rd. Walter's Ferry Boat Ramp Cole Road 12th Avenue Road Kuna Road Melmont Road Remember • Carry plenty of water • Fill your gas tank before entering the NCA • Stay on established roads and trails • Observe and follow shooting regulations • Use only improved campsites with fire rings for open campfires • Pack out everything you pack in Cole Road Exit 44 Broadway Ave I-84 Wildlife Viewing Tips • Carry binoculars • Observe wildlife from a distance • View raptors during spring when they’re more abundant • View wildlife during the early mornings and late afternoons Other Recreational Opportunities • Hiking • Horseback riding • Fishing • Boating • Camping Boise Meridian Pleasant Valley Road The Loop Tour Allow 3 to 4 hours to follow the highlighted loop tour to these popular destinations: • Initial Point—Idaho’s geographic survey reference point • Dedication Point—an impressive view of the Snake River Canyon • Swan Falls Dam—picnic area and historic dam • Celebration Park—fascinating archaeological and cultural history n Co Swan Falls Dam Photography: Osprey, ©John Tobin SoarOver brochure.indd 2 BLM/ID/GI-12/002+1220 3/21/2012 2:11:23 PM
Where Are the Birds? Twenty-four raptor species spend all or part of the year in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. Species JAN. FEB. MAR. Breeding Raptors MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. American Kestrel Can be seen in the NCA year-round Golden Eagle Can be seen in the NCA year-round Ferruginous Small number in NCA through the winter Hawk Migrating Osprey Prairie Falcon Turkey Vulture Central & South America Migrating Central and South America Migrating Southwest U.S. Can be seen in the NCA year-round SW U.S. & Mexico National Conservation Area Migrating Argentina Migrating National Conservation Area Migrating Argentina Migrating Southwest U.S. and Mexico Migrating Southwest U.S. and Mexico Can be seen in the NCA year-round SW U.S. & Mexico Migrating National Conservation Area Can be seen in the NCA year-round Long-eared Owl National Conservation Area Migrating Higher Elevations Migrating National Conservation Area Migrating Can be seen in the NCA year-round Western Screech Owl Can be seen in the NCA year-round JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. National Conservation Area Cooper's Hawk National Conservation Area Gyrfalcon Possibly in National Conservation Area Migrating Merlin National Conservation Area Migrating Northern Goshawk National Conservation Area Migrating Peregrine Falcon Southwest U.S. & Northern Mexico Migrating MAY JUN. Migrating National Conservation Area Currently Unknown - Possibly Southwest U.S. (Arizona) Short-eared Owl Bald Eagle DEC. NOV. Small number in the NCA through the winter Moves to Higher Elevation Prairies National Conservation Area Great Horned Owl Species OCT. Migrating National Conservation Area Migrating Barn Owl Burrowing Owl SEPT. Can be seen in the NCA year-round Red-tailed Hawk Swainson's Hawk Migrating National Conservation Area Northern Harrier N. Sawwhet Owl Migrating Raptors APR. JUL. AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. Central and Northern Idaho & other regions further north Higher elevation areas in Idaho Migrating Arctic regions of Canada and Alaska Canada and Alaska Central Idaho Mountains/Forests Historically used the National Conservation Area Rough-legNational Conservation Area ged Hawk Sharp-shin- National Conservation Migrating ned Hawk Area In the NCA Migrating Migrating Possibly in National Conservation Area Migrating National Conservation Area Migrating Arctic regions of Canada and Alaska Higher elevations in Idaho Migrating Migrating Higher elevation plains National Conservation Area Migrating Migrating National Conservation Area Southwest U.S. & Northern Mexico National Conservation Area National Conservation Area Not in the NCA U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT B u re a u o f L a n d Ma n a g e me n t - Idaho
These are ten of the most frequently seen raptors in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA). For positive identification, consult a commercially available bird field book. For additional information about the NCA contact the Bureau of Land Management, Lower Snake River District Office, 3948 Development Avenue, Boise, Idaho 83705, (208) 384-3300. Red-tailed Hawk Northern Harrier (Buteojamaicensis) Usually soars for long periods without flapping wings (Circuscyaneus) Usually flies low over fields with an undulating flight Broad wings ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Prairie Falcon (Falcomexicanus) Rapid wing beats Faint mustache Light brown (tan) wings and body Long pointed wings Dark brown feathers in the “arm pits” Size: Wingspan: Weight: # nesting in NCA: Lightly streaked breast 14 to 20 inches long 30 to 40 inches 1 to 2 pounds 160 to 200 pairs American Kestrel # of eggs: Eggs laid: Incubation & fledging: 3 to 6 (brownish) early April - late May Size: Wingspan: Weight: # nesting in NCA: Adults have • Red tails with many dark bars in the tail • Usually have some white on the breast and white mottled or streaked tail 19 to 25 inches long 48 to 53 inches 1 3/4 to 3 1/2 pounds 70 to 90 pairs 8 to 10 weeks Ferruginous Hawk (Falcosparverius) “Hovers” over fields with rapid wing beats Usually perches on phone wires White body Female: brown wings, reddish streaked breast, reddish brown striped tail pointed wings Male: bluish wings, whitish breast, thick black stripe on end of reddish tail, red buck 8 to 12 inches long 21 to 24 inches 1/4 to 1 pound 30 to 45 pairs (survey incomplete) # of eggs: Eggs laid: Incubation & fledging: 4 to 5 (white with brown spots) mid April-early May 7 to 8 weeks Eggs laid: Incubation & fledging: 2 to 5 white with brown spots March - early April 22 to 25 inches long 50 to 60 inches 2 to 5 pounds 20 to 35 pairs Long, narrow body Females: light belly, streaked breast, brown head and back Size: Wingspan: Weight: # nesting in NCA: 17 to 24 inches long 48 to 54 inches 3/4 to 1-1/4 pounds 75+ pairs Common Raven Underside wings: white with reddish patches # of eggs: Eggs laid: Incubation & fledging: Topside: male and female have white strip on upper tail Immatures: like female, buff belly # of eggs: Eggs laid: Incubation & fledging: 3 to 9 (white) mid April - mid May 8 to 9 weeks 10 to 11 weeks Dark legs form a V-shaped pattern against white belly long, broad wings Size: Wingspan: Weight: # nesting in NCA: # of eggs: (Buteoregalis) Largest hawk in North America Two mustache marks Size: Wingspan: Weight: # nesting in NCA: Light underside with dark belly band; body color varies from deep chocolate brown to reddish Males: white underneath with black wing tips, grey head and back 3 to 5 (white and brown blotched) early April - early May 10 to 11 weeks (Corvuscorax) Not a raptor, Largest song bird, Hawklike in flight Large, shiny black with a thick beak Size: Wingspan: Weight: # nesting in NCA: Wedge-shaped tail; rounded on the end 21 to 27 inches long 45 to 50 inches 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 pounds 150+ pairs # of eggs: Eggs laid: Incubation & fledging: 4 to 7 (blue with brown blotches) March - May 9 to 10 weeks Golden Eagle Swainson’s Hawk (Aquilachrysaetos) Raptor Identification Guide (Buteoswainsoni) Spring/summer resident only, winters to Argentina Largest raptor in the NCA Usually soars for long periods without flapping wings for birds commonly seen in the Dark brown wings and body White patches toward the end of the wings and near the base of the tail on immature eagles Broad wings Large rounded tail Size: Wingspan: Weight: # nesting in NCA: 30 to 42 inches long 74 to 97 inches 7 to 13 pounds 25 to 30 pairs Turkey Vulture # of eggs: Eggs laid: Incubation & fledging: 1 to 3 (dull white with brown blotches) early Feb. - mid March Leading edge of wing underside is white, trailing edge is dark (opposite of the Turkey Vulture) Size: Wingspan: Weight: # nesting in NCA: Light colored body with dark breast band Tail underside is light colored with dark-barred pattern 19 to 22 inches long 48 to 54 inches 1 1/4 to 2 3/4 pounds 1 to 5 pairs # of eggs: Eggs laid: Incubation & fledging: 2 to 3 (white spotted with brown) April - May 8 to 11 weeks 15 to 16 weeks Rough-legged Hawk (Cathartesaura) (Buteolagopus) Wintering bird only, spring/summer spent in arctic areas Commonly hovers like a kestrel when hunting Slightly smaller than a golden eagle Soars with wing in a V-shape, rocking or teetering from side to side SNAKE RIVER BIRDS OF PREY Featherless, red head Wings have black leading edge and light colored trailing edge, giving a two-toned effect to the underwing Almost black in color 26 to 32 inches long 68 to 72 inches 2 to 5 pounds 1 to 2 pairs Legs completely feathered to the toes Light-colored head and breast with dark belly band White tail with
Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) Description/Size Wing span: 20-24 inches Length: 8-11 inches Weight: 3.4 to 5.3 ounces The smallest falcon in North America. Like all falcons, kestrels have large heads, notched beaks, and “heavy shouldered” streamlined bodies. There is a difference in the plumage of each sex. In both sexes the back is reddish brown sparsely barred with black, the crown is blue-gray with variable amounts of rufous, the face and throat are white with a black malar (vertical stripe) below the dark eyes and another behind the cheek, the beak is blue-black and the legs and feet are yellow. Male kestrels have blue-gray wings, while females have reddish-brown wings with black barring. Males have rufous tails with one wide, black sub-terminal band and a white tip. Females have rufous tails and many black bars. The light-colored under parts of females typically are heavily streaked with brown; those of males are white to buffy orange with variable amounts of dark spotting or streaking. This adult plumage is attained at 1 year. Both sexes are slightly larger than robins but females are 10-15% larger than males. Similar Species Merlin – similar sized falcon but not as colorful; both sexes have narrow pale bands on a dark tail. Habitat/Range North America, the Bahamas and Antilles, Central America, and South America. Frequents open and partially open countryside including agriculture lands, transportation corridors such as freeways and highways, meadows, prairies, plains, and deserts. Food/Diet Primarily a sit and wait perch hunter-most prey is caught on the ground but some are           to the back of the head. They capture a variety of prey but insects are the primary prey followed by small mammals, birds, small reptiles and some amphibians. Insects       wrens, and starlings. Reptiles include small lizards and snakes. Foods only rarely taken include centipedes, scorpions, spiders, snails, and earthworms. Occasionally        Voice The American kestrel has three basic vocalizations. A shrill, clear screaming kli kli kli kli kli kli, kli kli is used when upset or excited. A whine is used during courtship feeding and copulation. A chitter is the most frequent vocalization in male/female interactions. Behavior  !! "  #     $    Raptor Information Sheet - American Kestrel The American kestrel is often seen hovering or perched on wires in open areas, hunting insects and small mammals. When perched, it commonly bobs its tail up and down. It is the only North American falcon to hunt by hovering. Northern populations in North America are more migratory than those breeding farther south. This results in a leap-frog pattern of migration in which northern birds winter south of southern birds. Some northern populations move as far south as Central America, while many southern populations are sedentary. Most American kestrels breeding in North America overwinter in the US. American kestrels form strong pair bonds and some pairs remain together across years. Requires a cavity, natural or manmade, for nesting, and will nest in bird boxes, holes in trees (made by other birds or natural), cliffs and the crevices of buildings. Generally Clutch size: 4 to 6 eggs & '    requires a few prominent elevated perches for hunting nearby. Will vigorously defend shades; elliptical, 1.3 x 1 inches   ! " *     +*  Incubation: 28-29 days Fledge: 28-31 days Disperse: 2-4 weeks Reproduction/Nesting Raptor Information Sheet - American Kestrel Life Span Longest recorded – 14 years 8 months Conservation Status Not on the US Fish and Wildlife’s Endangered or Threatened Species List. However it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Idaho Fish & Game lists the American kestrel as a protected non game species for which it is illegal to collect, harm or otherwise remove from its natural habitat. American kestrels are considered to be abundant through most of its North American range. The southeastern race, Falco sparverius paulus, is in serious decline due to habitat loss and has been listed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as “threatened”. In Georgia it is listed as a  <=  * and windows; illegal shooting, predation by larger raptors, pesticide poisoning, being trapped i
What makes a bird a raptor? Birds of prey, or raptors, are the main reason the NCA was given special legislative protection. It is the unique combination of soil, climate, geology, and vegetation that has created an ecosystem where nesting birds of prey occur in extraordinary numbers. But what makes raptors so special? All birds, even those as different as a golden eagle and a hummingbird, share some common traits, such as feathers, wings, laying eggs and being warm-blooded. But certain characteristics set the group of birds called raptors apart from other birds. The word raptor comes from the Latin rapere, which mean to seize or plunder — an apt way to describe birds that swoop down on their prey. Idaho has 31 species of raptors: 17 species of diurnal raptors (hawks, eagles, and falcons) and 14 species of nocturnal raptors (owls). All raptors have a hooked beak, strong feet with sharp talons, keen eyesight, and a carnivorous diet. • Hooked beak — The raptor's beak sets it apart from other birds. All raptors have the same beak design, curved at the tip with sharp cutting edges to rip and tear apart their prey. Falcons use their beak to kill their prey by severing the spinal cord. • Sharp talons — Birds of prey have powerful leg and toe muscles that end with sharp talons. This makes their feet lethal weapons. Their feet are perfectly designed to catch, hold, and carry prey. The length and size of a raptors toes, and the curvature and thickness of its talons are related to the type of prey it pursues. Most birds of prey have three toes pointing forward and one pointing backward. These toes can apply an extremely powerful grip on their prey, literally crushing it to death. The talons may also kill the prey by piercing the soft tissue and vital organs. Osprey, like owls, have one hinged toe that can be held in a forward or back position. This allows them to hold fish with two talons on each side for a secure grip. Osprey also have spiny scales on their feet that help them hold slippery fish more securely. • Keen eyesight — Raptors have very keen eyesight due to the relative size of the eyeball in proportion to their head, eye muscles designed for rapid focus, and the high resolution of the retina. Diurnal raptors have full color vision and two concentrations of sharp vision on the retina. This sharpest point of vision is called the fovea. When the raptor’s two fovea work in unison, they give them very accurate depth perception which aids catching moving objects. Nocturnal raptors, like owls, have an added advantage of remarkable night vision. Owls have a concentration of rods in their retina that are used to see in low light conditions. An owl's eyes are also located in the front of their heads, much like humans, giving them a larger area of binocular vision. • Carnivorous diet — Although the diet varies from species to species, all raptors are meat eaters. Peregrine falcons feed mainly on water fowl while prairie falcons take mostly small mammals. Some species have a very strict diet like the snail kite found in Florida which eats only Pomacea, General Raptor Facts Size Difference Female raptors are generally larger than the males. The reason for this size difference is really unknown, but scientists theorize that it could relate to the female spending more time on the nest and can protect the young from larger predators. Another idea for this difference is that it allows for a greater diversity of prey to be taken by the adult pair. Eyes Raptors have three eyelids! They have a top and bottom eyelid plus a third, transparent eyelid which closes laterally across the eye. This special eyelid is called a nictitating membrane and is used to; • • • keep the eyes moist, protect the eyes during flight, and protect the eyes when feeding themselves or their young. When humans close their eyes to blink or sleep the upper eyelid closes. Depending on the species, raptors may close the top eyelid, the bottom eyelid, or both. An additional form of eye protection in many raptors is a bony shield, called the superciliary ridge, that projects above the eye. This ridge acts like a visor for protection from the sun and also protects the eyes from injury while hunting. It also gives raptors a menacing appearance. Nests Nesting habits of raptors vary among species. Some examples of these differences include: • • • • • • Eggs not building a nest, but using stick nests or cavities created by other birds, nesting and laying eggs in sand or gravel, depressions, or scrapes, nesting and laying eggs on the ground, nesting and laying eggs on cliff faces or in treetops, nesting and laying eggs in ground burrows of mammals (burrowing owls). For raptor species that build nests, typically the female constructs the nest while the male provides the material. Many raptors build a new nest each year, while others, particularly large raptors, will reuse old nests or alternate between a number of nests. Raptor eggs are typically la
Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Field Trip Guide - Swan Falls Road A 62-mile loop tour beginning at Kuna Visitor Center provides opportunities to view wildlife and scenic vistas, and to visit cultural sites in the NCA. Allow at least 3 to 4 hours to complete the route. Depending on the length of stops, one can easily spend an entire day exploring the loop drive. Mile 0.0 Kuna Visitor Center Located at the intersection of Avalon Street and Swan Falls Road, the Kuna Visitor Center is staffed several days a week by the Kuna Chamber of Commerce. When the Visitor Center is closed, there is an open kiosk with several information signs about the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) and Kuna area. Mile 3.0 Barker Road Barker Road marks the northern boundary of the NCA. Northern harriers and prairie falcons frequent this area, while red-tailed and Swainson’s hawks sometimes perch on the telephone and power poles. Piute ground squirrels and black-tailed jackrabbits take cover in the sagebrush. Look for American kestrels on wires between power poles. Kuna Butte, on the west side of the road, burned in 1996. The furrows you may see are from rangeland drill seedings of bunchgrasses. Prior to the fire, this butte and the surrounding area were covered with sagebrush and bunchgrasses. Mile 8.0 Initial Point In a sense, Idaho begins at Initial Point. The prominent lava butte, located one mile to the east, provided the starting point for Idaho’s official land survey, begun in 1867. Beginning at this geographic reference point, the entire state was surveyed, and each township was referenced to this “Initial Point” of the survey. A short walk up the rocky, steep access trail brings visitors to an observation deck and survey marker at the summit of the butte. Look for raptors perching and hunting on the volcanic rock outcroppings to the south. The Owyhee Mountains are visible to the southwest. Mile 10.2 PacifiCorp 500kV Powerline Some birds of prey enjoy roosting or nesting on the steel towers that support this powerline. Special nesting platforms have been placed on some of the towers to encourage raptors to nest below the electrical lines. Large powerlines do not usually electrocute birds. The greatest number of electrocutions occur on much smaller powerlines where the wires are closer together, where a wingspan may touch two lines. This powerline marks the southern “no shooting” boundary east of Swan Falls Road. Mile 11.5 Idaho Power Company Double-pole Powerline The cross-arms of this powerline provide hunting perches. In winter look for rough-legged hawks perched on the cross-arms. Winterfat, a low silvery shrub, provides excellent food and cover for Piute ground squirrels (which become food for raptors), and helps hide the abundant badger holes. Most people don’t realize the NCA contains one of the densest badger populations in the world (up to 11 badgers per square mile). Mile 12.0 Intersection with Victory Lane Fence posts and powerline cross-beams provide prairie falcons and red-tailed hawks great vantage points for hunting. Sinker Butte, an extinct volcano, lies directly south across the canyon. Travelers on the South Alternate of the Oregon Trail passed around the south side of this butte. Mile 15.5 Dedication Point Dedication Point overlook provides an outstanding view of the Snake River Canyon. During the spring, this is a good place to spot birds of prey in flight. Winterfat and scattered patches of sagebrush provide habitat for Piute ground squirrels. For raptors with hungry nestlings in the canyon cliffs, a food supply this close to the canyon rim makes for a quick turnaround. Interpretive signs along the one-quarter mile trail describe the plants, wildlife, and geology of the NCA and aid with bird identification. Mile 18.0 Three-Pole Pullout/Swan Falls Grade Before descending into the canyon, stopping at the Three-Pole pullout or the top of Swan Falls grade offers a great view of Swan Falls Dam and the Snake River Canyon. Look for prairie falcons, red-tailed hawks and turkey vultures. As you descend the grade, observe the different geologic layers that form the canyon wall. Mile 20.0 Swan Falls Historic Exhibit Swan Falls Dam was built in 1901 (the first hydroelectric dam on the Snake River). Originally, the dam supplied power to gold and silver mines in the Owyhee Mountains. Eventually, it provided electricity for settlement and agriculture on the Snake River Plateau. The dam, operated by Idaho Power Company, was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. In 1995, a new powerhouse was completed and the old historic powerhouses renovated into a visitor/interpretive center. The center provides a history of the Swan Falls Dam and hydroelectricity, plus information about the natural and cultural resources of the NCA. Tours may be available by appointment only, one week in advance by calling Idaho Power at (208
Owls of the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area A Coloring Book This coloring book describes the seven species of owls that live in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) either part of the year or year round. We hope you have fun coloring and learning about these birds which are also called raptors or birds of prey. This book will help you learn: (1) what owls look like when perched, (2) where owls like to live, (3) what owls like to eat, (4) what time of year you are likely to see them in the NCA, and (5) how their populations are doing. The glossary will help you understand some of the words that might be new to you. Once you learn about owls, try to spot as many of them as you can! Burrowing Owl Great Horned Owl on Cliff Face The Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area The Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) was established in 1993 to protect a unique environment that supports one of the world’s densest concentrations of nesting birds of prey, also called raptors. Falcons, eagles, hawks, owls and vultures occur here in unique abundance and variety. Located along 81 miles of the Snake River in southwest Idaho, the NCA encompasses 485,000 acres of public land. Here the river lies within a deep canyon that is surrounded by a vast plateau. Cliffs towering up to 700 feet above the river provide countless ledges, cracks and crevices used as nesting sites by falcons, golden eagles, hawks, vultures, and great horned owls and barn owls. The trees and shrubs in the riparian areas along the river provide nesting sites for raptors such as long-eared owls, northern saw-whet owls, western screech owls, osprey, and northern harriers. Short-eared owls, burrowing owls and other raptors find nesting sites on the plateau. These habitats (cliff, riparian area, plateau) also support high numbers of prey animals. The combination of ideal nesting habitat and the extraordinarily high numbers of prey make the NCA a place like no other for birds of prey. The area is actually a giant natural raptor nursery. Sixteen species nest here each spring; seven of these are owls. Eight other species of diurnal (daytime) raptors use the area during winter or pass through during fall and spring migrations. To learn more about the NCA and raptors, visit our website at www. blm.gov/id/st/en/prog/blm_special_areas/birds_of_prey_nca.html What are Raptors? All of the birds in this coloring book are nocturnal raptors - birds of prey that hunt at night - called owls. All raptors, both diurnal and nocturnal, are predators meaning they hunt, capture, kill and eat other animals for food. Although the diet varies from species to species, all raptors are meat eaters. They are strictly carnivores. There are many other carnivorous and predatory birds, but not all of them belong to the group we call raptors. We distinguish raptors from other birds because they have: 1. Strong, powerful feet with sharp curved talons. Raptors’ feet are perfectly designed to catch and kill prey, and to defend themselves. The length and size of a raptors’ toes, and the curvature and thickness of its talons are related to the type of prey it hunts. Most birds of prey have three toes pointing forward and one pointing backward. Owls and osprey can move their outer front toe to the back giving them a two front and two back toe arrangement. Toes Talons owl foot 2. Sharp, hooked beaks. All raptors have beaks curved at the tip with sharp cutting edges to rip and tear apart their prey. Their beaks are also strong enough to break the bones of their prey. 3. Great Horned Owl Keen eyesight. Raptors can focus on objects that are far away from them. With large forward facing eyes, raptors have a large area of binocular vision - like humans. This gives raptors very accurate depth perception which in turn aids them in catching moving objects (prey). Nocturnal raptors (owls) have an added advantage of remarkable night vision. They can see in very low light conditions. Short-earred Owl What Are Owls? Owls are raptors that are adapted to hunting at night. Some owls are completely nocturnal, meaning they start hunting a half-hour after the sun sets and stop hunting a half-hour before the sun rises. Other owls are crepuscular, meaning they hunt mainly at dusk and at dawn. Owls also can be seen hunting during the day. This is particularly true during the breeding season when there are lots of young owlets to feed. Owls have three special adaptations for nocturnal hunting: 1. Remarkable Night Vision. While owls can see perfectly fine during the day, it is their night vision that makes them unique. With eyes jam packed with light sensitive, rod-shaped cells, owls can see every leaf and twig on even the darkest night. Most owls have limited color vision as these “rods” do not react well to color. Owls primarily see
BLM A Coloring Book Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Raptors of the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area The following images are used with permission of Hawk Mountain SanctuaryAssociation: Golden Eagle - perched and in flight, Bald Eagle - perched and in flight, Red-tailed Hawk - perched and in flight, Rough-legged Hawk - perched and in flight, American Kestrel - perched and in flight, Merlin - perched and in flight, Peregrine Falcon - perched and in flight, Northern Goshawk - perched and in flight, Cooper’s Hawk - perched and in flight, Sharp-shinned Hawk - perched and in flight, Osprey - perched and in flight, Northern Harrier - perched and in flight, Turkey Vulture - perched and in flight. Hawk Mountain Sanctuary is an international center for raptor conservation, education, observation and research located near Kempton PA. Visit their website at www.hawkmountain.org Raptors of the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area A Coloring Book This coloring book describes the 16 species of diurnal raptors (eagles, hawks, falcons, accipiters, osprey, harrier, and vulture) that live in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) either part of the year or year round. We hope you have fun coloring and learning about these birds which are also called birds of prey. This book will help you learn: (1) what raptors look like when perched and in flight, (2) where raptors like to live, (3) what raptors like to eat, (4) what time of year you are likely to see them in the NCA, and (5) how their populations are doing. The glossary will help you understand some of the words that might be new to you. Once you learn about raptors, try to spot as many of them as you can! Snake River Canyon The Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area The Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) was established in 1993 to protect a unique environment that supports one of the world’s densest concentrations of nesting birds of prey, also called raptors. Falcons, eagles, hawks, owls and vultures occur here in unique abundance and variety. Located along 81 miles of the Snake River in southwest Idaho, the NCA encompasses 485,000 acres of public land. Here the river lies within a deep canyon that is surrounded by a vast plateau. Cliffs towering up to 700 feet above the river provide countless ledges, cracks and crevices used as nesting sites by birds ofprey. While the surrounding plateau looks unremarkable, it holds the key that makes this area so valuable for raptors. A deep layer of finely textured soil on the plateau north of the canyon and the plants that grow in it support large populations of ground squirrels and jackrabbits which are the main food source for these birds. The combination of ideal nesting habitat in the Snake River Canyon and the extraordinarily high numbers of prey on the adjacent plateau make this a place like no other for birds of prey. The area is actually a giant natural raptor nursery. Sixteen species nest here each spring. Eight other species use the area during winter or pass through during fall and spring migrations. To learn more about the NCA and raptors, visit our website at www. blm.gov/id/st/en/prog/NLCS/MNSRBP_NM.html. What are Raptors? All of the birds in this coloring book are diurnal raptors - birds of prey that hunt during the day. All raptors, both diurnal and nocturnal (owls) are predators meaning they hunt, capture, kill and eat other animals for food. Although the diet varies from species to species, all raptors are meat eaters. They are strictly carnivores. There are many carnivorous and predatory birds, but not all of them belong to the group we call raptors. We distinguish raptors from other birds because they have: 1. Strong, powerful feet with sharp curved talons. Raptors’ feet are perfectly designed to catch and kill prey, and to defend themselves. The length and size of a raptor’s toes, and the curvature and thickness of its talons are related to the type of prey it hunts. Most birds of prey have three toes pointing forward and one pointing backward. Owls and osprey can move their outer front toe to the back giving them a two front and two back toe arrangement. hawk foot owl foot 2. Sharp, hooked beaks. All raptors have beaks curved at the tip with sharp cutting edges to rip and tear apart their prey. Their beaks are also strong enough to break the bones in their prey. Falcons have a “toothed” beak which is an adaptation that allows falcons to sever the spinal cord of their prey, thus killing it. 3. Keen eyesight. Raptors can focus on objects that are far away from them. With large forward facing eyes, raptors have a large area of binocular vision - like humans. This gives raptors very accurate depth perception which in turn aids them in catching moving objects (prey). Diurnal rapto
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) works hard to make sure that the nation’s public lands are healthy for everyone to enjoy! The BLM and the World Center for Birds of Prey are informal partners, who share the goal of helping people appreciate raptors and understand their needs. Public lands are special! They offer great places to play and explore. They provide a home for many animal and plant species, as well as grazing for cattle, sheep, and horses. And they contain minerals for construction, energy, and other uses. Public lands fill many needs! This publication was produced by the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, with assistance from The Peregrine Fund. Additional copies may be obtained through the Bureau of Land Management, Boise District Office, by calling 208-384-3300 or writing the office at 3948 Development Avenue, Boise, ID, 83705. Publishing services by the BLM National Operations Center. 2014 BLM/ID-GI-14/007+1110 Hello, Junior Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Welcome to the World Center for Birds of Prey! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Discovery Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Conservation Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Bird Viewing Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Silhouette Hallway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Biology and Ecology Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Get Ready To Explore Raptor Habitat! Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Idaho Raptor Safari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Raptor Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Idaho Raptor Safari Journal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Junior Explorer Guided Viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Initial Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Meridians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Put on Your Habitat Hat! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Dedication Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 The Living Is Not Easy for Desert Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 It’s Not Easy Being a Desert Plant Either . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Come Meet the Natives! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 You’re Stepping on Me! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Put Your Habitat Hat Back On! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Don’t Overlook the Overlook! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 A Beecham Lullaby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Summary Activities Thinking about Birds of Prey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Junior Explorer Pledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Volunteer To Help Raptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 i ii Junior Explorer, Get ready to have so
U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management | Idaho Rare Plants of Idaho Front cover: Astragalus amnis-amissi, flowers, Lynn Kinter (IDNHP) U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management | Idaho Rare Plants of Idaho Idaho State Office 1387 S. Vinnell Way Boise, ID 83709 Written by Michael Mancuso, Anne Halford and Karen Colson March 21, 2019 Copies available from the BLM Idaho State Office BLM DISTRICT AND FIELD OFFICES IN IDAHO SCALE: 0 50 100 miles LEGEND DISTRICT BOUNDARY DISTRICT OFFICE LOCATION with colocated field office Coeur d'Alene Field Office Field Office Boundary Field Office Location Washington Public Land: BLM-Administered NORTH COEUR D’ALENE DISTRICT Cottonwood Field Office M on ta na Salmon Field Office Challis Field Office IDAHO FALLS DISTRICT Upper Snake Field Office BOISE DISTRICT Owyhee Field Office ii Shoshone Field Office TWIN FALLS DISTRICT Bruneau Field Office Nevada Wyoming Oregon Four Rivers Field Office Jarbidge Field Office Pocatello Field Office Burley Field Office Utah CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION Idaho Distribution Maps Taxonomy Conservation Category and Rank Definitions Glossary of Acronyms Used in the Field Guide 5 BLM DISTRICT AND FIELD OFFICE SPECIES GUIDE 9 13 17 21 25 31 35 41 45 49 53 57 63 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 99 105 109 115 119 123 SPECIAL STATUS PLANT SPECIES Abronia mellifera var. pahoveorum Allium aaseae Astragalus ambyltropis Astragalus amnis-ammissi Astragalus anserinus Astragalus aquilonius Astragalus asotinensis Astragalus atratus var. inceptus Astragalus jejunus var. jejunus Astragalus mulfordiae Astragalus oniciformis Astragalus packardiae Astragalus sterilis Calamagrostis tweedyi Carex aboriginum Carex idahoa Castilleja christii Chaenactis cusickii Eriogonum capistratum var. welshii Howellia aquatilis Lepidium papilliferum Mentzelia mollis Mirabilis macfarlanei Monardella angustifolia Oenothera psammophila Oxytropis besseyi var. salmonensis iii 127 137 141 145 151 157 163 167 Phacelia inconspicua Pinus albicaulis Polemonium elusum Silene spaldingii Spiranthes diluvialis Stanleya confertiflora Thelypodium repandum Trifolium owyheense 170 180 182 ASSOCIATED SPECIES LIST ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND REFERENCES ILLUSTRATIONS iv INTRODUCTION Idaho Bureau of Land Management (BLM) staff need information about Special Status Plant Species to assist with field surveys, setting data collection priorities, making conservation management decisions, and assessing conservation actions. To meet this need, the Idaho BLM State Office has initiated a project to produce an on-line field guide to Idaho BLM Special Status Plant Species. The purpose of this webbased field guide is to help users recognize and identify Special Status Plant Species in the field. The first installment includes 35 Special Status Plant Species. Additional taxa are planned for the future. The guide provides one-stop access to general description, field identification tips, and similar-looking species summaries, as well as basic taxonomic, conservation status, distribution, habitat, and phenology information. The field guide also includes an Idaho distribution map and color images for each species. The field guide is intended to assist agency, academic, consultant, and other biologists charged with conducting field surveys or other conservation-related work for Special Status Plant Species in Idaho. The field guide can also serve members of the public and citizen scientists interested in learning more about Idaho BLM Special Status Plants Species. The guide’s digital, on-line format allows for ready down-loading of hard copies that can be taken into the field or shared with colleagues. Making the guide available in a digital format will enable the species account information to reach a wider audience and be available more quickly compared to print media. The digital format also makes it easier to add more species accounts in the future and to update information about the species already in the guide in a more timely and inexpensive manner. Idaho Distribution Maps Idaho distribution maps in the field guide are based on Element Occurrence locations for each species in the Idaho Fish and Wildlife Information System database (Idaho Department Fish and Game 2018). Distributions are mapped at the Township scale; each Township depicted on the map contains one or more Element Occurrence locations. Occupied Townships are shaded red on the distribution maps. 1 Taxonomy Scientific plant names in the field guide follows the Flora of the Pacific Northwest, 2nd Edition (Hitchcock and Cronquist 2018). Nomenclature for species not included in this book follows the Intermountain Flora (Cronquist et al. 1972, Cronquist et al. 1977, Cronquist et al. 1984, Cronquist 1994, Barneby 1989, Cronquist et al. 1997, Holmgren et al. 2005, Holmgren et al. 2012). Conservation Category and Rank Definitions The field guide includes BLM conservation category and NatureSe
U.S. Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho NATIVE GARDENS FOR IDAHO PARTNERSHIP Boise School District Bureau of Land Management (BLM) City of Boise College of Western Idaho Garden City Garden Club Golden Eagle Audubon Society Idaho Department of Fish and Game Mancuso Botanical Services Steppe Environmental U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) West Ada School District WRITTEN BY Holly Hovis, BLM Kristin Lohr, USFWS CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS Anne Halford, BLM Chris Taylor, Boise School District Dave Hopper, USFWS Dusty Perkins, College of Western Idaho Judy Snow, Garden City Garden Club Karen Colson, USFWS Kristin Gnojewski, City of Boise, Parks and Recreation Lynell Sutter, Steppe Environmental Micah Lauer, West Ada School Distsrict Michael Mancuso, Mancuso Botanical Services Sean Finn, Golden Eagle Audubon Society DESIGN Antonia Hedrick, BLM AUGUST 2019 U.S. Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho IDAHO STATE OFFICE 1387 S. Vinnell Way Boise, ID 83709 208-373-4000 Blank Page or good place for Photo Monarch on showy milkweed, A. Hedrick Table of Contents Native Garden Guide 1 INTRODUCTION 2 SECTION A How to Get Started Forming a Team 5 SECTION B Funding and Grants 7 SECTION C Garden Design Design Tips Native Gardens in Southwest Idaho Public Perception Bird Habitat Garden Pollinator Habitat Garden Monarch Garden Sensory Garden Outreach 39 SECTION D Implementation Calculations Site Preparation Material Resources 47 SECTION E Maintenance Maintenance Schedule Maintenance Plan Example 52 SECTION F Master Plant List back cover RESOURCES Sage International Charter School Garden Introduction Welcome to the Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho. This guide was created to help novice gardeners create waterwise, wildlifefriendly gardens using plants suitable for southwest Idaho. The information in this guide will assist backyard gardeners, urban planners, schools, and businesses transform their landscapes into native gardens. All plants listed in this guide are native to Idaho or to adjacent states with the same growing conditions. The purpose of this guide is to: • provide steps for developing and maintaining native gardens • provide examples of garden designs • provide lists of locally adapted native plants • aid in conserving water and attracting birds and pollinators • identify partners, local resources and funding opportunities Why Native Plants? Urban gardens can provide important habitat for animals such as birds and native pollinators (bees, butterflies, moths, hummingbirds). These gardens can be used for nesting, foraging, shelter, and as stopovers during spring and fall migration. Native plants are adapted to the growing conditions in our area, thus requiring less water than introduced plants. They also support more insects, including native pollinators, than nonnative plants. This means more habitat for native bees and more food for insecteating birds! Who needs a bird feeder when you have a native garden? Arrowleaf balsamroot, A. Hedrick 1 Section A How to Get Your Garden Started Some basic steps will help you in creating your garden. Your garden planning time will depend on the size of your garden and the number of interested individuals. A backyard garden can be easily planned and implemented within a few months. A community garden that serves many people may take up to one year of planning prior to installation. Basic Steps for a School or Community Garden 1. Form a team 2. Solicit input from staff, partners, or community 3. Create design 4. Present design to person approving garden 5. Develop schedule and coordinate with contractors or maintenance staff 6. Write grant proposals 7. Raise funds 8. After funding is awarded, refine plant list based on availability and order plants 9. Clear site of existing vegetation 10. Install hardscaping such as boulders and seating 11. Add topsoil if needed 12. Install irrigation 13. Plant 14. Protect plantings with temporary fencing 15. Install interpretive signs 16. Develop and implement garden maintenance plan Go team! Basic Steps for a Home Garden 1. Decide what your garden priorities are (water savings, pollinators, monarch butterflies, birds etc.). 2. Decide how much time you have to spend on a garden (little time = fewer plants that require less work). 3. Choose a design from this guide and adapt it to your space or create your own from the provided plant lists. 4. Figure out the cost of the garden. If you lack the funds, look for fall sales, grow plants from seed, or look for plant donations from fellow gardeners. 5. Clear the area to be planted. 6. Add compost and topsoil, if needed. 7. Install irrigation, if needed. 8. Plant. 9. Keep a planting plan. It helps with maintenance. 10. Mark your plants so you can tell the difference between what you p
A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills i ii Acknowledgements This field guide evolved through discussions of its need and usefulness with members of the Healthy Hills Initiative. It quickly developed into a group effort. Special thanks go to the following entities: Ada Soil and Water Conservation District www.AdaSWCD.org Healthy Hills Initiative www.HealthyHills.org Southwest Idaho Resource Conservation and Development Council www.IdahoRCD.org Boise State University www.BoiseState.edu Bureau of Land Management: Idaho State Office www.blm.gov/id/st/en.html Cover and title page photo generously donated by Michael Lanza, The Big Outside. www.TheBigOutside.com The authors of this field guide would like to thank the following people for kindly offering their professional advice: Nancy Cole, Antonia Hedrick, Scott Koberg, Bill Moore, Nancy Shaw, Roger Rosentreter, and Brett VanPaepeghem. Thanks to following people who contributed outstanding plant photographs: Matt Fisk, Matt Lavin, Ian Robertson, and Clinton Shock. iii A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills Jamie Utz Michael Pellant Jessica Gardetto Edited by Corey Gucker First edition, 2013 iv Contents Introduction to the foothills ............. 6 - 9 How to use this field guide ….………..… 10 Key to symbols ……………...……………….… 11 Plant profiles …………....…………..… 12 - 159 Shrubs/Trees …….………….… 12 - 23 Forbs ……….………………….… 24 - 121 Grasses ……………………….. 122 - 159 Glossary …………………….………….. 160 - 162 References ……………….………...…. 163 - 164 Index ......................................... 165 - 169 by common name........... 165 - 167 by scientific name........... 168 - 169 5 Introduction to the Boise Foothills Location The foothills north of Boise, Garden City, and Eagle make a beautiful backdrop for the urban areas below. This ecosystem provides city residents unparalleled recreational opportunities, serves as important wildlife habitat, provides clean water to residents, and supports the local economy. The foothills are also home to a wide variety of plants that have important ecological and economic roles. Native plants have naturally evolved with and adapted to the local foothills climate and soils. Nonnative plants are species that were introduced (accidentally or purposefully) to the foothills ecosystem. Both types of plants are important to understanding and appreciating the foothills. This guide provides the user with a tool to identify some of the more common native and nonnative plants found in the lower portion of the Boise Foothills (Figure 1). 55 21 16 44 20 26 84 Figure 1. The blue line on the map above indicates a general boundary that was used to select the plants featured in this field guide. 6 Environment Vegetation in the foothills is a product of the soils, slope, aspect, elevation, and the local climate. Soils are important because their texture, depth, nutrients, and other characteristics govern the types of plants found in this ecosystem. Additionally, aspect (i.e. the direction the slope of a hill faces), elevation, and precipitation are all factors that influence the presence and proportions of foothills plants. Disturbances such as wildfires and off-road vehicle or off-trail use can negatively affect this environment by reducing native plants and encouraging the entry or increase of nonnative invasive plants. Native Plants Plants native to the foothills evolved to withstand hot and dry summers, cold winters, periodic droughts, and infrequent wildfires. A healthy native foothills plant community is dominated by big sagebrush and bitterbrush with a diverse understory of grasses, forbs (wildflowers), lichens, and mosses (Figure 2). Foothills plant communities also contain several rare native plants, which are sparsely distributed and adapted to unique habitats. Figure 2. A healthy foothills plant community is a diverse mixture of shrubs, forbs, and grasses. Healthy native plant communities are resilient to natural disturbances and provide good watershed protection and wildlife habitat. 7 Nonnative Plants Most of the nonnative plants found in the Boise Foothills are of European or Asian origin. Some nonnative plants have desirable characteristics and were purposefully planted to meet land management objectives. However, other undesirable nonnative invasive plants have spread accidentally into the foothills, causing ecological and economic damage. These invasive plants compete with native plants for space, water, and nutrients. Several invasive grasses, exemplified by cheatgrass (Figure 3), increase the frequency and size of wildfires in the foothills, threatening homes and intact native plant communities. The negative impacts of some invasive plants are so severe that they are assigned the classification of noxious weed. A noxious weed is designated by the state of Idaho as any plant having the potential to cause injury to public health, livestock, crops, or other land or property. Figure 3. This photo shows cheatgra

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