Lower Salmon River

undefined - Idaho

The 425-mile Salmon River is one of the longest free-flowing river in the lower 48 states. The river begins at not much more than a trickle at an elevation of about 8,000 feet in the Sawtooth and Whitecloud Mountains of central Idaho. It gathers force as it makes its way northeast and then west, fed by snows from the Sawtooth and Salmon River Mountains in the south and the Clearwater and Bitterroot Mountains in the north.

brochures

Boating Guide for Vinegar Creek to Heller Bar on the Lower Salmon River in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Lower Salmon River - Boating Guide - Vinegar Creek to Heller Bar

Boating Guide for Vinegar Creek to Heller Bar on the Lower Salmon River in Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

East-Central Idaho Boating Guide to the Upper Salmon River. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Upper Salmon River - Boating Guide

East-Central Idaho Boating Guide to the Upper Salmon River. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Rare Plants of Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Rare Plants of Idaho

Rare Plants of Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Native Garden Guide for Southestern Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Native Garden Guide

Native Garden Guide for Southestern Idaho. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).BLM Idaho - Plants of the Boise Foothills

A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Lower Salmon River https://www.blm.gov/visit/lower-salmon-river The 425-mile Salmon River is one of the longest free-flowing river in the lower 48 states. The river begins at not much more than a trickle at an elevation of about 8,000 feet in the Sawtooth and Whitecloud Mountains of central Idaho. It gathers force as it makes its way northeast and then west, fed by snows from the Sawtooth and Salmon River Mountains in the south and the Clearwater and Bitterroot Mountains in the north.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT COTTONWOOD FIELD OFFICE IDAHO THE LOWER SALMON RIVER BOATING GUIDE, VINEGAR CREEK TO HELLER BAR Cover illustration, Adam Ridley BLM U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT COTTONWOOD FIELD OFFICE IDAHO THE LOWER SALMON RIVER BOATING GUIDE, VINEGAR CREEK TO HELLER BAR Bureau of Land Management Cottonwood Field Office 2 Butte Drive Cottonwood, Idaho 83522 208-962-3245 The Lower Salmon River The Nez Perce Indians have occupied this area for millennia. They call this river “Tamaánma”, which translates to “something laying near the side of the river.” Early explorers dubbed it the “River of No Return” due to the difficulties they experienced trying to transport wooden boats upstream through roaring rapids. Whatever it is called, the dynamic Salmon River and the land it nourishes are very special. The 425-mile waterway is the longest completely free flowing river in the lower 48 states and one of the few in the nation that contains no dams. The river begins as not much more than a trickle at an elevation of about 8,000 feet in the Sawtooth and Whitecloud Mountains of central Idaho. It gathers force as it makes its way northeast and then west, fed by snows from the Sawtooth and Salmon River Mountains in the south and the Clearwater and Bitterroot Mountains in the north. About 150 miles further on its westward course, the Salmon River has created the second deepest canyon in North America, which effectively splits Idaho in half. The section known as the Lower Salmon River begins at Vinegar Creek, 26 miles upstream from the town of Riggins. At Riggins, the river swings north and then west for 86 miles where it meets the Snake River in Hells Canyon. The Snake River continues to flow into the Columbia River and eventually into the Pacific Ocean. The drainage area of the Salmon River, which lies entirely within Idaho’s borders, encompasses approximately 13,550 square miles. The river and its canyon are truly remarkable. The numerous – and unusual – white sand beaches are a reminder that this river is still free flowing. Respect the river, listen to it, learn from it, cooperate with it, and care for it. Bureau of Land Management TABLE OF CONTENTS INFORMATION .............1 REQUIREMENTS AND LAWS .............4 SAFETY .............7 RIVER ETIQUETTE .............8 AFTER YOUR TRIP .............9 CONSERVATION EASEMENTS .............10 SNOWHOLE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA .............11 WILD AND SCENIC RIVERS .............11 MAP INDEX .............12 MAP LEGEND .............13 MAP EXAMPLE .............14 RIVER MAPS .............15-75 HUMAN HISTORY .............36 GEOLOGY .............61 WILDLIFE .............76 PLANT LIFE .............80 7 12 Clarkston Lewiston C L E A R WAT E R 129 NEZ PERCE Asotin Sn e R iv ak ! · 11 7 L 62E W I S er 12 Rd . 62 64 WA S H I N G T O N 162 Heller Bar Cottonwood Sa lm on R iv 13 er Grangeville 95 Pine Bar 14 IDAHO Hammer Creek White Bird Whitebird Gravel Pit Pealy Campbell Flats Slate Creek Twin Bridges Pittsburgh Landing Long Gulch Maynard Hole OREGON Gospel-Hump Lucile Old Lucile Wilderness Carey Creek r Lightning Creek e R ive City of Riggins Sn ak Riggins ! · Spring Bar Island Bar ive Salmon R Shorts Bar Hells Canyon Wilderness ! · Boat Launches SCAT Machine Nez Perce Trail Bureau of Land Managment Nez Perce Tribe Private Idaho Dept. of Lands ADAMS Idaho Fish & Game VA L L E Y US Forest Service USFS Wilderness Access Sites 0 2 4 6 8 10 Kilometers 0 2 4 6 8 10 Miles New Meadows 55 Vinegar Creek r Information How to Use This Boater’s Guide This guide includes maps and information about the Salmon River from Vinegar Creek to the confluence with the Snake River and the Snake River from the Salmon / Snake confluence to Heller Bar below the Snake and Grande Ronde River confluence. This guide is intended to illustrate where beaches are located along with highlighting public and private land. The beaches will change in size, shape, and slope from year to year but the areas where sand is deposited is consistent. The images of the beaches were taken at flows between 3,400-8,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) on the Salmon River and at 9,000 cfs on the Snake River. The aerial photographs were taken at flows between 3,310-5,000 cfs on the Salmon River and 11,500 cfs on the Snake River. At higher flows, some beaches will be submerged under water and lower flows may expose more beaches/campsites. The river mile markers on the Salmon River represent the number of miles to the confluence with the Snake River. The river mile markers on the Snake River represent the number of miles to the confluence with the Columbia River. RIVER Sections The Lower Salmon is the last 112 miles of the Salmon River and is a pool-and-drop river, with the more difficult rapids in the narrow canyons and during higher flows. Numerous white sandy beaches on both sides of the river
THE UPPER SALMON RIVER BOATING GUIDE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO Idaho Department of Fish and Game | U.S. Forest Service | Bureau of Land Management Index And Location Map R Salmon ive NORTH FORK r ! S15 S14 CARMEN ! SALMON TO NEWLAND RANCH —22.9 miles SALMON ! S13 S12 McKIM CREEK TO SALMON —33.4 miles S11 S10 ELLIS THOMPSON CREEK TO McKIM CREEK —66.3 miles ! S9 S8 CHALLIS ! S7 STANLEY TO THOMPSON CREEK —26.4 miles S6 S2 ! S3 STANLEY S4 S5 ! CLAYTON S1 Map Location IDAHO Cover photography © Chad Case UPPER SALMON RIVER BOATING GUIDE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO Idaho Department of Fish and Game Salmon Regional Office 99 Highway 93 North Salmon, Idaho 83467 208-756-2271 Sawtooth National Forest 370 American Avenue Jerome, Idaho 83338 208-423-7500 Bureau of Land Management Idaho Falls District 1405 Hollipark Drive Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401 208-524-7500 Bureau of Land Management Challis Field Office 721 East Main Avenue, Suite 8 Challis, Idaho 83226 208-879-6200 Bureau of Land Management Salmon Field Office Salmon-Challis National Forest 1206 S. Challis Street Salmon, Idaho 83467 208-756-5400 THE RIVER’S NAMESAKE The Salmon river supports three separate species of anadromous fish (fish born in fresh water that migrates to the ocean to mature, then returns to fresh water to spawn). A salmon’s life begins and ends here in the mountains of Idaho. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (Onrcorhynchus nerka) travel nearly 900 miles to reach the spawning areas in the Stanley Basin and, unlike steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), die after spawning. All three species, as well as numerous other fish that make the Salmon River their home need clean, oxygen-filled water to survive. Dozens of wildlife and bird species also depend on the clean water and robust riparian zone of the Salmon River to survive, which is just one of many reasons to take care of this resource. o ok Chin salmon (fe male) ©Joseph Tomerelli Chinook salmon spend one year in fresh water before they make the long journey to the ocean. After one to three years in the ocean, they are big and mature, and head back to their spawning grounds. As they make their way to the mountains their bodies change, growing a hooked jaw and large, sharp teeth. S o c ke y e s a lm o n ©Joseph Tomerelli Sockeye salmon also undergo drastic change on the long journey from the ocean to the Salmon River. The males grow a hump on their back, their jaws become hooked, sharp teeth grow, and they turn from entirely bright blue-silver to bright red bodies with dark green heads. Sockeye spawn in river systems that contain lakes. Their smaller relative, kokanee, live their entire lives in the high lakes and rivers. iii Contents Index and Location Map The River’s Namesake i iii Whitewater Classes v Introduction 1 Laws and Requirements 2 Salmon Habitat Restoration 4 Safety 6 Ethics 7 Steelhead 10 Legend 12 The Headwaters 13 River Maps and Information 14 References 50 Idaho Birding Checklist 51 Emergency Contacts Administrative Offices Outfitters and Guides back cover iv WHITEWATER CLASSes Rapid ratings are a general guide to relative difficulty. Severe weather conditions, extreme water levels and remote locations all contribute to the danger of white water boating. Changes in water levels or flows cause variations in rapid difficulty. Scout any rapids you are not familiar with, and understand and respect your limitations. Class I Small waves, passages clear, no serious obstacles. Class II Medium-sized, regular waves; passages clear, some maneuvering may be required. Class III Waves are numerous, high and irregular; rocks, eddies, narrow passages; scouting usually required. Class IV Powerful, irregular waves; boiling eddies; dangerous rocks; congested passages; precise maneuvering required; scouting mandatory. Class V Exceedingly difficult; violent rapids often following each other without interruption; big drops, violent current, scouting mandatory, but often difficult. Class VI Limit of navigability, generally considered unnavigable. USGS Streamflows http://waterdata.usgs.gov/id/nwis/current/?type=flow Get real-time stream flows for most rivers in Idaho, water temperatures at some gauging stations and annual hydrograph charts that show when rivers typically get peak spring flows from the above website. v INTRODUCTION The Salmon River flows 425 miles through Idaho from its headwaters near Galena Summit in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area to its confluence with the Snake River on the Oregon border. It drains 14,000 square miles and drops more than 7,000 feet. The Salmon River has three distinct recreational segments: the Upper Salmon (Stanley to North Fork), the Main Salmon (Corn Creek to Carey Creek), and the Lower Salmon (White Bird to the Snake River confluence). This guidebook covers the 150 river miles from the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery in Stanley to North Fork and Newland Ranch. The Upper Salmon
U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management | Idaho Rare Plants of Idaho Front cover: Astragalus amnis-amissi, flowers, Lynn Kinter (IDNHP) U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management | Idaho Rare Plants of Idaho Idaho State Office 1387 S. Vinnell Way Boise, ID 83709 Written by Michael Mancuso, Anne Halford and Karen Colson March 21, 2019 Copies available from the BLM Idaho State Office BLM DISTRICT AND FIELD OFFICES IN IDAHO SCALE: 0 50 100 miles LEGEND DISTRICT BOUNDARY DISTRICT OFFICE LOCATION with colocated field office Coeur d'Alene Field Office Field Office Boundary Field Office Location Washington Public Land: BLM-Administered NORTH COEUR D’ALENE DISTRICT Cottonwood Field Office M on ta na Salmon Field Office Challis Field Office IDAHO FALLS DISTRICT Upper Snake Field Office BOISE DISTRICT Owyhee Field Office ii Shoshone Field Office TWIN FALLS DISTRICT Bruneau Field Office Nevada Wyoming Oregon Four Rivers Field Office Jarbidge Field Office Pocatello Field Office Burley Field Office Utah CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION Idaho Distribution Maps Taxonomy Conservation Category and Rank Definitions Glossary of Acronyms Used in the Field Guide 5 BLM DISTRICT AND FIELD OFFICE SPECIES GUIDE 9 13 17 21 25 31 35 41 45 49 53 57 63 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 99 105 109 115 119 123 SPECIAL STATUS PLANT SPECIES Abronia mellifera var. pahoveorum Allium aaseae Astragalus ambyltropis Astragalus amnis-ammissi Astragalus anserinus Astragalus aquilonius Astragalus asotinensis Astragalus atratus var. inceptus Astragalus jejunus var. jejunus Astragalus mulfordiae Astragalus oniciformis Astragalus packardiae Astragalus sterilis Calamagrostis tweedyi Carex aboriginum Carex idahoa Castilleja christii Chaenactis cusickii Eriogonum capistratum var. welshii Howellia aquatilis Lepidium papilliferum Mentzelia mollis Mirabilis macfarlanei Monardella angustifolia Oenothera psammophila Oxytropis besseyi var. salmonensis iii 127 137 141 145 151 157 163 167 Phacelia inconspicua Pinus albicaulis Polemonium elusum Silene spaldingii Spiranthes diluvialis Stanleya confertiflora Thelypodium repandum Trifolium owyheense 170 180 182 ASSOCIATED SPECIES LIST ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND REFERENCES ILLUSTRATIONS iv INTRODUCTION Idaho Bureau of Land Management (BLM) staff need information about Special Status Plant Species to assist with field surveys, setting data collection priorities, making conservation management decisions, and assessing conservation actions. To meet this need, the Idaho BLM State Office has initiated a project to produce an on-line field guide to Idaho BLM Special Status Plant Species. The purpose of this webbased field guide is to help users recognize and identify Special Status Plant Species in the field. The first installment includes 35 Special Status Plant Species. Additional taxa are planned for the future. The guide provides one-stop access to general description, field identification tips, and similar-looking species summaries, as well as basic taxonomic, conservation status, distribution, habitat, and phenology information. The field guide also includes an Idaho distribution map and color images for each species. The field guide is intended to assist agency, academic, consultant, and other biologists charged with conducting field surveys or other conservation-related work for Special Status Plant Species in Idaho. The field guide can also serve members of the public and citizen scientists interested in learning more about Idaho BLM Special Status Plants Species. The guide’s digital, on-line format allows for ready down-loading of hard copies that can be taken into the field or shared with colleagues. Making the guide available in a digital format will enable the species account information to reach a wider audience and be available more quickly compared to print media. The digital format also makes it easier to add more species accounts in the future and to update information about the species already in the guide in a more timely and inexpensive manner. Idaho Distribution Maps Idaho distribution maps in the field guide are based on Element Occurrence locations for each species in the Idaho Fish and Wildlife Information System database (Idaho Department Fish and Game 2018). Distributions are mapped at the Township scale; each Township depicted on the map contains one or more Element Occurrence locations. Occupied Townships are shaded red on the distribution maps. 1 Taxonomy Scientific plant names in the field guide follows the Flora of the Pacific Northwest, 2nd Edition (Hitchcock and Cronquist 2018). Nomenclature for species not included in this book follows the Intermountain Flora (Cronquist et al. 1972, Cronquist et al. 1977, Cronquist et al. 1984, Cronquist 1994, Barneby 1989, Cronquist et al. 1997, Holmgren et al. 2005, Holmgren et al. 2012). Conservation Category and Rank Definitions The field guide includes BLM conservation category and NatureSe
U.S. Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho NATIVE GARDENS FOR IDAHO PARTNERSHIP Boise School District Bureau of Land Management (BLM) City of Boise College of Western Idaho Garden City Garden Club Golden Eagle Audubon Society Idaho Department of Fish and Game Mancuso Botanical Services Steppe Environmental U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) West Ada School District WRITTEN BY Holly Hovis, BLM Kristin Lohr, USFWS CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS Anne Halford, BLM Chris Taylor, Boise School District Dave Hopper, USFWS Dusty Perkins, College of Western Idaho Judy Snow, Garden City Garden Club Karen Colson, USFWS Kristin Gnojewski, City of Boise, Parks and Recreation Lynell Sutter, Steppe Environmental Micah Lauer, West Ada School Distsrict Michael Mancuso, Mancuso Botanical Services Sean Finn, Golden Eagle Audubon Society DESIGN Antonia Hedrick, BLM AUGUST 2019 U.S. Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho IDAHO STATE OFFICE 1387 S. Vinnell Way Boise, ID 83709 208-373-4000 Blank Page or good place for Photo Monarch on showy milkweed, A. Hedrick Table of Contents Native Garden Guide 1 INTRODUCTION 2 SECTION A How to Get Started Forming a Team 5 SECTION B Funding and Grants 7 SECTION C Garden Design Design Tips Native Gardens in Southwest Idaho Public Perception Bird Habitat Garden Pollinator Habitat Garden Monarch Garden Sensory Garden Outreach 39 SECTION D Implementation Calculations Site Preparation Material Resources 47 SECTION E Maintenance Maintenance Schedule Maintenance Plan Example 52 SECTION F Master Plant List back cover RESOURCES Sage International Charter School Garden Introduction Welcome to the Native Garden Guide for Southwestern Idaho. This guide was created to help novice gardeners create waterwise, wildlifefriendly gardens using plants suitable for southwest Idaho. The information in this guide will assist backyard gardeners, urban planners, schools, and businesses transform their landscapes into native gardens. All plants listed in this guide are native to Idaho or to adjacent states with the same growing conditions. The purpose of this guide is to: • provide steps for developing and maintaining native gardens • provide examples of garden designs • provide lists of locally adapted native plants • aid in conserving water and attracting birds and pollinators • identify partners, local resources and funding opportunities Why Native Plants? Urban gardens can provide important habitat for animals such as birds and native pollinators (bees, butterflies, moths, hummingbirds). These gardens can be used for nesting, foraging, shelter, and as stopovers during spring and fall migration. Native plants are adapted to the growing conditions in our area, thus requiring less water than introduced plants. They also support more insects, including native pollinators, than nonnative plants. This means more habitat for native bees and more food for insecteating birds! Who needs a bird feeder when you have a native garden? Arrowleaf balsamroot, A. Hedrick 1 Section A How to Get Your Garden Started Some basic steps will help you in creating your garden. Your garden planning time will depend on the size of your garden and the number of interested individuals. A backyard garden can be easily planned and implemented within a few months. A community garden that serves many people may take up to one year of planning prior to installation. Basic Steps for a School or Community Garden 1. Form a team 2. Solicit input from staff, partners, or community 3. Create design 4. Present design to person approving garden 5. Develop schedule and coordinate with contractors or maintenance staff 6. Write grant proposals 7. Raise funds 8. After funding is awarded, refine plant list based on availability and order plants 9. Clear site of existing vegetation 10. Install hardscaping such as boulders and seating 11. Add topsoil if needed 12. Install irrigation 13. Plant 14. Protect plantings with temporary fencing 15. Install interpretive signs 16. Develop and implement garden maintenance plan Go team! Basic Steps for a Home Garden 1. Decide what your garden priorities are (water savings, pollinators, monarch butterflies, birds etc.). 2. Decide how much time you have to spend on a garden (little time = fewer plants that require less work). 3. Choose a design from this guide and adapt it to your space or create your own from the provided plant lists. 4. Figure out the cost of the garden. If you lack the funds, look for fall sales, grow plants from seed, or look for plant donations from fellow gardeners. 5. Clear the area to be planted. 6. Add compost and topsoil, if needed. 7. Install irrigation, if needed. 8. Plant. 9. Keep a planting plan. It helps with maintenance. 10. Mark your plants so you can tell the difference between what you p
A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills i ii Acknowledgements This field guide evolved through discussions of its need and usefulness with members of the Healthy Hills Initiative. It quickly developed into a group effort. Special thanks go to the following entities: Ada Soil and Water Conservation District www.AdaSWCD.org Healthy Hills Initiative www.HealthyHills.org Southwest Idaho Resource Conservation and Development Council www.IdahoRCD.org Boise State University www.BoiseState.edu Bureau of Land Management: Idaho State Office www.blm.gov/id/st/en.html Cover and title page photo generously donated by Michael Lanza, The Big Outside. www.TheBigOutside.com The authors of this field guide would like to thank the following people for kindly offering their professional advice: Nancy Cole, Antonia Hedrick, Scott Koberg, Bill Moore, Nancy Shaw, Roger Rosentreter, and Brett VanPaepeghem. Thanks to following people who contributed outstanding plant photographs: Matt Fisk, Matt Lavin, Ian Robertson, and Clinton Shock. iii A Field Guide to Plants of the Boise Foothills Jamie Utz Michael Pellant Jessica Gardetto Edited by Corey Gucker First edition, 2013 iv Contents Introduction to the foothills ............. 6 - 9 How to use this field guide ….………..… 10 Key to symbols ……………...……………….… 11 Plant profiles …………....…………..… 12 - 159 Shrubs/Trees …….………….… 12 - 23 Forbs ……….………………….… 24 - 121 Grasses ……………………….. 122 - 159 Glossary …………………….………….. 160 - 162 References ……………….………...…. 163 - 164 Index ......................................... 165 - 169 by common name........... 165 - 167 by scientific name........... 168 - 169 5 Introduction to the Boise Foothills Location The foothills north of Boise, Garden City, and Eagle make a beautiful backdrop for the urban areas below. This ecosystem provides city residents unparalleled recreational opportunities, serves as important wildlife habitat, provides clean water to residents, and supports the local economy. The foothills are also home to a wide variety of plants that have important ecological and economic roles. Native plants have naturally evolved with and adapted to the local foothills climate and soils. Nonnative plants are species that were introduced (accidentally or purposefully) to the foothills ecosystem. Both types of plants are important to understanding and appreciating the foothills. This guide provides the user with a tool to identify some of the more common native and nonnative plants found in the lower portion of the Boise Foothills (Figure 1). 55 21 16 44 20 26 84 Figure 1. The blue line on the map above indicates a general boundary that was used to select the plants featured in this field guide. 6 Environment Vegetation in the foothills is a product of the soils, slope, aspect, elevation, and the local climate. Soils are important because their texture, depth, nutrients, and other characteristics govern the types of plants found in this ecosystem. Additionally, aspect (i.e. the direction the slope of a hill faces), elevation, and precipitation are all factors that influence the presence and proportions of foothills plants. Disturbances such as wildfires and off-road vehicle or off-trail use can negatively affect this environment by reducing native plants and encouraging the entry or increase of nonnative invasive plants. Native Plants Plants native to the foothills evolved to withstand hot and dry summers, cold winters, periodic droughts, and infrequent wildfires. A healthy native foothills plant community is dominated by big sagebrush and bitterbrush with a diverse understory of grasses, forbs (wildflowers), lichens, and mosses (Figure 2). Foothills plant communities also contain several rare native plants, which are sparsely distributed and adapted to unique habitats. Figure 2. A healthy foothills plant community is a diverse mixture of shrubs, forbs, and grasses. Healthy native plant communities are resilient to natural disturbances and provide good watershed protection and wildlife habitat. 7 Nonnative Plants Most of the nonnative plants found in the Boise Foothills are of European or Asian origin. Some nonnative plants have desirable characteristics and were purposefully planted to meet land management objectives. However, other undesirable nonnative invasive plants have spread accidentally into the foothills, causing ecological and economic damage. These invasive plants compete with native plants for space, water, and nutrients. Several invasive grasses, exemplified by cheatgrass (Figure 3), increase the frequency and size of wildfires in the foothills, threatening homes and intact native plant communities. The negative impacts of some invasive plants are so severe that they are assigned the classification of noxious weed. A noxious weed is designated by the state of Idaho as any plant having the potential to cause injury to public health, livestock, crops, or other land or property. Figure 3. This photo shows cheatgra

also available

National Parks
USFS NW