Wildlife at Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).
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U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife List Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is located in eastern North Carolina and is divided between three counties, Washington, Tyrrell, and Hyde. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is one of 512 National Wildlife Refuges administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. The mission of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is to conserve fish and wildlife and their habitats. By accomplishing this goal, the Service helps protect a healthy environment for people to enjoy. photo: USFWS photo: Palmiseno photo: Bruce Eilerts photo: USFWS photo: USFWS Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge The Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge was acquired under the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956. In 1989, the Conservation Fund in conjunction with the Richard King Mellon Foundation purchased more than 104,000 acres of wetlands between Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. In 1990, the Conservation Fund donated over 93,000 acres to Pocosin Lakes. This led to the establishment of Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, which includes this donated land in combination with the adjacent 12,000 acres, formerly Pungo National Wildlife Refuge. Pocosin lakes includes over 2,000 acres of bottomland hardwood forests, 1,230 acres of agricultural farm fields, 7,300 acres of lakes, ponds, and impoundments, and over 100,000 acres of pocosin habitats. Pocosin, also known as southeast scrub bog, is characterized by a very dense growth of mostly evergreen shrubs and scattered pond pine. Organic soils occur on the majority of the refuge. These normally waterlogged soils range from 4 feet to over 10 feet in depths. The wildlife checklist is provided to inform refuge visitors about amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds that inhabit Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. The list was compiled from past wildlife surveys and field guides. During your visit, please be aware of the refuge signs. Some sections of the refuge are closed to the public to protect fragile habitat and wildlife. These areas will be posted with ‘area closed signs’. Observing wildlife can be exciting and informative. Field guides and binoculars are recommended. Please report any unusual or rare sightings to the refuge office. Amphibians The class Amphibia is derived from the greek ‘amphibia’ meaning both life. Typically, amphibians have a thin moist skin, lay a shell-less egg and pass through an aquatic or semi-terrestrial larval stage. Amphibians are very sensitive to habitat changes and are thus excellent indicators for environmental health. Amphibians include frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge provides habitat for 36 species of amphibians. Salmanders Lesser Siren Eastern Newt Two-toed Amphiuma Spotted Salamander Southern Duskey Salamander Three-lined Salamander Redback Salamander Mud Salamander Greater Siren Dwarf Mudpuppy Mabee’s Salamander Marbled Salamander Two-line Salamander Dwarf Salamander Slimey Salamander Many-lined Salamander Frogs and Toads Eastern Spadefoot toad Southern Toad Eastern Narrowmouth Toad Oak Toad Fowler’s Toad Southern Cricket Frog Green Treefrog Pine Woods Treefrog Little Grass Frog Southern Chorus Frog Bullfrog Pickerel Frog Squirrel Treefrog Carpenter Frog Southern Leopard Frog Gray Treefrog Spring Peeper Barking Treefrog Brimley’s Chorus Frog Ornate Chorus Frog Green Frog Reptiles The class Reptilia include turtles, lizards, snakes, and the alligators. Reptiles are air-breathers and have a dry outer covering of scales or scutes which provides protection from dehydration. Over 40 species of reptiles may be found in Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. Alligators American Alligator Turtles Snapping Turtle Eastern Musk Turtle Eastern Mud Turtle Florida Cooter Painted Turtle Spotted Turtle Yellowbelly Slider Eastern Box Turtle Lizards Carolina Anole Five-lined Skink Broadhead Skink Six-lined Racerunner Eastern Glass Lizard Snakes Worm Snake Ringneck Snake Rat Snake Rainbow Snake Eastern Kingsnake Banded Water Snake Brown Water Snake Glossy Crayfish Snake Black Swamp Snake Redbelly Snake Eastern Garner Snake Cottonmouth Pigmy Rattlesnake Eastern Fence Lizard Southeastern Five-lined Skink Ground Skink Slender Glass Lizard Black Rat Snake Corn Snake Mud Snake Eastern Hognose Snake Redbelly Water Snake Northern Water Snake Rough Green Snake Pine Woods Snake Brown Snake Eastern Ribbon Snake Copperhead Timber Rattlesnake Mammals Mammals are warm-blooded animals and have an outer covering of fur or hair. Pocosin Lakes provides habitats for over 40 mammal species. Many mammals are active mostly at night (nocturnal). The signs of their presence can be observed in their scat, tracks, fur, and scrape marks. Marsupials Virginia Opossum Insectivores Southeastern Shrew Least Shrew Shorttail Shrew Dismal Swamp Southeastern Shrew Star-nosed Mole Eastern Mole Bats Southeastern Myotis Silver-haired Bat Eastern Pipistrel Red Bat Big Brown Bat Hoary Bat Seminole Bat Evening Bat Eastern Big-eared Bat Carnivores Black Bear Red Wolf Racoon Long-tailed Weasel Mink Red Fox Gray Fox Coyote Bobcat River Otter Rodents Gray Squirrel Southern Flying Squirrel Golden Mouse Cotton Mouse Eastern Harvest Mouse House Mouse Hispid Cotton Rat Norway Rat Marsh Rice Rat Muskrat Nutria Meadow Vole Beaver Black Rat White-footed Mouse Rabbits Eastern Cottontail Marsh Rabbit photo: Michelle Hoggard Hoofed Mammals White-tailed Deer Birds Birds, like mammals are warm-blooded. Their outer covering consists of feathers. Pocosin Lakes provides wintering habitat for thousands of ducks, geese and swans. Throughout the year over 200 species of birds occur in the abundant habitats found at Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. The bird check list is based on past surveys and information from field guides. The seasonal occurrence and abundance of these species are coded as follows: Seasonal appearance Sp - Spring, March - May S - Summer, June - August F - Fall, September - November W - Winter, December - February Seasonal abundance a - abundant (a common species which is very numerous) c - common (certain to be seen in suitable habitat) u - uncommon (present but not certain to be seen) o - occasional (seen only a few times during a season) r - rare (seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years) * - nests on the refuge SP S F W Loons Common loon r Grebes Pied-billed grebeu u u c c Pelicans and Allies Double-crested Cormorant c u c c Herons, Egrets, and Allies American Bittern* Least Bittern* Great Blue Heron* Snowy Egret Little Blue Heron Cattle Egret Great Egret Green-backed Heron* Tri-colored Heron Black-crowned Night Heron Yellow-crowned Night Heron u u c u u o u c o u r u u c o u u u c o u r u u c o u o u u o u c u o o o Ibises Glossy Ibis White Ibis r r u u Waterfowl Tundra Swan White-fronted Goose Snow Goose Canada Goose* Wood Duck* Green-winged Teal American Black Duck* Mallard* Northern Pintail Blue-winged Teal Northern Shoveler Gadwall American Wigeon Canvasback Redhead Ring-necked Duck Lesser Scaup Oldsquaw Common Goldeneye Bufflehead Hooded Merganser Common Merganser Red-breasted Merganser Ruddy Duck Vultures, Hawks, and Allies Black Vulture* Turkey Vulture* Osprey* Bald Eagle Golden Eagle Sharp-shinned Hawk* Cooper’s Hawk Red-tailed Hawk* Northern Harrier Broad-winged Hawk Merlin American Kestrel Peregrine Falcon SP S F W r r u a u u u u u u u u u a a r a c a a a a a u a a a o o c o a r a c a a a a a u a a a o o c o r r c c r o c u u c c r o c u c o o u c o r u c o o c o c o u o c c o c c o c c o o c Gallinaceous Birds (quail, turkey, and allies) Northern Bobwhite a a a Rails, Gallinules, Coots, Cranes Yellow Rail King Rail* Virginia Rail* Sora Black Rail Common Moorhen American Coot u u o r r c u u o r u c u o u c o r c o c c c c o a u u u o r r a Shorebirds Black-bellied Plover Killdeer* Golden Plover American Avocet Black-necked Stilt Greater Yellowlegs Lesser Yellowlegs Solitary Sandpiper Upland Sandpiper Willet Spotted Sandpiper Semipalmated Sandpiper Western Sandpiper Least Sandpiper Pectoral Sandpiper Dunlinr Short-billed Dowitcher Long-billed Dowitcher Common Snipe American Woodcock Laughing Gull Bonaparte’s Gull Ring-billed Gull Herring Gull Greater Black-backed Gull Royal Tern Forster’s Tern Common Tern Caspian Tern Black Tern Pigions,Doves Mourning Dove* Rock Dove Ground Dove Cuckoos Black-billed Cuckoo Yellow-billed Cuckoo* Owls Barn Owl* Long-eared Owl Eastern Screech Owl* Great Horned Owl*. Barred Owl* Saw Whet Owl Nightjars Common Nighthawk Chuck-will’s-widow Whip-poor-will SP S F W r u u o u r r o u o r u u o r o r r o u o c c c r r r u u o o c o o r o o u u u o r r o u u o c c r u o o o r r u c r r c o r r r o o r o r c o c o c o r c o r u u u u u u u u u r u u r u r u r u r o u o o u o o r o SP Swifts, Hummingbirds Chimney Swift* Ruby-throated Hummingbird* S F o u o u W Kingfisher Belted Kingfisher c c c c Woodpeckers Red-headed Woodpecker* Red-bellied Woodpecker Red-cockaded Woodpecker* Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Downy Woodpecker Hairy Woodpecker* Northern Flicker* Pileated Woodpecker* o u u u u u c u o u u u u c u o u u u u u c u o u u u u u c u u u u u u u u u c c Flycatcher Eastern Wood Pewee Acadian Flycatcher* Eastern Phoebe Great Crested Flycatcher* Western Kingbird Eastern Kingbird* u r c r u Larks Horned Lark r Martins and Swallows Purple Martin* Tree Swallow* Bank Swallow Rough-winged Swallow Barn Swallow c c o u u c c o u u o c u Jays and Crows Blue Jay* Common Crow* Fish Crow* u a c u a c u a c u a c Chickadees and Titmice Carolina Chickadee* Tufted Titmouse* c u c u c u c u Nuthatches Red-breasted Nuthatch White-breasted Nuthatch* Brown-headed Nuthatch* u u u u r u u r r u o o Creepers Brown Creeper Wrens Sedge Wren Carolina Wren* House Wren* Marsh Wren* Winter Wren SP S F W u u u u u u u c u u u c o o o o o o o u u a c Kinglets and Gnatchatchers Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* o o Bluebirds, Thrushes, and Robins Eastern Bluebird* Swainson’s Thrush Hermit Thrush Wood Thrush* American Robin* o o u c a o c a o o u u a Thrushes Gray Catbird* Northern Mockingbird* Brown Thrasher* c a c c a c c a c Pipits Water Pipits u o a u Waxwings Cedar Waxwings o Starling European Starling* a Shrike Loggerhead Shrike o o a a a o o o o Vireos White-eyed Vireo* Yellow-throated Vireo Red-eyed Vireo* Solitary Vireo u r u u u u u Warblers Orange-crowned Warbler Northern Parula Yellow Warbler* Magnolia Warbler Yellow-throated Warbler* Common Yellowthroat* Pine Warbler* Prairie Warbler* Palm Warbler Black and White Warbler o o r u c u u u c o u r r r r o o u u u u r r S F c u c W photo: David Kitts SP American Redstart Prothonotary Warbler* Worm-eating Warbler Swainson’s Warbler Ovenbird Northern Waterthrush Hooded Warbler* Yellow-breasted Chat Tanagers Summer Tanager New World Seedeaters Northern Cardinal* Indigo Bunting* Blue Grosbeak* Snow Bunting Purple Finch House Finch Pine Siskin American Goldfinch Evening Grosbeak Rufous-sided Towhee* Chipping Sparrow Field Sparrow Vesper Sparrow Savannah Sparrow Grasshopper Sparrow Seaside Sparrow Fox Sparrow Swamp Sparrow Song Sparrow White-throated Sparrow White-crowned Sparrow Lincoln’s Sparrow Le Conte’s Sparrow House Sparrow Clay-colored Sparrow Dark-eyed Junco Sharp-tailed Sparrow u r o o r r u o u o r u u c u u c u u o c u c u u c u u o o c u u u u u u u u u u u c u r u r r u r c r u u u o o c u u o c o u c c c u u r r r c r SP Blackbird, Grackles, Cowbirds, Orioles Bobolink o Red-winged Blackbird* a Eastern Meadowlark* a Rusty Blackbird Brewer’s Blackbird Boat-tailed Grackle u Common Grackle* a Brown-headed Cowbird* c Orchard Oriole* u Northern Orioler Weaver Finches House Sparrow* u S F a a o a c u a c u a c u u W a a o r u a c u *probably nests on refuge based on habitats available and references from field guides. However, breeding bird surveys have not been conducted to confirm nests as of the writing of this list. Ethics for Birdwatching Take care not to disturb nesting birds, exposing eggs and young to extreme temperatures and predation. Disturb wintering wildlife as little as possible, particularly during critical feeding and resting periods. They need all of their energy reserves to withstand the stresses of harsh weather and migration. photo: David Kitts Do not litter. Many birds die when they become entangled in fishing lines, 6-pack rings and other trash, or when they mistake garbage for food. Sighting Notes Date _____________________________ ______________________________ Time _______________________________ _______________________________ Weather _____________________________ ______________________________ __________________________________ ______________________________ No. of species _______________________________ _______________________________ ______________________________ Route or area ______________________________ ______________________________ Observers _____________________________ ______________________________ Remarks ______________________________ _____________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ The blue goose, designed by Ding Darling, has become a symbol of the Refuge System. For additional information contact: Refuge Manager Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge 3255 Shore Drive Creswell, NC 27928 ______________________________ _______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ photo: David Kitts photo: USFWS SP Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge 3255 Shore Drive Creswell, North Carolina 27928 252/797 4431 http://www.fws.gov/~r4eao U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD September 1998 S F W