Alligator River

National Wildlife Refuge - North Carolina

The Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge is located in eastern North Carolina along the Atlantic Coast.It preserves and protects a unique wetland habitat type—the pocosin—and its associated wildlife species. The refuge attracts visitors worldwide for its red wolf (Canis rufus) howling programs and is also home to the Dare County Bombing Range.

maps

Official visitor map of Cape Hatteras National Seashore (NS) in North Carolina. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Cape Hatteras - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Cape Hatteras National Seashore (NS) in North Carolina. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

brochures

Brochure of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Brochure

Brochure of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Map of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Map

Map of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Fact Sheet of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Fact Sheet

Fact Sheet of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Brochure of Charles Kuralt Trail Sheet at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Charles Kuralt Trail

Brochure of Charles Kuralt Trail Sheet at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Geocache Card for Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Geocache Card

Geocache Card for Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Birds at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Birds

Birds at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Endangered Red Wolves at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Endangered Red Wolves

Endangered Red Wolves at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Red Wolves Fact Sheet for Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Red Wolve - Fact Sheet

Red Wolves Fact Sheet for Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Red Wolves Tear Sheet for Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Red Wolve - Tear Sheet

Red Wolves Tear Sheet for Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Black Bears at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Black Bears

Black Bears at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Hunting at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Alligator River - Hunting

Hunting at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Carolina. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Alligator River NWR https://www.fws.gov/refuge alligator_river https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alligator_River_National_Wildlife_Refuge The Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge is located in eastern North Carolina along the Atlantic Coast.It preserves and protects a unique wetland habitat type—the pocosin—and its associated wildlife species. The refuge attracts visitors worldwide for its red wolf (Canis rufus) howling programs and is also home to the Dare County Bombing Range.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge Introduction Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1984 and located on the mainland of eastern North Carolina, contains approximately 152,000 acres. The refuge was established to protect and manage unique forested wetland communities and associated wildlife species. Background Long ago, the area that now comprises Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge was considered by most people to be a vast wasteland. Visitors to the Outer Banks from the west made special effort to complete their journeys before dark, lest they risk a vehicle breakdown in “noman’s land.” Frightening stories of bears, snakes, and other creatures coupled with the mile after uninhabited mile on both Highways 64 and 264 made the casual traveler cautious, if not suspicious, of being stranded there. Joe Folta Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge has large acreage of pocosin habitat. “Pocosin” is a native American word meaning “swamp on a hill.” These wetlands are characterized by deep organic soils resulting in peat deposits that can hold vast quantities of water. However, when dry, these pocosins are highly susceptible to wildfire, with the possibility of a subsurface fire that can burn for months. USFWS The National Wildlife Refuge System is an extensive network of lands and waters protected and managed especially for wildlife and its habitat. Refuges stretch across the United States from above the Arctic Circle in Alaska to the subtropical waters of the Florida Keys and beyond to the Caribbean and South Pacific. The National Wildlife Refuge System is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service which protects and manages over 500 refuges for wildlife and for people to enjoy. In the late 1970’s, biologists began to realize that many wetland communities were being destroyed at an alarming rate, including the USFWS Steve Maslowski USFWS Odie Olsen Throughout the coastal plain, pocosins were drained and then logged or farmed. Vast areas were clear-cut for the old growth cypress or Atlantic white cedar. The market price on this lumber supported the costly mechanics of retrieving it from such an inaccessible habitat. At the same time, “superfarms” were springing up throughout the region. Pocosins were going, going,.... Through the concerted efforts of several private conservation organizations and federal and state land management agencies, a campaign was launched to stop the destruction of these pocosin habitats before it was too late. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge was established through a donation of 118,000 acres from Prudential Life Insurance Company. It has reached John and Karen Hollingsworth© its current size through purchases made with Congressional appropriations. The refuge was set aside to protect and manage the area’s unique wetlands and the wildlife species that use them. Also targeted in the objectives for the new refuge were endangered and threatened species, waterfowl, black bear, and both consumptive and nonconsumptive wildlife dependent recreation. pocosins that covered almost half of this area. Before that time, no one had made an effort to determine exactly what role these wetlands played in the overall scheme of environmental complexities. A closer look at these sponge-like wetlands revealed a significant role indeed. In fact, the functions of the pocosin impacted the quality of the environment in a big way—especially relating to diversity of wildlife and water quality. A Place for Wildlife Many species of wildlife call Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge home. The refuge bird list suggests that 200 species of birds spend at least a portion of their time here. Many neotropical migrants, such as prothonotary warblers, prairie warblers, Swainson’s warblers, worm-eating warblers, and red-eyed vireos nest in the thick pocosin vegetation. Wood ducks, barred owls, and other cavity nesters seek the old trees inevitably left by loggers due to their inaccessible locations. Endangered and threatened species found on the refuge include the American alligator, American bald eagle, peregrine falcon, red wolf, and the redcockaded woodpecker. The refuge is also home to one of the largest remaining concentrations of black bear along the mid-Atlantic coast. The role of management is significant on this refuge. Before man began altering the environment, nature provided processes to recycle nutrients and provide a network of Red Wolf Program The red wolf was in trouble long before Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge existed. Native to the southeastern part of the United States, the species had been eradicated from all but a small segment of its original range. By the early 1970’s, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service had captured the few remaining red wolves and declared the species extinct in the wild. Through captive breeding, red Steve Maslowski living spaces to meet the needs of a variety of wildlife.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge Yours to enjoy... Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge encompasses a broad expanse (152,000 acres) of mysterious wildlands and waters. Visitors are welcome to explore this unique upland swamp refuge. Designated wildlife drive and trails offer the best wildlife viewing opportunities. Black bear, deer, river otters, and red wolves, along with a variety of birds, reptiles, and amphibians may be seen. During the winter months, large numbers of waterfowl and other migratory birds are present. Wildlife viewing is best from a safe distance. If you plan to venture into areas not designated as roads or trails on this map, please inform a responsible person of your plans. Be aware that poison ivy, ticks, insect pests, poisonous snakes (cotton-mouths, copperheads, and timber rattlers), and other natural nuisances and hazards may be encountered. This is your National Wildlife Refuge. Please enjoy your refuge experience, but handle with care. Tips for Wildlife Viewing Wildlife are usually most active at dawn and dusk. Walk or drive slowly and quietly; stop frequently to watch and listen. Be friendly to other visitors; often they will share information! Bring binoculars or spotting scopes and field guides. Bring insect repellent and a non-alcoholic drink. You Can Help By obeying regulations and respecting the refuge, wildlife, and other visitors. By volunteering your time. Contact the Volunteer Coordinator at 252/473 1131 ext. 227. By joining the Coastal Wildlife Refuge Society, P. O. Box 1808, Manteo, NC 27954 100% of your membership fees and donations support refuge programs. In addition to these provisions, all State laws, County codes, and Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations apply on the Refuge. If you have any questions about the legality of any activity, please contact the Refuge Manager. Regulations General The Refuge is open during daylight hours only (1/2-hour before sunrise to 1/2-hour after sunset). Camping, open fires, feeding or baiting of wildlife, swimming in Refuge canals, or entering any area posted with “Area Closed” signs is prohibited. All domestic pets (dogs, cats, horses, etc.) must be properly confined, leashed (10-foot maximum), or haltered and under owner control at all times. Littering or dumping of garbage, refuse, sewage, debris, or other wastes or poisons is prohibited. The use of a spotlight, automotive headlight, or other artificial light to spot, observe, locate, or take any animal is prohibited. Taking, possessing, injuring, disturbing, damaging, destroying, or collecting any plant or animal (or attempting these actions) is prohibited. Destroying, defacing, damaging, disturbing, or removing any private or public property, including any natural object or artifact, is prohibited. The use or possession of metal detectors or similar devices is prohibited. Disturbing, molesting, or interfering with any person engaged in an authorized activity is prohibited. Engaging in any act of indecency or disorderly conduct (as defined by State or local laws) is prohibited. Entering or remaining on the Refuge when under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance is prohibited. For More Information National Wildlife Refuges Visitor Center 100 Conservation Way, Manteo, NC 27954 phone: 252/473 1131 email: alligatorriver@fws.gov http://www.fws.gov/alligatorriver http://www.fws.gov/ncgatewayvc Begging or soliciting in any form or conducting a commercial enterprise on the Refuge is prohibited. Refuge visitors are reminded that the Wildlife Drive (see map) is adjacent to several hunting areas. Please be aware that hunting is allowed during specific seasons, and be cautions and courteous when visiting areas shared with other refuge users. Hunting/Trapping/Fishing/Weapons Taking or possessing of bear, turkey, bobcat, any furbearer, or any part thereof, is prohibited, except when transporting same along an NC State road or U.S. highway. Carrying, possessing, or discharging fireworks or explosives is prohibited. Firearms may be discharged only by persons engaged in public hunting. Possession of firearms is permitted in accordance with State law. Hunting and fishing are subject to State and local regulations, seasons, and bag limits. A Refuge permit is required for hunting. Vehicles/Roads/Trails The speed limit on all Refuge roads, unless otherwise posted, is 35 miles per hour. State traffic laws that govern the use and operation of vehicles apply on the Refuge. Motorized vehicles are allowed only on designated roads. Refuge roads closed to motorized vehicles are open for walking and bicycle riding, unless posted as closed to all entry. Horseback riding is allowed only on roads open to motorized vehicles. Groups of 6 or more horses must have a Refuge Special Use Permit. Operating any vehicle or boat that does not bear valid license plates or identification numbers and that is not properly lighted, certified, registered, or
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge photo: USFWS photo: USFWS Refuge Facts ■ Established: March 14, 1984. ■ Size: 153,000 acres lying on the mainland portions of Dare and Hyde Counties, North Carolina. ■ Location: 15 miles west of Manteo, NC on US Highways 64 and 264. ■ Roughly 28 miles north to south and 15 miles east to west. ■ Bordered on the west by the Alligator River and the Intracoastal Waterway; on the north by Albemarle Sound; on the east by Croatan and Pamlico Sounds; and on the south by Long Shoal River and corporate farmland. ■ photo: USFWS photo: USFWS ■ Mike Bryant, Refuge Manager Alligator River NWR P. O. Box 1969 708 North Highway 64 Manteo, NC 27954 Phone: 252/473 1131 Fax: 252/473 1668 E-mail: alligatorriver@fws.gov Lead Refuge in NC Coastal Plain Refuges Complex, which includes Alligator River, Pea Island, Pocosin Lakes, Mackay Island, Currituck, and Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuges. ■ Financial Impact of Refuge ■ 29-person staff (includes Alligator River and Pea Island, Fire Program, and Red Wolf Recovery Program). ■ 62,000 visitors annually. ■ Current budget (FY 07) $3,521,000 (includes Alligator River and Pea Island National Wildlife Refuges, Fire Program, and Red Wolf Recovery Program). ■ Attracts visitors worldwide for Red Wolf Howling programs. ■ Serves as a “gateway” to other eastern North Carolina refuges, encouraging visitors to venture inland into the counties with fewer economic advantages. Comprehensive Conservation Plan was completed June 8, 2007. Natural History ■ Established to preserve and protect a unique wetland habitat type “the pocosin” and its associated wildlife species. ■ First ever attempt to re-establish a species (the red wolf) that was extinct in the wild. ■ Diversity of habitat types including high and low pocosin, bogs, fresh and brackish water marshes, hardwood swamps, and Atlantic white cedar swamps. ■ Plant species include pitcher plants and sun dews, low bush cranberries, bays, Atlantic white cedar, pond pine, gums, red maple, and a wide variety of herbaceous and shrub species common to the East Coast. ■ One of the last remaining strongholds for black bear on the Eastern seaboard. Concentrations of ducks, geese, and swans; wildlife diversity includes wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, black bears, American alligators, white-tailed deer, raccoons, rabbits, quail, river otters, red wolves, red-cockaded woodpeckers, and neotropical migrants. Refuge Goals ■ Inventory, protect, and manage to maintain healthy and viable populations of threatened and endangered species (e.g., red wolf and red-cockaded woodpecker), other priority wildlife (migratory birds and black bear), and fish. ■ Inventory and manage to provide diverse, high quality mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain forested wetlands, marshes, aquatic habitats, and areas intensively managed for wildlife. ■ Provide safe, quality wildlifedependent recreation opportunities for people to learn about and enjoy the wildlife resources and habitats of the refuge and of the National Wildlife Refuge. ■ Limit the adverse impacts of development to refuge resources and allow natural processes to dominate on candidate wilderness areas. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Management Tools ■ Restoration of historic water levels altered by past logging and farming operations. ■ Water management for waterfowl, shorebirds, wading birds, and other wildlife. ■ Moist soil management for waterfowl, shorebirds, and wading birds. ■ Atlantic white cedar restoration. ■ Approximately 2,500 acres of cooperative farming for black bears, red wolves, and waterfowl. ■ Wildlife and habitat surveys. ■ Red wolf re-establishment. ■ Prescribed burning and wildfire suppression. ■ Mechanical/chemical control of invasive plants. ■ Deer, small game, and waterfowl hunting. ■ Environmental education. ■ Wildlife interpretation. ■ Outreach. ■ Law enforcement. ■ Partnerships. Public Use Opportunities ■ Universally-accessible foot trails and fishing dock. ■ Auto tour route (11 miles). ■ Paddling trails (15 miles). ■ Wildlife observation and photography. ■ Hunting and fishing. ■ Guided interpretive programs, including Red Wolf Howlings, Bear and Wolf talks and Canoe Tours (fee program). ■ Environmental education. Calendar of Events April-December: Red Wolf Howlings. April: Earth Day, National Wildlife Week, scheduled canoe tours (fee program). May: International Migratory Bird Day. June-August: Summer Programs, scheduled canoe tours (fee program). September: dove season, bow season for deer. October: National Wildlife Refuge Week; Howl-O-Ween Howlings; primitive weapon and conventional weapon hunting for deer, raccoon, squirrel, waterfowl, and opossum. November: Wings Over Water, conventional hunting for quail, snipe, and rabbit. Questions and Answers What can I do to help Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge? You can help this refuge by voluntee
Alligator River Na onal Wildlife Refuge Geocache Card When you have completed at least 10 sta ons, visit the informa on desk at the Na onal Wildlife Refuges Visitor Center for a prize. If you are unable to use the embosser at a sta on, write down the code to receive credit. Atlantic White Cedar Forest Moderate Wet N 35° 46.858’ W 75°51.2558’ What caused the forest’s demise? ___________________________ Cypress-Gum Forest Rough terrain for vehicles N 35° 48.441’ W 75° 51.559’ How high do the trees grow here? ____________________________ ___________________________ ____________________________ Cropland Easy N 35° 49.851’ W 75°50.347’ Principal crops grown here: ___________________________ Low Shrub Pocosin Moderate Wet N 35° 37.423’ W 75°47.192’ How high do the shrubs grow here? ____________________________ ___________________________ ____________________________ Pine/Hardwood Forest Moderate N 35° 36.878’ W 75°49.935’ What type of pine tree are here? ____________________________ Brackish Marsh Moderate Wet N 35° 46.188’ W 75°44.513’ What types of water are here? ___________________________ ____________________________ ___________________________ Pond Pine/Shrub Pocosin Easy N 35° 51.789’ W 75° 51.576 What finds shelter here? __________________________ Freshwater Pools Moderate Wet N 35° 50.267’ W 75°55.253’ Why is the water dark here? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Administrative Easy N 35°51.283’ W 75°51.754 Prominent bird found here: ___________________________ Pond Pine Cane Pocosin Moderate Wet N 35° 46.621’ W 75°49.107’ What can be found here? __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ Shrub/Marsh Transition Moderate Wet N 35° 55.017’ W 75°47.218’ Which wildlife species like it here? ___________________________ Non-Alluvial Hardwood Forest Moderate Wet N 35° 54.596’ W 75°56.467’ What trees are dominant here? __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ Updated June 2013. More sta ons will be added soon! Ques ons/Comments? Contact the Refuge at alligatorriver@fws.gov InstrucƟons for Alligator River NaƟonal Wildlife Refuge Habitat Geocache Welcome to this new and exci ng program at the refuge! Geocaching is a high–tech scavenger hunt that is now being modified to help you enjoy na onal wildlife refuges in eastern North Carolina. Tradi onal geocaching consists of hiding and seeking a physical cache: coins, logbook and more. Burying, placing or removing a physical cache is prohibited on na onal wildlife refuges because sensi ve natural or cultural resources could be damaged. A er you print off this clue sheet, it’s me to head out to the refuge. You will navigate to a specific set of GPS coordinates and then a empt to find the geocache post at that loca on. Once you find the post, answer the ques on on the report sheet. You will then open the top of the post and use the a ached embosser to “collect” an embossed image of the habitat type in the corresponding box on the report sheet. If for some reason the embosser isn’t working, write down the code from the front panel. Once you complete at least 10 of the sta ons, stop by the Na onal Wildlife Refuges Visitor Center on Roanoke Island to receive a refuge pin. The Visitor Center is located on Business Hwy 64 and Conserva on Way just west of Fort Raleigh and the Lost Colony. Call 252‐473‐1131 for direc ons. IMPORTANT addiƟonal informaƟon: The refuge is open during daylight hours only. All refuge regula ons are in effect while you are on refuge land. Please take a refuge leaflet with you so you are aware of open and closed areas. To be safe, always tell someone where you are going and when they should expect you back! Depending on the me of the year, you may encounter knee‐to‐waist‐deep muck, bi ng or s nging insects, poisonous snakes, thick vegeta on, or other natural challenges. Always be careful and look where you are pu ng your hands and feet. Please contact the refuge at 252‐473‐4180 or alligatorriver@fws.gov with any ques ons or sugges ons. If you find that any of the sites have been damaged or vandalized, please let us know so we can correct the problem. This is a new program at the refuge, and we welcome all comments!
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge Bird List Indigo Bunting Black-throated Green Warbler Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge This blue goose, designed by J. N. “Ding” Darling, has become a symbol of the National Wildlife Refuge System. Pileated Woodpecker Northern Parula Birds of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge provides a variety of habitat for over 250 species of birds. The diversity of refuge habitat includes high and low pocosin (pond pine bogs), fresh and brackish water marshes, hardwood swamps, Atlantic white cedar swamps, and managed farming areas. The Refuge is of importance as a major breeding area for many species of songbirds. Truly impressive are the breeding populations of Prairie Warblers, Prothonotary Warblers, and Common Yellowthroats. The Refuge is of special significance as the last major stronghold of the Southeastern Coastal Plain population of Black-throated Green Warblers. Observant birders will notice that several species of “common” songbirds are relatively scarce (completely absent in some cases) as breeders in this coastal location—species like Wood Thrush, Red-eyed Vireo, American Redstart, and Summer Tanager. This biologically fascinating area may still hold ornithological secrets—it was recently discovered that Blackbilled Cuckoos over-summer (and presumably breed) in the Refuge some years, and that Northern Sawwhet Owls sometimes overwinter in numbers. The Refuge has several colonies of the endangered Redcockaded Woodpeckers, although these are rather inaccessible. This bird list covers birds found within the Refuge’s 152,000 acres, as well as the 45,000+ acre Dare County Range found within the Refuge’s borders and waters immediately adjacent. Although much of the Refuge can be difficult to access, especially during wet weather, accessible areas are an unexplored adventure for the enthusiastic birder. At any season, The Refuge can be an excellent complement to a birding excursion on the nearby Outer Banks (Cape Hatteras National Seashore, Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge). During late fall and winter, the 5,100-acre farming area attracts an impressive variety of waterfowl and raptors, and several rarities—such as Swainson’s Hawk and Ash-throated Flycatcher—have been found here. At any season, you might see Northern Bobwhites, and maybe a King Rail. Please pay attention to refuge regulations and signs marking closed areas. Prothonotary Warbler When and Where In addition to walking trails, there are 15 miles of paddling trails which offer access to Refuge habitats. Creef Cut Wildlife Trail includes an observation platform which overlooks a moist soil management unit and a boardwalk over a freshwater marsh. Waterfowl (during the winter months), raptors, and woodpeckers are common at this location. Sandy Ridge Wildlife Trail offers access to Milltail Creek wetland areas and wanders through Atlantic white cedar stands, areas with wood duck boxes, and Prothonotary Warbler nesting areas. Swainson’s Warblers have also been heard here. Sp - Spring S - Summer F - Fall W - Winter Northern Flicker March-May June-August September-November December-February C Common (easily seen in suitable habitat) F Fairly common (seen most of the time in suitable habitat) U uncommon (usually present but not certain to be seen) O occasional (seen only a few times during a season) R rare (seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years) A Accidental (extremely rare; birds that are completely outside of normal range) Eastern Screech-Owl * breeds or has bred on the Refuge SP S F W ___Greater White-fronted Goose A ___Snow Goose O O O ___Canada Goose U O U U ___Brant R ___Tundra Swan U U C ___Wood Duck* F F F F ___Gadwall U U U ___American Wigeon O U U ___American Black Duck* U O U U ___Mallard F O F C ___Blue-winged Teal U F O ___Northern Shoveler F F F ___Northern Pintail O C C ___Green-winged Teal U F C ___Canvasback O O ___Redhead O O ___Ring-necked Duck U U F ___Greater Scaup O O O ___Lesser Scaup U U U ___Common Eider A ___Surf Scoter O O O ___Black Scoter O O U ___Bufflehead F F F ___Common Goldeneye O ___Hooded Merganser U U F ___Red-breasted Merganser U O U ___Ruddy Duck O U F ___Wild Turkey* U U U U ___Northern Bobwhite* C C C C ___Red-throated Loon O O U ___Common Loon F R U F ___Pied-billed Grebe U R U F ___Horned Grebe O U ___Wilson’s Storm Petrel A A ___Brown Pelican C C C C ___Double-crested Cormorant C U C C ___Anhinga* O O O ___American Bittern U R U U ___Great Blue Heron* C F C C ___Great Egret U F F U ___Snowy Egret U U U O ___Little Blue Heron O U U O ___Tricolored Heron U U U O ___Cattle Egret U U O ___Green Heron* F F U ___Black-crowned Night-Heron O O O O ___Yellow-crowned Night-Heron R R R ___White Ibis F F F U ___Glossy Ibis O O O ___Black Vulture O O O O ___Turkey Vulture* C C C C SP S F W F ___Osprey* F
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Red Wolves The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is reintroducing red wolves to prevent extinction of the species and to restore the ecosystems in which red wolves once occurred, as mandated by the Endangered Species Act of 1973. According to the Act, endangered and threatened species are of aesthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific value to the nation and its people. Greg Koch On the Edge of Extinction The red wolf historically roamed as a top predator throughout the southeastern U.S. but today is one of the most endangered animals in the world. Aggressive predator control programs and clearing of forested habitat combined to cause impacts that brought the red wolf to the brink of extinction. By 1970, the entire population of red wolves was believed to be fewer than 100 animals confined to a small area of coastal Texas and Louisiana. In 1980, the red wolf was officially declared extinct in the wild, while only a small number of red wolves remained in captivity. During the 1970’s, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service established criteria which helped distinguish the red wolf species from other canids. From 1974 to 1980, the Service applied these criteria to find that only 17 red wolves were still living. Based on additional breeding studies, only 14 of these wolves were selected as founders to begin the red wolf captive breeding population. The captive breeding program is coordinated for the Service by the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium in Tacoma, Washington, with goals of conserving red wolf genetic diversity and providing red wolves for restoration to the wild. Approximately 40 cooperating facilities across North America participate in the national breeding program. Melanie McGaw © Back in the Wild The red wolf is a shy species with a segment of its population now back in the wild, hunting, raising young, and howling across portions of its native habitat. The reintroduction effort began in 1987 with the release of four captive-bred red wolf pairs into the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR), the first-ever restoration of an officially extinct species back into the wild. Since this initial restoration, nearly 100 red wolves now roam over 1.7 million acres of public and private land in northeastern North Carolina. FWS biologist conducting a hard release The northeastern North Carolina location is the only wild red wolf mainland population site in the world. In 1988, a litter of red wolf pups was born in the wild at ARNWR, the first wildborn pups in almost a decade. Another milestone was reached in 2002, when all red wolves in this wild population were born in the wild. Ongoing innovations in red wolf management mean success of this restored red wolf population continues. Small numbers of red wolves also live in the wild on island propagation sites on national wildlife refuges in other southeastern states. Why restore red wolves? Essential reasons are to prevent extinction of the species and to restore the ecosystems where red wolves lived. It is important to save all members of an ecosystem, including predators, if we are to be good stewards of the land. Predators maintain the balance and health of ecosystems by controlling overpopulations of prey species and removing unhealthy animals. Greg Koch From top to bottom: gray wolf, 80-120 lbs.; red wolf, 50-80 lbs.; coyote, 20-45 lbs.; red fox, 10-15 lbs. Red wolf dad and pups Restoring red wolves contributes significantly to local economies. The presence of red wolves in the wild or in zoos and wildlife centers generates ecotourism dollars from those seeking to enhance their understanding of this endangered species. Howling Safaris, sponsored by the Red Wolf Coalition in cooperation with the Service, attract over 1,000 visitors annually to northeastern North Carolina and provide opportunities for red wolf education. The Endangered Species Act requires recovery plans for federallylisted threatened or endangered species. The Red Wolf Recovery Plan describes population goals and objectives for the red wolf. Lessons learned and techniques developed in the Red Wolf Recovery Program continue to serve as templates for recovery and management of other species. The Red Wolf Recovery Program could be described as an alliance of agencies, organizations, and individuals. What do red wolves look like? Red wolves are mostly brown and buff colored with some black along their backs. Typically there is a reddish color behind their ears, on their muzzles and along the backs of Species Survival Plan Facilities Mainland Release Sites Island Projects Chad McClure their legs. Red wolves are intermediate in size between the larger gray wolves and smaller coyotes. Adult red wolf and yearling The average adult red wolf weighs from 50-80 pounds, stands about 26 inches at the shoulder and is about four feet long from the tip of the nose to the end of the tail. Red wolves have tall
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Recovery Effort Timeline The red wolf is one 1967 Red wolf listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Preservation Act Red Wolf 1969 Red wolf captive breeding initiated at Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium in Tacoma, Washington 1973 Endangered Species Act becomes Federal law 1977 First litter of red wolf pups born in breeding program at Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium 1978 First successful experimental release, tracking, and recapture of red wolves on Bulls Island, South Carolina, solidifies reintroduction techniques 1980 (Canis rufus) of the world’s most endangered wolves. Once common throughout the eastern and southcentral United States, red Last red wolves removed from the wild; species declared biologically extinct in the wild 1986 Publication of a final rule in the Federal Register to introduce mated pairs of red wolves into the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge in eastern North Carolina; establishment of nonessential experimental population (NEP) 1987 Restoration effort begins with the experimental release of red wolves at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge wolf populations were decimated by the early 1988 First litter of red wolf pups born in the wild at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge part of the 20th Century 1991 Publication of a final rule in the Federal Register to introduce mated pairs of red wolves into the Great Smoky Mountains National Park as a result of intensive 1992 Experimental release begins at Great Smoky Mountains National Park predator control programs 1993 First red wolves born in the wild at Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the degradation and 1995 Publication of an amendment to the special rule in the Federal Register addressing private landowner concerns about reintroduced red wolves 1998 Red wolf project ended at Great Smoky Mountains National Park due to lack of adequate food sources 2000 Adaptive management plan implemented to address red wolf/coyote hybridization within the NC NEP area 2006 The size of the wild population in North Carolina peaked at an estimated 120-130 wolves 2013 The Service recognized steps were needed to improve management of the NC NEP, which included the need to conduct an evaluation of the Red Wolf Recovery Program Memorandum of Understanding on collaborative conservation of red wolves and other canids, including coyotes, on the Albemarle Peninsula signed by the Service and North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) 2014 Independent evaluation of the NC NEP by the Wildlife Management Institute initiated; findings of the peer-reviewed evaluation released NCWRC established rules to ban nighttime hunting and require permits for daytime hunting of coyotes in the five-county red wolf recovery area in eastern North Carolina 2015 Service expanded the evaluation to include recovery efforts beyond the program’s NC NEP to identify actions necessary to guide red wolf recovery on the landscape Reintroductions of red wolf into the wild suspended while additional research into the feasibility of species’ recovery is gathered; existing red wolves located in North Carolina are managed in accordance with the 1995 rule 2016 The Service announced recovery of the red wolf in the wild is possible with significant changes that must be implemented to secure the captive and wild populations 2018 The Service published a Species Status Assessment and five-year status review outlining the latest science. The recommendation was for no change in the red wolf’s status as endangered under the ESA The Service published a draft Environmental Assessment and proposed a new 10(j) rule governing the NC NEP. The proposed new NC NEP management area would be Alligator River NWR and Dare County Bombing Range alteration of the species’ habitat. When the red wolf was designated endangered in 1967, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service initiated efforts to conserve and recover the species. Today, there are fewer than 40 red wolves living in the wild in eastern North Carolina as a non-essential, experimental population (NC NEP). More than 200 red wolves are maintained in captive breeding For questions about the Service’s red wolf recovery efforts or the review, contact: Leo Miranda Assistant Regional Director Ecological Services leopoldo_miranda@fws.gov 404/679 7085 Additional Information More information about the Service’s review of the Red Wolf Recovery Program is available at: fws.gov/redwolf/evaluation.html facilities throughout the United States. Visit fws.gov/redwolf to learn more about the red wolf and the Service’s recovery July 2018 photo: Ryan Nordsven/USFWS photo: Becky Bartel/USFWS On September 12, 2016, the Service announced significant changes for red wolf recovery after completing the twoyear, two-step review. The Service is committed to recovering the species. One of the most surprising findings of the Service’s review was that genetic diversity of the captive population will decli
North Carolina’s Red Wolves How you can help red wolves Dot to Dot DRIVE SAFELY. Connect the dots and color the habitat for this animal. 13 USFWS Red wolves need a lot of habitat to live. They have to cross roads and canals to find enough food to survive. Pay attention while driving. 11 14 KEEP THE ROAD CLEAN. Food and trash thrown from vehicles attracts wild animals to roadsides. These animals can be injured or killed by vehicles. Save red wolves and other wildlife – don’t litter! Red wolves are ENDANGERED animals. A long time ago, red wolves were almost hunted to EXTINCTION. The last 17 WILD red wolves were taken to zoos to live safely. In CAPTIVITY, they had many pups. When there were enough RED WOLVES living in captivity, scientists returned four pairs of red wolves to the wild in North Carolina. Today, the POCOSIN habitat and farm fields of northeastern North Carolina are home to the only wild population of red wolves anywhere in the world! There are about 25 red wolves living in North Carolina and about 275 red wolves living in captivity across the country. Red wolves are mostly CARNIVORES (meat-eaters). They eat white-tailed deer, raccoons, rabbits and rodents such as mice and NUTRIA. Red wolves are PREDATORS and play an important role in nature. Red wolves are shy and stay away from people. No one has ever been attacked by a red wolf. 19 16 15 67 8 5 20 LEARN. Learn about wildlife and enjoy sharing the world with wild animals. Understand that red wolves are not dangerous to people when left alone. All wildlife, including red wolves, should not be approached in order to avoid injury to the animal or the people involved. 4 32 31 23 24 29 25 26 27 33 34 35 30 36 3 2 1 28 Greg Koch wolves. Wildlife managers keep track of wolves in North Carolina. It is important that they know when a wolf is found dead. If you find a wolf that has died, report it to a wildlife professional and do not touch it. 22 Top left: adult red wolf Left: wolf den in a farm field Above: red wolf father and pup Right: two to three-week-old wolf pups in a den created from an uprooted stump Word Find Find the orange capitalized words from this page. USFWS USFWS Red wolves live in family groups known as PACKS. Each year, the mother and father wolves dig a DEN and have about four PUPS. When those pups grow up, they usually stay with their family and help raise the next year’s pups. Red wolves live in packs so they can help each other hunt and raise their young together. 17 18 10 21 REPORT DEAD red 12 E N D A N G E R E D X C A P T I V I T Y A P U P S P D E N K W I L D K B Q A R A G R G E P A C K S Q P P O C O S I N O V P A C K S F F A U L S A D E N F L R E D W O L V E S A E X T I N C T I O N A V F U D E C A R N I V O R E S L D P R E D A T O R S T S G R K D R I V E S A F E L Y H P U S D A Y E M B T K E E P T H E R O A D C L E A N M H T A E N W P R L E A R N C R E P O R T D E A D K N U T R I A C Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge Red Wolf Recovery Program P.O. Box 329 Columbia, NC 27925 Phone: 252/796 3004 Fax: 252/796 3010 http://pocosinlakes.fws.gov Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge P.O. Box 1969 Manteo, NC 27954 Phone: 252/473 1131 Fax: 252/473 1668 http://alligatorriver.fws.gov 9
North Carolina’s Black Bears Black bears are WILD animals, just like squirrels, rabbits, BIRDS, turtles and ALLIGATORS. Wild animals need food, water, space and shelter to live and are naturally afraid of people. Bears are big wild animals, but they are SHY and hide from people most of the time. Because they are big animals they need lots of HABITAT (food, water, space and shelter) to live. How you can help bears Bears live in the woods and find foods like BERRIES, NUTS and small animals to eat. They are excellent climbers and climb TREES to reach nuts and fruits. They also use trees for safety and bears often climb high in a tree when they want to hide. DON’T RUIN HABITAT. Wild animals of all sizes need habitat to live. Forests are home for many animals, including bears. Cutting trees, leaving trash or dumping in water ruins habitat – the home of large and small animals. NEVER FEED a bear. This teaches them not to be afraid of people. When wild animals learn to get food from people they can be a nuisance or danger to people, and they are in more danger from people too. Bears that find garbage or are given food by people may learn to visit houses and yards. Do not go near a bear outside of its natural habitat. DRIVE SAFELY. Bears need a lot of habitat to live. They have to cross roads and canals to find enough food to survive. Pay attention while driving and try to help animals cross safely. In North Carolina, bears are not true hibernators. They sleep in a DEN for days or weeks at a time. It is not uncommon to see bears get up to move and eat. Every second year, female (girl) bears give birth to two tiny CUBS (baby bears) in February. The cubs will stay with their mother for two years. LEARN. Learn about wildlife and enjoy sharing the world with wild animals and healthy habitat. The vast POCOSIN habitat in eastern North Carolina supports one of the largest populations of black bears east of the Mississippi River. Although some states black bear populations are THREATENED (reminds people that we need to help conserve a species and its habitat), the bears in North Carolina are state hunted. REPORT DEAD BEARS. Wildlife managers keep track of bears in North Carolina. It is important that they know when a bear is found dead. If you find a bear that has died, report it to a wildlife professional at 1 800/662 7137 and do not touch it. Dot to Dot Connect the dots and color habitat for Word Find Find the GREEN capitalized words from this page. P O P L E K F L U D D F S G D O T H I J R K B L V Z Q C E B T M U Q O A A Z D W C O S I X K S U W L J E E M R A I D R K C N T R X H A E R S D E D C A R R T T F E Y V N E T E F G D G B O H D R I N Q B I N N A B L A C Y I D O U O C L I P R P O S F L N D V O U I N H T F T K S X G M P C B B F V Y I G Q H J K A N N V E R F X Z U U C W J H V S M B V E S A B E K G Q K V T F C R A D X I E S Z E T W A F Y X B J M T F C B X Q R W E B E R R I E S A E Q A W Z W I S X D E D C D E R F L T G A L L I G A T O R S G B Y H E N U Y M L R I K L O L A P P O I U Y T S R E W W P U A G S F D D D S F A G H T J H K J L K Y L D Z U X I C U V P B T B R N E R W B F V Q R G E Y F B D R V Y F M R H G E E N W B P U S D O J Y I R M H T T I K F D K W Q E N R H A O T U D L G T B S J W E Q S I A W R D R F L S S H Y M T V W 15 13 14 9 10 8 12 11 7 16 17 18 6 5 19 4 20 27 30 26 28 31 21 25 29 22 23 24 32 33 Top left: Adult male bears can weigh up to 400 pounds. This 300 pound male is resting in its native habitat. Top right: Twin one-month old cubs climb on their mother in a cozy, safe den. Bottom: Female bears find a safe place to make a winter den and give birth to cubs. All U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service photos. 3 34 1 2 Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge 252/473 1131 www.fws.gov/refuge/alligator_river/ Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge 252/926 4021 www.fws.gov/refuge/mattamuskeet/ Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge 252/796 3004 www.fws.gov/refuge/pocosin_lakes/
General Information Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge contains approximately 160,000 acres, most of which are open to hunting. There are more than 150 miles of old logging This blue goose, roads that provide hunting designed by J.N. access, some for vehicles and “Ding” Darling, has some on foot. Visitors should become a symbol of use caution, especially when the National Wildlife venturing into the more Refuge System. remote areas of the refuge with only a two-wheel drive vehicle. In the center of the refuge is the Dare County Range, a 46,000-acre military practice area owned by the U.S. Air Force and used by both the Air Force and the U.S. Navy. The Range is a part of the North Carolina Gamelands Program and governed by Gamelands rules and regulations (http://www.ncwildlife.org). Especially in the areas on or adjacent to the Dare Range, road conditions may be unpredictable. When taking any game animal or bird with a shotgun, federally approved, non-toxic shot must be used (except buckshot or slugs for white-tailed deer). Possessing lead shot in the field is prohibited, except when engaged in deer hunting. For newcomers to the Refuge, the impenetrable vegetation and remoteness often catch them unaware. First time users should consult with a Refuge staff member or another hunter before venturing off the beaten path. Unless otherwise posted, the speed limit on Refuge roads is 35 mph. White-tailed deer is the primary species hunted. The use of chase dogs is permitted. About half the refuge is open to this type of hunting. Hunting small game and waterfowl is also permitted; however, the majority of waterfowl hunting occurs on the sounds and rivers surrounding the Refuge. Regulations All general refuge regulations apply, unless specifically addressed in this leaflet. Restrictions and designations on the map in this leaflet also apply. Public hunting is permitted in accordance with all state laws, county codes, Title 50 - Code of Federal Regulations, and the following Refuge regulations: The use or possession of alcoholic beverages while hunting is prohibited. The taking or possession of bear, turkey, bobcat, any furbearer, or any part thereof, is prohibited, except when transporting same along an NC State road or US highway. Game legally taken on the Dare Range must be transported to US Highway 264 or 64 by the most direct route possible. Hyde County portions of the Refuge are closed to whitetailed deer hunting during open seasons on black bear on adjacent lands. Taking or collecting any plant or animal (including reptiles and amphibians) is prohibited, except as specifically authorized by the Refuge Manager. The use of artificial lights (including car headlights) to locate, observe, or take animals is prohibited, except as specifically authorized by the Refuge Manager. Hunters should be aware that some areas may be temporarily closed to hunting. These areas will be clearly marked with appropriate signs. Farming Area Farming area is closed to waterfowl hunting. Laurel Bay Unit The farming area west of Buffalo City Road is open to deer and small game hunting in accordance with State and Refuge regulations. Hunting in impoundments and vehicular access are allowed only during September, October, and February. Twiford and Upper Creef Units The farming areas east of Buffalo City Road and north of Link Road are open to hunting and vehicles only during September and October and closed to all entry from November 1 to February 28. Lower Creef Unit The farming area between Link and Grouse Roads is open to deer and small game hunting during September and October and only to small game hunting starting in November in accordance with State and Refuge regulations. Baiting or feeding wildlife and hunting with the aid of bait are prohibited. Use of Dogs The use of dogs is restricted to designated areas (see map). All dogs must be confined or leashed and under owner control when not engaged in hunting. Vehicular access is restricted to designated roads (see map). ATVs/UTVs (3 and 4 wheelers, dirt bikes, etc.) are prohibited. Hunters may walk on closed roads in the farming area or on the roads in the “no dog hunting” area to retrieve their stray hunting dogs only until 11 pm. Camping, fires, littering, target practice, and commercial guiding are prohibited. In the farming area west of Buffalo City Road (Laurel Bay Unit), the use of dogs is restricted to small game hunting, except during the month of October. The use of electronic calls to attract wildlife is prohibited. Permits are required for all hunts. Your permit is on the front of this brochure. The construction or use of permanent blinds, platforms, and/or ladders is prohibited. Hunting from a tree into which a metal object has been inserted is prohibited. The Refuge is open daylight hours only. Hunter access is allowed from one hour before until one hour after legal hunting hours. The use of horses for any hunting activity is prohibited. Po

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