Great Dismal Swamp

National Wildlife Refuge - NC,VA

The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge protects and preserve a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, a marshy region on the Coastal Plain of southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina between Norfolk, Virginia, and Elizabeth City, North Carolina in the United States. The Great Dismal Swamp is a southern swamp, the northernmost of many swamps along the Atlantic Ocean's coast, including the Everglades and the Big Cypress in Florida, the Okefenokee of Georgia, the Congress and Four Holes swamps of South Carolina, and some of the Carolina Bays.

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Trails at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Great Dismal Swamp - Trails

Trails at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Lake Drummond Wildlife Drive at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Great Dismal Swamp - Lake Drummond Wildlife Drive

Lake Drummond Wildlife Drive at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Birds at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Great Dismal Swamp - Birds

Birds at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Animals at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Great Dismal Swamp - Animals

Animals at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Native Plants at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).Great Dismal Swamp - Native Plants

Native Plants at Great Dismal Swamp (NWR) in North Carolina and Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Great Dismal Swamp NWR https://www.fws.gov/refuge/great_dismal_swamp https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Dismal_Swamp_National_Wildlife_Refuge The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge protects and preserve a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, a marshy region on the Coastal Plain of southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina between Norfolk, Virginia, and Elizabeth City, North Carolina in the United States. The Great Dismal Swamp is a southern swamp, the northernmost of many swamps along the Atlantic Ocean's coast, including the Everglades and the Big Cypress in Florida, the Okefenokee of Georgia, the Congress and Four Holes swamps of South Carolina, and some of the Carolina Bays.
TRAIL INFORMATION Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 3100 Desert Road Suffolk, VA 23434 757/986 3705 www.fws.gov/refuge/Great_Dismal_Swamp To Williamsburg 664 10 58 32 264 ypass 58 B 337 460 13 Suffolk 642 h Middle Ditc Was hing ton D Office itch RailroadDitch d Roa Desert Virginia North Carolina Interior Ditch 460 Norfolk Virginia Windsor 64 165 Beach Franklin 58 Suffolk Chesapeake 168 Virginia 13 N. Carolina S. 258 Sunbury Elizabeth City Lake Drummond 17 Feeder Ditch ack Roa Ballah d 0 N Miles 3 0 2 Kilometers Great Dismal Swamp South Ditch National Wildlife Refuge Daniels Rd. Legend 17 Dismal Swamp State Park Refuge Office Auto Tour Route by Permit al S Dism p wam West Ditch 604 642 13 Hampton Wakefield al Can G January 2019 Gloucester Williamsburg l Swam G 32 17 17 17 G Gated Trail Entrance Refuge Area Hiking / Biking Trail 32 Pas q u 158 Ri er v Sunbury ota nk South Mills 158 Boat Access Area Pier 17 158 Federal Relay Service for the deaf and hard-of-hearing 1 800/877 8339 U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov 64 l Trail W hi t e M ar s h R o a d 13 ary Roseitmch D itch east D North tch Di 604 165 Big En try Dit ch p Cana ss pa By 13 13 Lynn Ditch 32 17-Bus To Norfolk and Virginia Beach G G Black Bear T rail ho ric Je Ditch mson New Willia h Ditch c it D Jericho ell Hu Hudn Lane dn ell Di G tch 58 O M ld Ro ill ad Martin John Road son 58 460 Disma s as Byp 58 64 Chesapeake 460 Port smo uth D itch 58 64 To Outer Banks _____Railroad Ditch Entrance, 3120 Desert Road, Suffolk, VA Enter color-coded trail _____Jericho Lane Entrance, 1330 WhiteMarsh Road, Suffolk, VA networks at these _____Washington Ditch Entrance, 3076 WhiteMarsh Road, Suffolk, VA gated trail entrances: _____Portsmouth Ditch Entrance, 3457 MartinJohnson Road, Chesapeake, VA _____Feeder Ditch Entrance (by water only), Dismal Swamp Canal, Chesapeake, VA U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Trails Underground Railroad Education Pavilion and boardwalk trail n Cypress Marsh boardwalk trail n West Ditch boardwalk trail n Pier at Lake Drummond n Fishing from pier or boat per terms of self-serve permit n Boating access per terms of self-serve permit n Wildlife Drive auto access with required self-serve permit. Gate opens every day with seasonal hours of April 1 through September 30, 7:00 am to 6:00 pm, and October 1 through March 31 as 7:30 am to 4:00 pm. n Open daily for hiking and biking, sunrise to sunset This blue goose, designed by J.N. “Ding” Darling, has become the symbol of the National Wildlife Refuge System. n Located in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge is a wonderful place to experience the beauty of nature. With more than 112,000 acres of forested wetlands and the 3,100 acre Lake Drummond at its center, the refuge contains some of the most important wildlife habitat in the mid-Atlantic region. Jericho Lane Entrance 1330 White Marsh Road Suffolk, VA Four dirt roads for hiking and biking Parking located 2 miles from White Marsh Road on Jericho Lane n Vault restroom n Open daily, sunrise to sunset n n USFWS Visitor Opportunities Refuge trails are open daily, sunrise to sunset, unless otherwise posted. Visitors may participate in a variety of activities including hiking, biking, nature photography, wildlife observation, hunting, fishing and boating. The refuge was established for the purpose of protecting and managing the swamp’s unique ecosystem which includes wildlife and habitat. Therefore, portions of the refuge may be periodically closed to public use activities in order to accomplish this objectives. Prothonotary warbler Feeder Ditch Dismal Swamp Canal Chesapeake, VA Refuge Entrance Points A by-water only access to Lake Drummond. The Feeder Ditch connects the Dismal Swamp Canal to Lake Drummond. n Fishing and boating are permitted year-round on Lake Drummond. A Virginia freshwater license is required. n Vessels are limited to a maximum 25 hp on the lake. n Lake hours are from sunrise to sunset. Washington Ditch Entrance 3076 White Marsh Road Suffolk, VA The Washington Ditch Trail is the most often recommended trail for hiking and biking. n 3/4 mile boardwalk trail n 4 1/2 mile dirt road for hiking and biking to Lake Drummond n Parking located 1 mile from entrance on White Marsh Road n Pier at Lake Drummond n Fishing from pier n Vault restrooms n Open daily, sunrise to sunset Headquarters/Pines Trail 3100 Desert Road Suffolk, VA Foot trail through pine forest surrounding headquarters complex. Trail connects to Railroad Ditch Trail; ½ mile to Underground Railroad Education Pavilion. n Open daily, sunrise to sunset, for hiking n Gate to parking area open during office business hours. n Be Aware n Cell phone coverage is limited. n Insect repellant is suggested during warm season. n Off tr
Lake Drummond U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lake Drummond, at 3,100 acres, is the largest natural lake in Virginia. The lake was formed about 4,000 years ago after a fire burned away several feet of peat soil. The swamp’s peat soils are the reason the lake’s water is a dark brown color. As groundwater perks through the peat, it is stained just as tea in a teacup. Despite its murky appearance, the water is very pure. The lake is home to several species of fish, including mud sunfish, yellow perch, brown and yellow bullhead catfish, bowfin, and crappie. Contrary to popular myth, there are no alligators in the lake. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildife Refuge The Lake Drummond Wildlife Drive gate is open every day unless there is a necessity for a temporary closing. Access hours are April 1 to September 30, 7:00am7:00pm and October 1 to March 31, 7:30am-5:00pm. The electronic entry gate closes one hour earlier to allow all vehicles to exit on time. Permit and fee required. Selfserve permit and fee schedule can be found at Railroad Permit Station, 1/2 mile from Desert Road. Boat launching is allowed every day, year round, by use of and by terms of the Wildlife Drive permit. Daily permit and fee required. Lake Drummond/USFWS In the winter, the lake provides a resting place for thousands of migratory birds including tundra swans and snow geese. In the summer, you should keep an eye out for great blue heron and great egret, as well as northern parula and prothonotary warblers nesting in the cypress trees. Bald eagle often build nests and raise their young around the lake’s shoreline. Lake Drummond is the main source of water for the Dismal Swamp Canal, which forms the eastern boundary of the refuge. The canal was initially proposed by George Washington and later funded by then Virginia governor, Patrick Henry. Hand dug by slaves and an important strategic holding during the American Civil War, it is the oldest continually-operating canal in America. Hiking and biking are allowed every day on refuge trails, including the Railroad Ditch Trail, sunrise to sunset. Permit and fee are not required for hiking and biking. The Railroad Ditch Trail and Lake Drummond Wildlife Drive are occasionally closed for hunts, maintenance, controlled burns, and other management events. For the most current information on closings, follow us on our Facebook page. The refuge office is open Monday-Friday from 8:00am to 4:00pm. The office is closed on weekends and Federal holidays. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Headquarters 3100 Desert Road, Suffolk, VA 23434 (757) 986-3705 www.fws.gov/refuge/Great_Dismal_Swamp February 4, 2019 /greatdismalswamp Lake Drummond/USFWS Lake Drummond Wildlife Drive 3120 Desert Road, Suffolk, VA Sights and Stops Along the Way to Lake Drummond Welcome to Great Dismal Swamp! Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge contains some of the most important wildlife habitat in the midAtlantic region. At near 113,000 acres, the refuge is the largest intact remnant of a vast swamp that once covered more than one million acres. It is home to some 200 species of birds, nearly 100 species of butterflies and skippers, and to one of the largest black bear populations on the east coast. The swamp’s history includes land deeds for George Washington and evidence of large communities of freedom seekers, known as marroons, that once lived deep within the swamp. The Wildlife Drive is a popular way to see Lake Drummond and there are plenty of other sights along the way. But first, use caution while traveling the route, to watch out for snakes and turtles sunning themselves in the road. Pines Trail Begin your tour by walking the Pines Trail, a ¼ mile loop around the refuge Pines Trail/USFWS headquarters through a stand of tall pines. You may notice a few young Long Leaf Pines, a species that once dominated the southeast, but due to logging and development have been reduced to only a fraction of their original range. The refuge conducts controlled burns in this area every few years. Careful burning of the forest prevents the build up of plant litter on the forest floor which could fuel a larger, more destructive fire. Burns also aid in creating a more diverse habitat for a variety of animal and plant species. It is common to see a re-growth of wildflowers a few weeks after each burn. Look for the pink lady slippers and other tiny orchids if you are here at that time. Permit Station and Underground Railroad Pavilion About ½ mile up the Railroad Ditch Road from the entrance on Desert Road you will come to the self-serve permit station and the Underground Railroad Pavilion. The pavilion was built to showcase Great Dismal Swamp’s role as a home for maroons. In 2004, Great Dismal Swamp became the first national wildlife refuge designated as a site on the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom. The Dismal Swamp Underground Railroad Boardwalk/USFWS maroon story is also a featured exhibit in the National M
Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 3100 Desert Road Suffolk, VA 23434 757/986 3705 757/986 2353 Fax www.fws.gov/northeast/greatdismalswamp facebook.com/greatdismalswamp Federal Relay Service for the deaf and hard-of-hearing 1 800/877 8339 U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov October 2012 Swainson's warbler ??? U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Birds This blue goose, designed by J.N. “Ding” Darling, has become the symbol of the National Wildlife Refuge System. Downy Woodpecker This brochure lists more than 210 birds that have been identified on the refuge, and is in accordance with the Seventh American Ornithologists Union Checklist. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge is one of more than 550 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge System administered by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. The refuge, established by Congress in 1974, consists of over 112,000 acres of forested wetlands. Lake Drummond, at 3,100 acres is the larger of two natural lakes found in Virginia, lies at the refuge’s center. The refuge was established to protect and restore the biologically important Great Dismal Swamp ecosystem. Within that mission a primary concern is to provide protected habitat for migratory birds. Most birds are migratory and their seasonal occurrence and relative abundance are coded as follows: Season Sp spring S summer F fall W winter March – May June – August September – November December – February Relative Abundance Relative abundance indicates how frequently you might see a bird in its favored habitat. a c Birding is popular in the refuge April through June, but is best from earlyApril to late-May, the peak of the spring neo-tropical bird migration. As many as thirty five species of warblers have been observed and provide the principal attraction. u o r acc abundant common a species which is very numerous likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitat uncommon present, but not certain to be seen occasional seen only a few times during a season rare may be present but not every year accidental seen only once • Birds known to nest on or near the refuge Sp Swans – Geese – Ducks David Schneider Introduction ___ Snow Goose_________________________ ___ • Canada Goose_______________________ ___ Brant______________________________ ___ Tundra Swan________________________ ___ • Wood Duck__________________________ ___ Gadwall____________________________ ___ American Wigeon____________________ ___ American Black Duck_________________ ___ • Mallard_____________________________ ___ Blue-winged Teal____________________ ___ Northern Pintail_____________________ ___ Green-winged Teal___________________ ___ Canvasback_________________________ ___ Redhead____________________________ ___ Ring-necked Duck___________________ ___ Lesser Scaup________________________ ___ Bufflehead__________________________ ___ Common Goldeneye__________________ ___ • Hooded Merganser___________________ ___ Common Merganser__________________ ___ Red-breasted Merganser______________ ___ Ruddy Duck_________________________ c c c c o o u u r o u r r c c u r c o o u S u r c o r F W u c r u c o o c u u o u r o c u u c c c c c c o o c u r o u o o c c o c o o c Gallinaceous Birds ___ • Wild Turkey_________________________ c ___ • Northern Bobwhite__________________ c S F W c c c c c c r o u r u o c c Loons ___ Common Loon_______________________ o Grebes ___ ___ Pied-billed Grebe____________________ u Horned Grebe_______________________ r Cormorants ___ Double-crested Cormorant____________ c Anhingas ___ Anhinga____________________________ o c ??? Sp Mourning dove Sp S F u r r u u u u c u u r r Osprey - Kites - Hawks - Eagles ___ Osprey_____________________________ ___ Swallow-tailed Kite___________________ ___ Mississippi Kite______________________ ___ • Bald Eagle__________________________ ___ Northern Harrier____________________ ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk_________________ ___ • Cooper’s Hawk______________________ ___ • Red-shouldered Hawk________________ ___ Broad-winged Hawk__________________ ___ • Red-tailed Hawk_____________________ ___ Golden Eagle________________________ r Falcons ??? ___ • American Kestrel____________________ c ___ Merlin______________________________ r Brown-headed nuthatch Bitterns – Herons – Egrets ___ American Bittern____________________ ___ • Great Blue Heron____________________ ___ • Great Egret_________________________ ___ Snowy Egret________________________ ___ Little Blue Heron____________________ ___ Cattle Egret________________________ ___ • Green Heron________________________ ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron __________ ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron__________ r c c o r o c u o Ibises ___ White Ibis__________________________ r New World Vultures ___ • Black Vulture________________________ c ___ • Turkey Vulture______________________ a r a a o o c u o r c o r c o Rails
Snakes Toads and Frogs Brown water snake................................Nerodia taxispilota Red-bellied water snake...................Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster Northern water snake...................Nerodia sipedon sipedon Northern brown snake... ..................Storeria dekayi dekayi Northern red-bellied snake.........Storeria occipitomaculata occipitamaculata Eastern ribbon snake.............Thamnophis sauritus sauritus Eastern garter snake.................Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis Eastern earth snake.....................Virginia valeriae valeriae Eastern hognose snake...Heterodon platirhinos platirhinos Southern ringneck snake....Diadophis punctatus punctatus Eastern worm snake............Carphophis amoenus amoenus Eastern mud snake....................Farancia abacura abacura Northern black Racer.........Coluber constrictor constrictor Rough green snake................................Opheodrys aestivus Black rat snake.............................Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta Eastern king Snake...................Lampropeltis getula getula Scarlet king snake.........................Lampropeltis elapsoides Southern copperhead......Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Eastern cottonmouth......Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus Canebrake rattlesnake.......Crtotalus horridus articaudatus Rainbow snake......Farancia erytrogramma erytrogramma Eastern spadefoot..............Scaphiopus holbrooki holbrooki American toad...........................................Bufo americanus Southern toad................................................Bufo terrestris Fowler’s toad................................Bufo woodhousii fowleri Oak toad.......................................................Bufo quercicus Spring peeper........................................Pseudacris crucifer Pinewoods tree frog......................................Hyla femoralis Squirrel tree frog...........................................Hyla squirella Gray tree frog..............................................Hyla versicolor Little grass frog....................................Pseudacris ocularis Upland chorus frog..............Pseudacris triseriata feriarum Brimley’s chorus frog..........................Pseudacris brimleyi Southern cricket frog...........................Acris gryllus gryllus Bullfrog....................................................Rana catesbeiana Carpenter frog.............................................Rana virgatipes Green frog...................................Rana clamitans melanota Southern leopard frog................................Rana utricularia Eastern narrow-mouthed frog....Gastrophyme carolinensis Turtles Common snapping turtle.....Cheldra serpentina serpentina Stinkpot............................................Sternotherus odoratus Eastern mud turtle.......Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum Spotted turtle.............................................Clemmys guttata Eastern box turtle....................Terrepene carolina carolina Eastern painted turtle........................Chrysemys picta picta Yellow-bellied turtle..................Trachemys scripta scripta Red-bellied turtle............................Psuedemys rubriventris Lizards Northern fence lizard...Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus Ground skink...........................................Scincella lateralis Five-lined skink......................................Eumeces fasciatus Broadheaded skink...................................Eumeces laticeps Southeastern five-lined skink............Eumeces inexpectatus U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Animals of the Great Dismal Swamp Salamanders Greater siren.................................................Siren lacertina Two-toed amphiuma................................Amphiuma means Marbled salamander.............................Ambystoma opacum Red-backed salamander..........Plethodon cinereus cinereus Slimy salamander...............................Plethodon glutinosus Many-lined salamander.................Stereochilus marginatus Southern two-lined salamander..............Eurycea bislineata cirrgera Note: This list may be incomplete. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 3100 Desert Road Suffolk, VA 23434 (757) 986-3705 (757) 986-2353 fax www.greatdismalswamp.fws.gov www.facebook.com/greatdismalswamp Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Mammals Fish Opossum.............................................Didelphis virginiana Least shrew.................................................Cryptotis parva Eastern mole..........................................Scalopus aquaticus Star nosed mole......................................Condylura cristata Southeastern long-tailed shrew..............Condylura cristata Greater short-tailed shrew.....................Blarina brevicauda telmalestes Northern long-eared myotis..............Myotis septentrionalis Eastern pipistrelle..............................Pipistrellus subflavus Evening bat.........................................Nycticeiu
Herbaceous Plants Duckweeds......................................Lemna valdiviana Duckweeds................................Spirodela oligorrhiza Dayflower..................................Commelina virginica Virginia least trillium...........................Trillium nivale Indian cucumber-root...................Medeola virginiana Blue eyed grass................Sisyrinchium angustifolium Pink lady’s slipper.......................Cypripedium acaule Southern twayblade...........................Listera australis Downy rattlesnake plantain........Goodyera pubescens Crane fly orchid................................Tipularis dicolor Lizard’s tail......................................Saururus cernuus False nettle................................Boehmeria cylindrica Mistletoe.............................Phoradendron flavescens Jumpseed........................................Tovara virginiana Smartweed......................Polygonum hydropiperoides Knotweed..........................Polygonum pensylvanicum Pokeweed.................................Phytolacca americana Chickweed...........................................Stellaria media Yellow pond-lilly................................Nuphar luteum Leather flower....................................Clematis viorna Buttercups....................................Ranunculus-species Bitter cress.....................................Cardamine hirsuta Mock strawberry.............................Duchesnea indica Partridge pea..................................Cassia fasciculata Lespedeza......................................Lespedeza cuneata Lady’s sorrel.........................................Oxalis dillenii Wild geranium......................Geranium carolinianum Jewel-weed......................................Impatiens pallida St. John’s wort..................... Hypericum hypericoides St. John’s wort.............................Hypericum mutilum St. John’s wort.........................Hypericum virginicum Violet..............................................Viola primulifolia Water loosestrife.......................Decodon verticillatus Meadow-beauty...................................Rhexia marina Water primrose..........................Ludwigia alternifolia Water primrose..............................Ludwigia palustris Mermaid-weed........................Proserpinaca palustris Queen Anne’s lace...............................Daucus carota Marsh pennywort....................Hydrocotyle umbellata Heal-all............................................Prunella vulgaris Skullcap...................................Scutellaris integrifolia Nightshade.................................Solanum carolinense Gerardia..........................................Agalinis purpurea Squaw-root..............................Conapholis americana Beech-drops.................................Epifagus virginiana Bladderwort.....................................Utricularia gibba Purple bladderwort....................Utricularia purpurea Great bladderwort..........................Utricularia inflata Diodia.............................................Diodia virginiana Partridge berry..................................Mitchella repens Cardinal flower..............................Lobelia cardinalis Yarrow........................................Achillea millefolium Daisy fleabane..................................Erigeron annuus Dog-fennel..........................Eupatorium capillifolium Mistflower............................Eupatorium coelestinum Joe-pye-weed...............................Eupatorium dubium Goldenrod...........................................Solidago erecta Dandelion..................................Taraxacum officinale Ironweed.............................Vernonia noveboracensis U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Plants of the Great Dismal Swamp Grasses, Sedges and Rushes Cotton grass...........................Eriophorum virginicum Wool grass......................................Scripus cyperinus Foxtail grasses.....................................Setaria-species Panic grasses.....................................Panicum-species Sedges................................................Cyperus-species Sedges...................................................Carex-species Switch cane...............................Arundinaria gigantea Rushes.................................................Juncus bufonus Rushes...................................................Juncus repens Note: This is not a complete list. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 3100 Desert Road Suffolk, VA 23434 (757) 986-3705 www.greatdismalswamp.fws.gov www.facebook.com/greatdismalswamp Cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea) Trees Loblolly pine............................................Pinus taeda Pond pine..............................................Pinus serotina Longleaf pine.......................................Pinus palustris Bald cypress................................Taxodium disti

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