Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks

Junior Ranger

brochure Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks - Junior Ranger
Junior Ranger Activity Guide Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument Public Lands Belong To You! The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is a federal government agency that takes care of more than 245 million acres of land. Most of these lands are in the western part of the United States. These lands are America’s public lands, and they belong to all Americans. Public lands are almost equal in area to all the land in the states of Texas and California put together. The BLM manages public lands for many uses. Public lands supply natural resources, such as coal, oil, natural gas, and other minerals. They also provide habitats for plants and animals. People enjoy the big open spaces on the lands. The lands also contain evidence of our country’s past, ranging from fossils to Indian artifacts to ghost towns. To download this guide, visit our Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument web page at: www.blm.gov/new-mexico Before you Begin your Adventure... Import ant Stuff! •Befo someonre hiking, tel be and e where you l return. when you wil will l Bring o t s lt) Thing an adu with •Stay on marked trails. •Obey sig ns tions. and ranger instruc •Take out what y d n bring in ou ater a . w f o r nty e e l m P m . 1 su n get k. (In a snac this area ca d s ee month d you will n n HOT a ater.) w f lots o at. nd a h a n e e scr 2. Sun t. Aid Ki t s r i F 3. a he are u t f o ap yo 4. A m now where k are always where you d are an . going lothing e c r e p 5. Pro r eye on th ou keep y and dress er weath ately. ri approp (along The Oath of the BLM Junior Ranger ___________________ (fill in your name) As a Junior Ranger, I promise to: • treat the earth and all living things with care and respect, • be aware of how my actions can affect other living things and the evidence of our past, • keep learning about the importance of nature and history, and • share what I have learned with others! Welcome to Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument This Junior Ranger Guide is YOUR official opportunity to get involved with the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument. Let us take you on a tour of all the geology, history, fun facts, stories, and important information that surrounds this Monument. You can work through the activities on your own or invite a sibling, parent, or an adult you know to join you. When you complete all of the activites inside this book, you will be qualified to be a Junior Ranger. w Turn the page and start earning your credentials as a Junior Ranger! 1 People of the Past and Present T he air is cool and the sun is just peeking over the horizon as young Blue Sky and his father head out of the village. Today, Blue Sky will have his first hunt. The pair walk for hours with wide eyes and quiet footing so as not to scare away any game. Finally, Father spots a young deer grazing on the low-hanging leaves of an aspen tree. Father motions Blue Sky to take aim. With all his might, Blue Sky pulls back the string of his bow, aims his arrow and lets it go. The arrow misses the deer and hits a large rock, breaking the arrowhead in half. The deer runs away. Meanwhile, Blue Sky’s mother and sister begin their day in the bustling village with much work to be done. Mother grinds corn (maize) with a metate and mano, storing the flour in a clay pot. The corn flour will be used later for porridge or “piki” bread. Sister makes clothing for the family using tools made from stone and bone. Ancient people, like these hunters and villagers, lived in this area, and many of their descendants, like the Cochiti, still live close by today. Archaeologists study the ruins and artifacts left behind to understand how they once lived. Often, the only clues we have to the past are artifacts like the arrowhead, clay pot, and bone tools mentioned in this story. Sites and artifacts are special and should not be disturbed. CH D WAT R O W s studie es. t who ir activiti s i t n e e i c h S t : f t gis sed by ns o d or u aeolo the remai e h c c u r d A ro gh tely p hrou libera ople t e e p d s t l s pa k part les. eria r too e mat t peop s o h a T d p : e s act e liv peopl Artif ing. cient n hunt a s e a r e h c h u sw ty s Place activi SITES: in an 2 T he earliest human presence in this area was probably around 4,000 years ago — The Archaic Period. Hunter-gatherers roamed the landscape in search of food. Gradually, plants such as corn and squash were planted and people began to make permanent settlements. These are the Pueblo people. Pictured below is an ancient tool used for grinding corn. The larger stone is called a “metate” and the smaller stone with which to grind is called a “mano.” What group of people lived (and still live) in this area? __________________________________________ What animals do you think they hunted? __________________________________________ What did they make with ground corn? __________________________________________ 3 Axe Bow & Arrow Awl & Thread Rawhide Pot Moccasins Deer Arrowhead Metate & Mano Corn/Maize 4 Charting Use your imagination and travel back through time! Past people used things from nature to make food, clothing, and tools. Place the artifact’s name (from the left) into the appropriate boxes to complete your chart. TOOLS CLOTHING FOOD 5 6 Geology Rocks! 7 8 Igneous rock Sediment u Did Yo Know? ogist is A geol o tist wh a scien he t studies tructure s Earth’s ry. to and his a f Much o ’s work t s geologi e s on th focuse s of rock y d u t s nerals. and mi Sedimentary rock W OR D WA TC H rock: A rock is composed of one or more minerals. Minerals are nonliving materials found in nature and that are chemically the same all the way through. Copper, diamond, gold, lead, pyrite, mica, and quatrz are all minerals. pyroclastic: are rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials. 9      10 How is a Hoodoo made? A n important part of this area’s geologic story is the formation of the actual cone-like, vertical tents or “hoodoos.” The “hoodoos” are products of volcanic eruptions and erosion. bb (See the diagram to the left.) These eruptions happened 6 to 7 million years ago leaving pumice, ash and tuff deposits over 1,000 feet thick. If you look closely, you will see small, black, glass fragments in these layered deposits. These fragments are obsidian or “Apache Tears.” Softer rocks, like the ones found in this area, are more easily worn away by the effect of weathering. Some “hoodoos” have a boulder on top. These caprocks protect the soft pumice and tuff (volcanic fragments) below them. The tents that have lost their hard, resistant caprocks will wear down more quickly than those that have one. Over time, erosion by wind and water have cut into these deposits, creating what you see here today. The weathering and erosion can cause many different shapes and sizes of rock formations to develop. Water freezing and thawing can cause cracks or breaks in rocks. Wind can carry sand or pebbles. The sand and pebbles carried by the wind can hit rock surfaces and wear the rock into shapes such as arches, pillars or cones. Ice, wind and running or moving water can cause erosion in rocks, eventually carving out canyons such as the slot canyon in this Monument. 11 Down to the Nitty Gritty! T he rocks found in this area are called the Peralta Tuff. This was formed during a time when volcanoes were very active. At least 20 small volcanoes in the area erupted repeatedly, producing large quantities of volcanic ash, pumice, and other material. 3 different layers are represented within the Peralta Tuff. Ash fall deposits: These deposits form flat or parallel-bedded layers that follow a volcanic explosion. Pyroclastic surge deposits are typically “layers” that result from reworking volcanic material, mostly by water currents, but also by wind. Pyroclastic flow: This layer is a result of a massive flow of a turbulent mixture of hot gases and unsorted pyroclastic material (volcanic fragments, crystals, ash, pumice, obsidian, and glass shards). 12 GY O L O Z P UZ ACROSS 2. Weathering and erosion create many new rock_____. 5. Small, round, translucent fragments known as volcanic glass or Apache Tears. ers nsw ges a e h pa —t d in Hint e foun b can ! 9-12  8. _____ocurs when moving wind, water, or ice wears away weathered rocks. 11. A_____is carved by running water. DOWN 1. _____carries sand and pebbles through the air. 3. To_____is to melt ice. 4. Water_____and thawing can cause cracks and breaks in rocks. 6. _____is a small particle carried through the air that wears away rock surfaces. 7. A_____is a cone-like, vertical structure created by erosion. 9. When water freezes it turns into_____. 10. A_____is a combination of minerals. 13 Help Seymour Antelope find his way to the trailhead. 14 Don’t forget your sunscreen and water! Using Your Senses In this activity, you will use 4 of your 5 senses to explore the area around you. HEARING Close your eyes, and listen carefully. Write down all of the sounds you hear. Remember to include human-made sounds, too. 1. _______________________________________ 2. _______________________________________ 3. _______________________________________ 4. _______________________________________ 5. _______________________________________ 15 SMELL What do you smell around you? What scents are present in the air? Sniff a tree. Does it smell like wood, syrup, flowers, vanilla? Write down whatever your nose detects. 1. _______________________________________ 2. _______________________________________ 3. _______________________________________ 4. _______________________________________ 5. _______________________________________ TOUCH Look carefully around the area and find items that have the following textures. Write down the object that matches the texture. Soft_______________ Brittle________________ Smooth_____________ Crunchy_______________ Rough _____________ Gritty________________ 16 SIGHT Look around the area and write down the things you see. Remember to look up and look down. 1. _________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________ 4. ____________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________ 17 Be a Wildlife Detective As you walk the trail, listen and look for signs of wildlife. Check off the clues below if you find them. 18 Word Search FIND THE HIDDEN WORDS Archeologist Arrowhead Ash Canyon Caprock Cave Cochiti Environment Erosion Formation Geologist Hoodoo Igneous Maize Metate Moccasins Obsidian 19 Pumice Rock Sediment Squash Tuff Volcano Water Weathering Wind Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument has completed the Junior Ranger Activity Guide and is now an official Junior Ranger for ______________________________________________ your name here Congratulations! Answers Charting People of the Past and Present 1. Pueblo people. 2. Mammals such as deer, rabbit, bear, birds etc. 3. porridge, piki bread TOOLS CLOTHING Moccasins Rawhide Find the Trailhead Metate & Mano Arrowhead Bow & Arrow Axe Pot Awl & Thread FOOD Corn Deer Word Search Crossword Puzzle 1. wind 2. formations 3. thaw 4. freezing 5. obsidian 6. sand 7. hoodoo 8. erosion 9. ice 10. rock 11. canyon 21 22 Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management Albuquerque District Rio Puerco Field Office 100 Sun Ave., N.E. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87109 505/761-8700 the Monument 505/331-6259 www.blm.gov/new-mexico BLM/NM/GI-13-01-8367

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