"Coastal view, Cabrillo National Monument, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Field Guides

Intertidal Guide

brochure Field Guides - Intertidal Guide

Intertidal Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Intertidal Field Guide C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Intertidal Field Guide About the Ecosystem Field Guide Our Role Cabrillo Guide 1 C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT About the Ecosystem Welcome to one of the world’s rarest ecosystems. This vast expanse, where land meets sea, supports a thriving body of marine organisms and plants all adapted to live under the harsh environmental pressures characteristic of this area. Dictated by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun, the tides predictably flow in and out cyclically creating a low, high, and middle tidal zone. Each of these zones supports a distinctive community waiting for you to explore. Use this guide to help you in your adventure and discover the organisms that call the intertidal home. Intertidal Safety Tips • Remember this area is federally protected; taking of any kind is against the law. • Only explore in designated areas. • Be respectful of the critters that live here; avoid disturbing their homes, and only touch gently with two fingers. • Waves and algae can make the area extremely slippery. Wear sturdy shoes and step with caution. • Be aware of the incoming tide. Do not turn your back to the waves and make sure you can always reach dry land. R E T U R N T O 2H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Field Guide WHAT ARE YOU LOOKING AT? Invertebrates Marine Plants • Lack a spinal column • May have exoskeleton • Gain nutrients from the sun • Provide food for ecosystem Fish Marine Mammals • Aquatic vertebrates • Use gills to breathe • Breathe air and have hair • Give birth to live young 3 FIELD GUIDE Invertebrates Invertebrates without Exoskeleton Invertebrates with Exoskeleton R E T U R N T O 4F I E L D G U I D E F I EFL IDE LGDU G I DUEI D E F I E LF D I DUEI D E I E LGDU G FIELD GUIDE Invertebrates without Invertebrates without Black Sea Hare E Invertebrates without Invertebrates without Invertebrates without Exoskeleto Invertebrates without Exoskeleton Dorid Hermissenda Invertebrates without Exoskeleton FIELD GUIDE Aggregating Anemone Exoskeleton ates without Exoskeleton Black Sea Hare Sea Hare Dorid Black Sea Hare atesNavanax withoutBrown Exoskeleton Black Sea Hare Black Sea Hare Anemone Solitary Anemone Brooding Anemone Black Sea Hare Black Sea Hare Brooding Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Brown Sea Hare Brooding Anemone Brooding Anemone Hopkins Rose Brown Sea Black Sea Hare Brooding Anemone Brown Sea Hare Brown Sea Hare BlackSea Sea Hare Brown Hare Dorid Spanish Shawl Brown Sea Hare UIDE 5 Dorid Dorid Hermissenda Navanax Dorid Dorid Nudibranch Dorid Dorid Hermissenda RETURN TO INVERTEBRATES Hermissenda Nudibranch Dorid Hermissenda Dorid Hopkins Rose Hopkins Rose Hopkins Rose Nudibranch Hopkins Rose Hermissenda Hopkins Two-Spot Octopus Hermissenda Hopkins Rose Navanax Hopkins Rose Navanax Solitary Anemone RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE Two-Spot Octopus Solitary Anemone Navanax Two-Spot Octopus Two-Spot Solitary Anemone Navanax Solitary Anemone Two-Spot Two-Spot Octopus SpanishOctopus Shawl Two-Spot Octopus Spanish Shawl RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE Spanish Navanax Shawl Nudibranch Navanax Spanish Shawl Navanax Solitary Anemone Navanax RETURN 5 RETURN T Spanish Shawl Spanish Shawl Spanish Shawl Spanish Shawl TO INVERTEBRATES R E T U5R N T O F I E L D G U I D E RETURN 5 R E T U R N T O L D G U I D E R E T U R F I E L D G U I D E R NN 5 5 RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O I N V E R T E B R A T E S RE ET TUUR R 5 RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE RETURN T INVERTEBRATES Aggregating Anemone Anthopleura elegantissima Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: 5-7cm in diameter when open. Closes during low tide and is covered with shells and sand. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: To reproduce, individual anemones divide and separate into two new anemones of the same sex. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O6 I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Solitary Anemone Anthopleura sola Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: A 7-10 cm disc rimmed with tentacles; usually light green with stripes extending from the center. Distribution: Alaska to Panama Interesting Facts: The stinging cells, or nematocysts, in their tentacles are used to capture food. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 7I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Brooding Anemone Eplactis Prolifera Tidal Zone: Low Description: Orange, red, or brown 2 cm disc. Distribution: Alaska to Southern California Interesting Facts: Eggs are fertilized within the body of the adult, then released out of its mouth. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 8I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Black Sea Hare Aplysia vaccaria Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: Dark purple to black sea slug that grows up to 76 cm long. Distribution: Southern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: Unlike the California Sea Hare, this species does not ink. Instead, its primary defense is camouflage. This is the largest of all sea slugs. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 9I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Brown Sea Hare Aplysia californica Tidal Zone: Low Description: Rusty brown to red sea slug with dark streaks or spots. 12 cm - 15 cm long. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: Gets its coloration from the red algae it eats. This species will ink like an octopus when disturbed. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 10I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Dorid Nudibranch Diaulula sandiegensis Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: Small, tan-bodied sea slug with dark brown or black rings on its back. Up to 7.6 cm long and 5 cm wide. Distribution: Pacific Coast from Northern Japan to Baja California Interesting Facts: Feeds on sponges found on the undersides of rocks. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 11I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Hermissenda Nudibranch Hermissenda crassicornis Tidal Zone: Low Description: Small, 5 cm long sea slug with transparent gray, white, or blue body. The tentacle-like cerata on its back can be red, orange, green, brown, or black. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: The tips of the cerata contain stinging cells, or nematocysts. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 12I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Hopkins Rose Nudibranch Hopkinsia rosacea Tidal Zone: Low Description: Small sea slug, 2.5 cm in length, with a red body and pink fleshy appendagescovering the body. Distribution: Oregon to Baja California Interesting Facts: This sea slug derives its color from the rose-colored bryozoan, or small encrusting invertebrate, it feeds on. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 13I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Spanish Shawl Nudibranch Flabellina Iodinea Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: A small sea slug about 8 cm long with a bright purple body and orange tentacle-like cerata on its back. The ear-like rhinophores are a deep red color. Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California Interesting Facts: This nudibranch can flatten its body and swim by bending back and forth to propel itself through the water RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 14I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Navanax Navanax inermis Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: A 7-10 cm long sea slug that is black with a series of orange, yellow, and blue dashes, spots, and stripes. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: This species of sea slug is carnivorous and feeds on soft-bodied snails. Will also expel a yellow ink when threatened. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 15I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Two-Spot Octopus Octopus bimaculoides Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: The body can be from 5-20 cm in length with arms three-times the length of the body. Has two dark spots ringed with blue below the eyes, hence its name. Distribution: Central California to Baja California Interesting Facts: Masters of camouflage, octopuses can change the color and texture of their skin. They will also release a dark black ink when threatened. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 16I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N FFFFIIIIEEEELLLLD DG GU UIIIID DEEEE D D G G U U D D Invertebrates Invertebrates with with Exoskeleton Exoskeleton Sea Sea Stars Stars Crustaceans Crustaceans Shelled Shelled Invertebrates Invertebrates Other Other RREETTUU UR N TTTTO O FFFFIIIIEEEELLLLD DG GU UIIIID DEEEE RRRN N N O D G U D R ERRTEEUTTRU N TOO FIELD D GG U IU D ED 17 17 17 17 17 RREETTUU URRR RNN N TTTTO O IIIIN NVVV VEERRTTEEBBRRAA ATTTTEEEESSS S O O N RRREEETTTUU R NN TO I NN V EEERRRTTTEEEBBBRRRAA TES FFIIEELLDD FFFIIIEEELLLDD D GUUIIDDEE G G G GUU UIIIDD DEEE Sea Stars Sea Stars Banded Brittle Banded Brittle Bat Star Bat Star Knobby Sea Star Ochre Sea Star Knobby Sea Sea Star Star Ochre Sea Star Knobby N TTO O FFIIEELLDD G GUUIIDDEE RREETTUURRN RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE RREETTUURRNN TTO O FFI IEELLDD GGUUI IDDEE N O 18TTO RREETTUURRN 18 R E T U R N18T O RREETTUURRNN O 18 18TTO NVVEERRTTEEBBRRAATTEESS IIN INVERTEBRATES I INNVVEERRTTEEBBRRAATTEESS WIITTHH EEXXO OSSKKEELLEETTO ON N W WITH EXOSKELETON W WI ITTHH EEXXO OSSKKEELLEETTO ONN INVERTEBRATES Banded Brittle Star Ophionereis annulata Tidal Zone: Middle Description: Small, round, brown body with five 10-12 cm long gray legs marked with brown bands. Distribution: Southern California to Panama Interesting Facts: Arms will easily break off when disturbed, but will regrow. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 19 RETURN TO SEA S TARS INVERTEBRATES Bat Star Patiria miniata Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: Averaging 7.5 cm in diameter with five triangular shaped legs. Usually orange in color. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: This species is omnivorous (eats both plants and animals). RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 20 RETURN TO SEA S TARS INVERTEBRATES Ochre Sea Star Pisaster ochraceus Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: Diameter of 45 cm - 50 cm. They range in color from yellow, orange, brown, red, or purple. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: Once one of the most prolific sea stars on the West Coast, this species was recently decimated by Sea Star Wasting Disease. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 21 RETURN TO SEA S TARS INVERTEBRATES Knobby Sea Star Pisaster giganteus Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: A tan or brown base with blunt blue spines tipped with purple, pink, or white. Usually about 36 cm - 48 cm in diameter. Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California Interesting Facts: Sea Stars eat their prey by expelling their stomach and digesting prey externally. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 22 RETURN TO SEA S TARS rtebrates Crustaceans FIELD GUIDE D G GU U II D D EE FF II EE LL D Crustaceans FIELD GUIDE Blue-Legged ns Crustaceans Snail Hermit Crab Globose Kelp Crab Chiton Globose pnacles Crab Gray Kelp Crab StripedWhelk Shore Crab Rock CrabRock Kellet’s Crab Periwinkle RR EE TT U U RR N N TT O O FF II EE LL D D G GU U II D D EE etriped Crab Shore Crab Spiny Lobster Spiny s Owl Limpet RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE Rock Roc Spiny RREETTU TTO URRN N23 O IIN NVVEERRTTEEBBRRAATTE 23 Lobster Thatched Barnacle RETURN TO INVERTEBRATES WITH EXOSKELETON R E T U RRNE TTUOR N F I23ET LOD I G NU V IEDRET E B R A TREEST UWRIN T 23 HT O E XIO NSVKEERLTEETBORN A T E S W I23 TH EXOSKELETON INVERTEBRATES Blue-Legged Hermit Crab Pagurus samuelis Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: Shells about 2.5 cm in height with bright blue color bands on their legs. Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California Interesting Facts: They favor empty Black Turban Snail shells and feed on the remains of animals and plant material. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 24 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Globose Kelp Crab Taliepus nuttalli Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: Purple to reddish brown, 10 cm body with an overall diameter of 30 cm including the legs. Distribution: Central California to Baja California Interesting Facts: Feed on large kelp species, such as Giant Kelp and Feather Boa Kelp. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 25 RETURN TO CRUS TACEANS IN VV E ER T TET EB RRR AA T TET EE SSS- -CC RR UU S ST A CCE EAANNS S N V E RR E BB A TA II N Rock Rock Crab Crab Cancer Cancerproductus productus TidalZone: Zone: Low to Subtidal Tidal Description: Red to brown oval crab 12 cm wide with Description: large mouth pieces that point forward. Adults have a fringe Distribution: Distribution: of hair on lower body surface and legs. InterestingFacts: Facts: Interesting Distribution: Oregon to Baja California Interesting Facts: This species is known to feed on hermit crabs. RR TU R NN TO LD U ID EE E TRU TO E LD IED RE TE U NR TO F IFEIFE LI D GG UG IU D 25 26 25 RNNTTO TOOCCR CRU RUU ACE CEA EAA RRERETETUTUU RRN SSTSTATAC NNN SSS INVERTEBRATES Striped Shore Crab Pachygrapsus crassipes Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: This crab can grow up to 5 cm wide and has a square-shaped body in shades of red, purple, or green with lateral stripes. Distribution: Oregon to Baja California Interesting Facts: They are scavengers, but can also prey upon snails, limpets, and hermit crabs. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 27 RETURN TO CRUS TACEANS INVERTEBRATES Spiny Lobster Panulirus interruptus Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: Those found in the tidepools are usually juveniles averaging about 30 cm in length. Brick red in color with orange stripe down the legs. Distribution: Southern California to Mexico Interesting Facts: Lacking claws, like their east coast relatives, these lobsters have spines on their bodies and sharp tail segments for protection. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 28 RETURN TO CRUS TACEANS FFIIEELLDD G GUUIIDDEE FIELD GUIDE FIELD GUIDE FIELD GUIDE Blue-Legged Shelled Invertebrates Invertebrates Shelled Shelled Invertebrates Shelled Shelled Inverteb Chiton Hermit Crab Blue-Legged Gray Periwinkle Black Kellet’s Whelk Turban Snail Barnacles Turban Snail Black Barnacles Hermit Crab Blue-Legged dChestnut Invertebrates brates Thatched Barnacle Turban Snail Gray Periwinkle Chiton Barnacles Owl Limpet Chestnut Cowry Chiton Black Turban Snail Black Barnacles Turban Snail Black Gray Periwinkle Turban Snail Cowry Black Barnacles Kellet’s Whelk Barnacles Barnacles Hermit Crab Blue-Legged Blue-Legged Barnacles Gooseneck Barnacles Gooseneck Hermit HermitCrab Crab Blue-Legged Blue-Legged Barnacles Gray Periwinkle Chestnut Cowry Gooseneck Barnacles Kellet’s Whelk Keyhole Limpet Kellet’s Whelk Gray Periwinkle Mussels Owl Limpet Thatched Barnacle Chestnut Cowry Gooseneck Barnacles Gooseneck Barnacles Black Turban Snail Gooseneck Chestnut Cowry Gray Periwinkle Chiton Chestnut Cowry Keyhole Limpet Chiton Chestnut Cowry Mussels Owl Limpet Chiton Hermit Crab Hermit Crab 28T O INVERTEBRATES WITH EXOSKELETON Barnacle Keyhole Limpet Mussels Owl Limpet Worm Snail Keyhole Wavy Turban Snail Thatched Thatched Barnacle Gooseneck Barnacles Keyhole Limpet Gray Periwinkle Keyhole Limpet Mussels Owl Limpet Scaled Worm Snail Scaled Wavy Turban Snail Kellet’s Whelk Kellet’s Whelk Gray Periwinkle Keyhole Limpet Limpet Mussels Owl Mussels Limpet Kellet’s Whelk EE T U R N TROE TFUI ER LND28TG D EV E R T E BRREAT TUERSN28 S W R E T U R N T O F I E L D G UR ID OU II N WT IOT HI NE V X EORSTKE EBLREATTOE N Scaled Worm Snail Scaled Worm Snail Thatched Barnacle Mussels Owl Limpet Wavy Turban Snail Wavy Turban Snail Worm Snail Barnacle Scaled Worm Snail Thatched Scaled Wavy Turban Worm Snail Snail Scaled Wavy Turban Thatched Barnacle Owl Limpet R E T U R N T O F I E L D G U I IDDEE R EETTUURRNN2828 T OO I INNVVEERRTTEEBBRRAAT TEESS W XX OO SSS KK E L LEL EE T OO NN WI TI THHI EN O R RE ET TUURRNN T TOO F FI EI EL LDD GGUUIRD EEEE TVXUE R TRO 28TG EET U R N T R O F I E L D29 URI D RN TKEEEB REATTTFTO SLNDW E TE U R N TROE TFU I ERLND28TGOU R D UIEERN 2 INVERTEBRATES Barnacles Balanus spp. Tidal Zone: High to Low Description: Averaging 1 cm - 15 cm depending on species. Cream, brown, or pink in color. Distribution: Canada to Baja California Interesting Facts: Attach to rocks with their antennae and feed with their feathery legs at high tide. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 30 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Thatched Barnacle Tetraclita rubescens Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: 2-4 cm diameter pink to red shells that grow into the shape of a volcano. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: Juveniles are white, turning red once mature. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 31 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Gooseneck Barnacles Pollicipies polymerus Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: Grey to white clusters of individuals from 10-15cm in length grouped on surface of rocks. Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California Interesting Facts: The body is covered with plates and scales for protection. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 32 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Chiton Nuttalina fluxa Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: Narrow, eight-plated oval 2.5 cm - 3.5 cm in length. Dark brown to brownish-yellow. Distribution: Central California to Baja California Interesting Facts: Can live up to 20 - 25 years. Create pits in the rock to trap algae for food and to hold water during low tide. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 33 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Black Turban Snail Tegula funebralis Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: Smooth, dark, purple-black with white tip of shell. 2 cm - 4 cm in height. Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California Interesting Facts: Empty Black Turban Snail shells are a favorite of Hermit Crabs. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 34 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Blue-Legged Hermit Crab Pagurus samuelis Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: Shells about 2.5 cm in height with bright blue color bands on their legs. Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California Interesting Facts: They favor empty Black Turban Snail shells and feed on the remains of animals and plant material. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 35 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Gray Periwinkle Littorina planaxis Tidal Zone: High Description: Small, grayish-brown snail roughly 1.5 cm tall. Distribution: Washington to Baja California Interesting Facts: Unlike most other marine animals, this snail can survive in fresh water. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 36 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Chesnut Cowry Neobernaya spadicea Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: Snail with a 3.8 cm - 6.3 cm long shell. Shell is a light Chestnut brown with a dark brown band that separates a white base. Distribution: Central California to Baja California Interesting Facts: In the summer, females deposit 100 or more egg capsules, each capsule containing hundreds of eggs. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 37 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Kellet’s Whelk Kelletia kelletii Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: A sea snail with a spiraled, spindle-shaped shell up to 17.5 cm in length. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: Predatory sea snail that is also a scavenger. Feeds using a long proboscis that helps the snail sense its environment. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 38 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Wavy Turban Snail Megastraea undosa Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: A large snail with a spiraling conical shaped shell 5 - 10 cm in height. Distribution: Central California to Baja California Interesting Facts: An active snail that moves around the rocks in search of algae to eat. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 39 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Keyhole Limpet Megathura crenulata Tidal Zone: Low Description: An oval shaped snail growing up to 10 cm in length. The shell is covered with a fleshy mantle, or covering, that can be solid black, brown, mottled, or striped. Distribution: Central California to Baja California Interesting Facts: The "keyhole" at the top of the shell is used to expel solid and liquid waste. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 40 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Mussels Mytilus californianus Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: A dark purple to black, teardrop-shaped bivalved mollusk, grouped in masses called "beds" on rocks. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: Mussels attach themselves to rocks with strong hair-like strands called byssal threads. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 41 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Owl Limpet Lottia gigantea Tidal Zone: High Description: 2-6 cm mollusk with a flattened cap-like shell. They feed on algae and use their strong "foot" to stay attached to the rocks. Distribution: Washington to Baja California Interesting Facts: Members of this species are born male and turn into females when they reach a certain size (about 4 cm). RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 42 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Scaled Worm Snail Thylacodes squamigerus Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: This snail lives in curvy tubes 12-15 cm long and about 1.3 cm in diameter. These snails group in masses under rocks and in crevices. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: These snails feed by secreting a triangle-shaped mucus fan. They wave this fan into the current to collect organisms and detritus floating by. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 43 RETURN TO SHELLED INVERTEBRATES INVERTEBRATES Sand-Castle Worms Phragmatopoma californica Tidal Zone: Middle Description: A 5 cm long worm that builds large colonies under and between rocks. They cement sand grains to form the tubes they live in, building large honeycombshaped colonies. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: The worms are hidden in their tubes at low tide, but reach out tentacles to feed during high tide. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE RETURN 44 T O I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H E X O S K E L E T O N FIELD GUIDE Marine Plants Coralline Algae Dead Man’s Fingers Feather Boa Kelp Plocamium Rockweed Seagrass Sea Bubble Sea Lettuce Wire Weed R E T U R N T O 45 FIELD GUIDE MARINE PLANTS Coralline Algae Corallina spp. Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: A red algae with calcium carbonate segments, giving it a pink or white color. Distribution: Globally Interesting Facts: This algae is stiff and crunchy to the touch due to the calcium carbonate segments. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 46 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS MARINE PLANTS Dead Man’s Fingers Codium fragile Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: A dark green algae that forms finger-like branches up to 30 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. It attaches to rocks at a base point and hangs off the rock at low tide. Distribution: Temperate waters worldwide Interesting Facts: A single Dead Man's Fingers plant is said to be only one large cell because there are no cell walls separating one nucleus from another. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 47 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS MARINE PLANTS Feather Boa Kelp Egregia menziesii Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: A dark brown algae that grows from a holdfast, or base, up to 5 m long. Blades about 5 cm long grow from a flattened center 'stipe' that give it a feather boa look. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: The seaweed limpet (Notoacmea insessa) exclusively feeds and lives on this kelp. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 48 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS MARINE PLANTS Plocamium Plocamium pacificum Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: Red algae with a height of about 50 cm; bright red fanning branches give it a lace-like appearance. Distribution: Temperate waters worldwide Interesting Facts: Some species fronds are annual, growing back each year from the base. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 49 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS MARINE PLANTS Rockweed Silvetia compressa Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: An olive brown to yellowish brown algae that grows about 30 - 90 cm in length. Thick, narrow fronds cover rocks to form beds. Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California Interesting Facts: Supports many other animals within its beds by creating a damp microhabitat. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 50 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS MARINE PLANTS Seagrass Phyllospadix scouleri Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: Green blades about 2 mm wide and up to 90 cm long. Grows from base clumps and spreads using a root-like system of rhizomes. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: This is a flowering plant with male and female flowers on different plants. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 51 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS MARINE PLANTS Sea Bubble Colpomenia spp. Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: A brown algae forming thin hollow bubbles ranging in size, up to 30 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. Distribution: Globally Interesting Facts: This algae has been known to grow on oysters and carry them away when the bubble gets large enough. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 52 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS MARINE PLANTS Sea Lettuce Ulva californica Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: An emerald green algae that grows like turf on top of rocks. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: This algae is only two cells thick. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 53 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS MARINE PLANTS Wire Weed Sargassum muticum Tidal Zone: Middle to Low Description: A brown algae growing from a holdfast up to 10 m in length with small air sacks. Distribution: Native to the East Coast of Japan; now found globally Interesting Facts: This invasive species was introduced to the California Coast in the 1940s and, while now abundant, can be toxic to native species that try to eat it. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 54 RETURN TO MARINE PL ANTS FIELD GUIDE Fish Garibaldi Opaleye Leopard Shark Moray Eel Wooly Sculpin R E T U R N T O 55 FIELD GUIDE FISH Garibaldi Hypsypops rubicundus Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: The largest of the Damselfish family, these bright orange fish average about 30 cm in length. The juveniles have bright blue spots until they mature. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: This territorial fish is the state marine fish of California. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 56 RETURN TO FISH FISH Opaleye (Rudderfish) Girella nigricans Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: Juveniles in the tidepools average 5 - 10 cm and adults are 45 - 60 cm in length. They are a dark olive green with two light spots on either side of the dorsal fin. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: The juveniles can breathe air when exposed at low tide. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 57 RETURN TO FISH FISH Leopard Shark Triakis semifasciata Tidal Zone: Subtidal Description: A silvery-gray shark up to 2 m long with dark oval spots across its back and spots on its sides. Distribution: Oregon to Central Mexico Interesting Facts: Females keep fertilized eggs inside them and can give birth to as many as 33 live pups after a 10 - 12 month gestation period. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 58 RETURN TO FISH FISH Moray Eel Gymnothorax mordax Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: With a light brown or green snakelike body that is up to 1.5 m in length, these fish hide in rock crevices and wait to ambush their prey. Distribution: Central California to Baja California Interesting Facts: This eel has to open and close its mouth to breathe, which can be misinterpreted as aggressive behavior. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 59 RETURN TO FISH FISH Wooly Sculpin Clinocottus analis Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: This fish comes in many colors (brown, green, and reddish colorations) and is about 18 cm in length when fully grown. Distribution: Northern California to Baja California Interesting Facts: This intertidal fish can breathe air for up to 24 hours if exposed at low tide. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 60 RETURN TO FISH FIELD GUIDE Marine Mammals Gray Whale Harbor Seal Bottlenose Dolphin California Sea Lion R E T U R N T O 61 FIELD GUIDE MAMMALS Gray Whale Eschrichtius robustus Tidal Zone: Coastal Waters Description: Roughly 15 m in length and weighs up to 35,000 kg with characteristic dorsal "hump". Distribution: Pacific Ocean Interesting Facts: These whales feed on the ocean floor by swimming on their sides and scooping up sand. They use their baleen to filter out amphipods (small crustaceans). RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 62 RETURN TO MARINE MAMMALS MAMMALS Common Harbor Seal Phoca vitulina Tidal Zone: Coastal Waters Description: A dark tan, gray, or silver-white speckled seal about 2 m long that weighs about 120 kg. This seal will haul-out on rocks and beaches to rest when not feeding. Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California Interesting Facts: They have distinct V-Shaped nostrils and no ear flap because they are a true seal. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 63 RETURN TO MARINE MAMMALS MAMMALS Common Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus Tidal Zone: Coastal Waters Description: A gray dolphin averaging 3 - 4 m in length and weighing about 498 kg. They have a short, thick snout with a curved mouth. Distribution: Oceans in Tropical and Temperate zones Interesting Facts: Bottlenose dolphins use echolocation, or the echo from loud, rapid clicks, to hunt for prey. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 64 RETURN TO MARINE MAMMALS MAMMALS California Sea Lion Zalophus californianus Tidal Zone: Coastal Waters Description: Dark to golden brown. Males about 3 m in length and a prominent forehead called a sagittal crest. Females are smaller in stature and lack the sagittal crest. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: Distinguished from seals by their ear flaps, loud bark, and the ability to “walk” on land using their flippers. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 65 RETURN TO MARINE MAMMALS C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Our Role The core mission of the National Park Service is to protect and preserve natural resources, processes, systems, and values of America’s parks. Our philosophy is to protect, and restore when necessary, native ecosystems and let natural processes play out. Park Rangers and Volunteers document their observations of flora and fauna. Scientists conduct research to try to understand the status and trends of the species and systems they protect. This information is vital to advising park management and philosophy. Connect With Us To learn more about how you can help, visit: • NPS Website • Field Notes R E T U R N T O 66H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Cabrillo Guide Rules for Exploration: Activity: • No running nor swimming 1. How do these marine animals survive when it’s a low tide? • Stay on the marked trails/sidewalks • No picking or taking of any kind • Pack it in, pack it out - No littering 2. How many different species of flora and fauna you can count on one rock? R E T U R N T O 67H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT All Rights Reserved © 2017 Editor: Nicole Ornelas Photos: N. Ornelas, P. Simpson, J. & W. Tam, S. Root Sources: A. Rosales Life Between the Tides - Brandon & Rokop Cabrillo National Monument 1800 Cabrillo Memorial Drive San Diego, Ca. 92106 WWW.NPS.GOV/CABR R E T U R N T O 68H O M E P A G E

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