"Coastal view, Cabrillo National Monument, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Field Guides

Native Plant Field Guide

brochure Field Guides - Native Plant Field Guide

Native Plant Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Native Plant Field Guide C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Native Plant Field Guide About the Ecosystem Field Guide Our Role Cabrillo Guide 1 C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT About the Ecosystem The Mediterranean Ecosystem is made up of plants that have adapted to warm, dry summers and cool winters with a few storms lasting a few days at a time. To survive through the dry season, some plants found in these habitats have large roots, or bodies, where they store water to use when needed. Other plants have leaf adaptations that prevent the loss of water. These adaptations include leaves that fall off during dry seasons, leaves with a waxy coating that protects them from evaporation, or leaves with hairs that reflect light penetrating the plant. Plant Communities Coastal Sage Scrub Chaparral • Small Plants (less than 3 feet) • Woody Shrubs (up to 8 feet) • Spread out and dirt is often seen • Plants often grow close together • Typically direct sunlight all day • Usually shaded for part of the day R E T U R N T O 2H O M E P A G E SHRUBS Aromatic Plants Black Sage Bladderpod Everlasting Sagebrush RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 3 RETURN TO SHRUBS SHRUBS Bicolor Everlasting Pseudognaphalium bioletti Flowering Season: January -May Description: Clasping, distinctly two colored leaves with white crowded flowers and sweet scent (lemon-like); <3’ Distribution: California and Baja California Interesting Facts: This species of Pseudognaphalium may feel slightly sticky to the touch. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 4 RETURN TO AROMATIC PL ANTS SHRUBS Black Sage Salvia mellifera Flowering Season: May - July Description: Branched woody shrub <6’; small dark green leaves with several whirls around the upright stalks, flower color varies from white, pale blue, and lavender Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: The word ‘mellifera’ means foul odor. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 5 RETURN TO AROMATIC PL ANTS SHRUBS Bladderpod Peritoma arborea Flowering Season: All year with rain Description: Spreading shrub <6’, 3 gray-green leaflets, yellow tubular 4 petal flowers, bladder shaped seed pods Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Often, you will find the Harlequin bug using this plant for survival. Some Harlequin bugs can spend their whole life on a single Bladder Pod RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 6 RETURN TO AROMATIC PL ANTS SHRUBS California Sagebrush Artemisia califonica Flowering Season: August - December Description: Erect or spreading branches <4’, soft green-gray linear leaves, small yellow-green flowers Distribution: Central to Southern California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: This plant is not a true sage, but utilizes the same chemicals to smell like a sage. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 7 RETURN TO AROMATIC PL ANTS SHRUBS Common Wildflowers Black Sage Bladderpod Bladder Pod CA Buckwheat Bushmallow Bush Sunflower Deer Weed Goldenbush SD Sunflower Sea Dahlia Tansy Mustard White Fiesta Flower Yellow Pincushion RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 8 RETURN TO SHRUBS SHRUBS Black Sage Salvia mellifera Flowering Season: May - July Description: Branched woody shrub <6’; small dark green leaves with several whirls around the upright stalks, flower color varies from white, pale blue, and lavender Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: The word ‘mellifera’ means foul odor. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 9 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Bladderpod Peritoma arborea Flowering Season: All year with rain Description: Spreading shrub <6’, 3 gray-green leaflets, yellow tubular 4 petal flowers, bladder shaped seed pods Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Often, you will find the Harlequin bug using this plant for survival. Some Harlequin bugs can spend their whole life on a single Bladder Pod. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 10 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS California Flattop Buckwheat Eriogonum fasciculatum Flowering Season: All year with rain Description: Woody brittle shrub <5’, small slender bundled leaves, white pom-pom like flowers with pink anthers, dry rust colored flower heads retained Distribution: Western North America - California, Utah, Arizona and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Some may say it has pink pollen, but in fact the anthers of this plants are simply pink. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 11 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Coastal Bushmallow Malacothamnus fasciculatus Flowering Season: April - July Description: Shrub <6’, softly lobed felty leaves, pink with orangish center flowers bundled along stalk Distribution: Western North America - California and Mexico Interesting Facts: On the underside of its leaves, it has star-like hairs (stellate trichomes), which help it capture moisture on foggy days. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 12 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Bush Sunflower Encelia californica Flowering Season: February - June Description: Branched <4’, oval green smooth edged leaves, yellow petals surrounding brown-black disk flowers Distribution: Southern California and Baja California Interesting Facts: On the Bush Sunflower, each center disc consists of many small individual flowers. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 13 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Deer Weed Acmispon glaber Flowering Season: March - August Description: Gray-green twigs <4’, 3-6 leaflets, small yellow turning to orange flowers that look like “deer ears” Distribution: California, Arizona, and Mexico Interesting Facts: Deer Weed uptakes nitrogen due its relationship with bacteria. Also, the flowers change color after being pollinated from bright yellow to orange. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 14 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS San Diego Goldenbush Isocoma menziesii Flowering Season: April - November Description: Branched shrub <4’ with dark green leaves, toothed at tip; clustered yellow at tips of branches; may be sticky Distribution: Central California to Baja Interesting Facts: The San Diego Goldenbush seeds are wind dispersed. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 15 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS San Diego Sunflower Bahiopsis laciniata Flowering Season: March - July Description: Branched shrub <5’, gray-green, thick, lance-shaped leaves and yellow rays, and disk flowers Distribution: California and Mexico Interesting Facts: On the San Diego Sunflower, each center disc consists of many small individual flowers as shown above. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 16 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Sea Dahlia Leptosyne maritima Flowering Season: March - May Description: Spreading shrub <3’ with dividing leaves; big, radiate, bright yellow flower with yellow center Distribution: Southern California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Sea Dahlia is regionally endangered due to urbanization and is recognized on the federally endangered species list. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 17 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Tansy Mustard Descurainia pinnata Flowering Season: February - June Description: Erect flowering shrub <4’ height. Yellow rounded flowers with winged seeds branched from stem. Distribution: Northern America Interesting Facts: Tansy Mustard is one of the only native mustards in this area. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 18 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS White Fiesta Flower Pholistoma racemosum Flowering Season: February - May Description: Tangled patches of ground cover with creeping branches of small, white flowers. Distribution: Southern California Interesting Facts: The stem and leaves of this plant are covered with hairs that are bent backwards allowing the plant to cling or climb. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 19 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Yellow Pincushion Chaenactis glabriuscula Flowering Season: January - August Description: Central and Southern California Distribution: Erect, branched shrub >2’ height with yellow rounded flowers. Interesting Facts: This species is in the Daisy family. It gets its common name from its distinctive rounded look - like a pincushion. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 20 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Woody Shrubs Broom Baccharis Bladder Pod CA Buckwheat Cliff Spurge Coyote Bush Johnston’s Honeysuckle Laurel Sumac Lemonade Berry Mule’s Fat Scrub Oak Toyon Yerba Santa RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 21 RETURN TO SHRUBS SHRUBS Broom Baccharis Baccharis sarothroides Flowering Season: August - December Description: Woody shrub <7’, leaves often not evident, twiggy-broom like in appearance, small white-yellowish male flowers, small white fluffy female flowers Distribution: Western North America - California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Northwestern Mexico Interesting Facts: This plant is dioecious meaning that it has separate male and female parts on an individual. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 22 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Bladderpod Peritoma arborea Flowering Season: All year with rain Description: Spreading shrub <6’ tall, 3 gray-green leaflets, yellow tubular 4 petal flowers, bladder shaped seed pods Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Often, you will find the Harlequin bug using this plant for survival. Some Harlequin bugs can spend their whole life on a single Bladder Pod. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 23 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Cliff Spurge Euphorbia misera Flowering Season: January - August Description: <3’ shrub often gray twiggy looking, small green leaves, small white flowers with maroon center present after rain Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: Each flower has a small disc of color that contains nectar (nectariferous discs). RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 24 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS California Flattop Buckwheat Eriogonum fasciculatum Flowering Season: All year with rain Description: Woody brittle shrub <5’, small slender bundled leaves, white pom-pom like flowers with pink anthers, dry rust colored flower heads retained Distribution: Western North America - California, Utah, Arizona and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Some may say it has pink pollen, but in fact the anthers of this plants are simply pink. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 25 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Coyote Brush Baccharis pilularis Flowering Season: August - December Description: Woody shrub <7’ , small narrow toothed oval light green leaves, small yellowish male flowers, small white fluffy female flowers Distribution: California, Oregon, and Mexico Interesting Facts: This plant is dioecious meaning that it has separate male and female parts on individuals. It is named after the Roman god of wine, Bacchus. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 26 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Johnston’s Honeysuckle Lonicera subspicata Flowering Season: May - August Description: Woody shrub <5’; often in shade with long twiggy branches and rounded leaves; white-pink flowers. Distribution: California and Baja Interesting Facts: This plant is endemic to this region meaning that is found only here. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 27 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Laurel Sumac Malosma laurina Flowering Season: February - May Description: Large, rounded shrub <10-18’; taco shaped leaves which have reddish veins and stems; small white flowers Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: The Laurel Sumac is related to both poison oak and mangos, but do not worry, they are not harmful to touch. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 28 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Lemonade Berry Rhus integrifolia Flowering Season: February - May Description: Woody gray barked bush <15’, dark green leathery serrated leaves, flowers white or pink, clustered red waxy berries Distribution: Central to Southern California, and Baja Interesting Facts: Lemonade Berry is in the cashew family and its seed may taste sour when consumed. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 29 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Mule’s Fat Baccharis salicifolia Flowering Season: Continuously Description: Abundant in drainage areas, resembles small willow; erect, spreading branches and leaves; <15’ Distribution: California and Baja Interesting Facts: This species receives its common name because it is a source of food for mule deer. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 30 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Nuttall’s Scrub Oak Quercus dumosa Flowering Season: February - March Description: Woody branched shrub <15’; stiff twigs with dark green, wavy leaves; acorns <1” Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: This oak sprouts vigorously from its stump and root crown after wildfire. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 31 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Toyon Heteromeles arbutifolia Flowering Season: June - April Description: Evergreen shrub <18’; erect, branched, tree-like; small, cream flowers and rich red colored berry Distribution: California and Baja Interesting Facts: Toyon is known as the Christmas Berry or Holly. The city of Hollywood was named after this plant as it once covered the Hollywood Hills. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 32 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Felt-Leaf Yerba Santa Eriodictyon crassifolium Flowering Season: May - June Description: Erect, loosely branched shrub <6’; felty, gray leaves whirled around twig with lavender flowers Distribution: California, Oregon, and Baja Interesting Facts: The small hairs on the leaves collect water brought in by fog. Yerba Santa is one of the primary food sources for checkered butterflies. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 33 RETURN TO WOODY SHRUBS SHRUBS Other Shrubs Deer Weed Loco Weed Wild Rye Russian Thistle RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 34 RETURN TO SHRUBS SHRUBS Deer Weed Acmispon glaber Flowering Season: March - August Description: Gray-green twigs <4’, 3-6 leaflets, small yellow turning to orange flowers that look like “deer ears” Distribution: California, Arizona, and Mexico Interesting: Deer Weed uptakes nitrogen due its relationship with bacteria. Also, the flowers change color after being pollinated from bright yellow to orange. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 35 RETURN TO OTHER SHRUBS SHRUBS Coast Locoweed Astragalus trichopodus Flowering Season: February - June Description: Silvery annual shrub <2’ tall, gray-green with 15-39 leaflets, cream-white flower heads, and rounded seed pods Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: Locoweed is known for poisoning cattle, horses, and other livestock; hence, it gets it’s name for driving the animals crazy. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 36 RETURN TO OTHER SHRUBS SHRUBS Giant Wild Rye Elymus condensatus Flowering Season: May - August Description: Green fading to brown long wide erect leafed grass <8‘, spiked slender noded flower (seeds) Distribution: California and Baja Interesting Facts: The Giant Wild Rye gets its name because it may reach up to heights of 6 - 8 feet. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 37 RETURN TO OTHER SHRUBS SHRUBS Russian Thistle Salsola australis Flowering Season: June - October Description: Invasive species in California <3’; grey-green coloration, branched, becoming spherical Distribution: Central Asia, Russia, Middle East, and North America Interesting Facts: Originating from Euro-asia, this plant is extremely invasive and can be found nearly all over the world. Also known as a ‘tumbleweed’. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 38 RETURN TO OTHER SHRUBS FIELD GUIDE Trees Aleppo Pine Japanese Black Pine Monterey Cypress Torrey Pine R E T U R N T O 39 FIELD GUIDE TREES Aleppo Pine Pinus halepensis Flowering Season: None Description: Medium sized tree with orange-red bark; slender yellowish-green needles Distribution: Native to Mediterranean Basin region Interesting Facts: Due to its irregular shape and poor wood quality, this species is not very profitable in the forestry industry. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 40 RETURN TO TREES TREES Japanese Black Pine Pinus thunbergii Flowering Season: None Description: Pine needles of two with white sheath at base; gray bark on young trees and changing to black Distribution: Native to coastal areas of Japan Interesting Facts: This species of pine is traditionally used in the art of Bonsai. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 41 RETURN TO TREES TREES Monterey Cypress Hesperocyparis macrocarpa Flowering Season: None Description: Few major limbs near ground, more upright in sheltered locations; high canopy evergreen Distribution: Coast of California Interesting Facts: Monterey Cypress are very rare and localized (specially to the Monterey, California region), but invasive in other Mediterranean climates. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 42 RETURN TO TREES TREES Torrey Pine Pinus torreyana Flowering Season: None Description: Broad, open-crowned pine tree with long needle leaves in groups of five; cones stout and heavy Distribution: Southern California - San Diego and Santa Rosa Island Interesting Facts: Torrey Pines can be identified by having 5 needles in each bundle along its branches. It is only found in San Diego and on Santa Rosa Island. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 43 RETURN TO TREES FIELD GUIDE Succulents Chalk Dudleya Lady’s Fingers Mojave Yucca Shaw’s Agave R E T U R N T O 44 FIELD GUIDE SUCCULENTS Chalk Dudleya Dudleya pulverulenta Flowering Season: May - July Description: Basal rosette of wide fleshy green leaves with white “chalk” <3’, tall stalks with many red flowers Distribution: Western North America - California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah and Mexico Interesting Facts: The chalky coating reflects light and prevents evaporation (desiccation). RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 45 RETURN TO SUCCULENTS SUCCULENTS Lady’s Fingers Dudleya edulis Flowering Season: May - June Description: Basal rosette of gray-green fleshy cylindrical “finger” leaves <2’, creamy-white 5 petal star shaped flowers atop branched stalks Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: The latin work ‘edulis’ means edible. Leaves and stems of this species have been know to alleviate thirst and leave a chalky taste in the mouth. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 46 RETURN TO SUCCULENTS SUCCULENTS Mojave Yucca Yucca schidigera Flowering Season: April - May Description: Large rosette of pointed stiff gray-green leaves with “threads” along edge, <8’ stalk with white clumped waxy flowers that bloom from the center Distribution: Southern California, Arizona, Nevada, and Mexico Interesting Facts: Mojave Yucca Spines can be striped to make thread or rope. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 47 RETURN TO SUCCULENTS SUCCULENTS Shaw’s Agave Agave shawii Flowering Season: September - May Description: Basal rosette of sharp pointed toothed thick stiff leaves <4’, golden flowers on thick branched stalk <8’ when in bloom Distribution: Southern California, and Baja Interesting Facts: Only flowers once, every 20-50 years, then dies. Shaw’s Agave have a unique ability to clone themselves but are normally pollinated by bats. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 48 RETURN TO SUCCULENTS FIELD GUIDE Cactus Coast Barrel Cane Cholla Prickly Pear Fish-hook Golden Club R E T U R N T O 49 FIELD GUIDE C ACTUS Coast Barrel Ferocactus viridescens Flowering Season: May - July Description: Nearly cylindrical, usually wider than tall; green and covered in a array of long spines <2’; yellow flowers with red/pink scales Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: The latin word ‘viridescens’ refers to forever green. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 50 RETURN TO C ACTUS C ACTUS Cane Cholla Cylindropuntia californica Flowering Season: April - July Description: Green segmented cactus <6’; many spines, and yellow flowers with green filaments Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: The fruit of the Cane Cholla is dry and inedible unlike other species of cactus. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 51 RETURN TO C ACTUS C ACTUS Coast Prickly Pear Opuntia littoralis Flowering Season: May - June Description: Segmented cactus <4’; green flat rounded pads with 4 - 10 spines from areole, yellow flowers and red oval fruits Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: When spines are removed, this plant has large sections that are edible, including the red fruit and rounded pads. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 52 RETURN TO C ACTUS C ACTUS Fish-hook Mammillaria dioica Flowering Season: February - April Description: Bushy cactus <1’; stems form mounds often near rocks; spines hooked; flowers form a crown Distribution: California and Northwestern Mexico Interesting Facts: This plant is gynodioecious. Gynodioecious is a rare breeding system in which some plants are hermaphroditic (have both male and female parts) and other plants are only female. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 53 RETURN TO C ACTUS C ACTUS Golden Club Bergerocactus emoryi Flowering Season: May - June Description: Club-like, erect stalks <3’; golden color with many spines and yellow flowers emerging from side Distribution: Southern California and Baja Interesting Facts: The Golden Club Cactus is the only member of its genus, Bergerocactus, named after Alwin Berger. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 54 RETURN TO C ACTUS C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Our Role The core mission of the National Park Service is to protect and preserve natural resources, processes, systems, and values of the America’s parks. Our philosophy is protect, and restore when necessary, native ecosystems and let natural processes play out. Park Rangers and Volunteers document their observations of flora and fauna. Scientists conduct research to try to understand the status and trends of the species and systems they protect. This information is vital to advising park management and philosophy. Connect With Us To learn more about how you can help visit: • NPS Website • Field Notes R E T U R N T O 55H O M E P A G E

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