"Aerial view" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Channel Islands

25th Anniversary 1980-2005

brochure Channel Islands - 25th Anniversary 1980-2005
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Channel Islands National Park 25th Anniversary 1980—2005 The National Park System One of the great ironies of the American park system is that it was assembled without benefit of a blueprint. What we enjoy today has been stitched together over more than a century like a giant quilt, park by park, by the loving hands of What does Channel Islands National Park have in common with Valley Forge, Gettysburg, Mammoth Cave, and Great Smoky Mountains? They are all units of the National Park System, established by Congress to care for America's most precious places. Parks like Cape Hatteras, Yosemite, and Death Valley protect magnificent landscapes and important ecosystems, while the “fabric” of American history is preserved at places such as the Statue of Liberty, Independence Hall, and the USS Arizona. Archeological sites found at Mesa Verde, Dinosaur, and Ocmulgee represent another part of this incredible collection, “owned” by all Americans. These public lands protect the irreplaceable resources of our American heritage. Want to know more? Ask a park ranger for the brochure on the National Park System, check into the National Parks Passport program, or visit the website at www.nps.gov. thousands of people who wanted to save something precious for their children and grandchildren. Stewart L. Udall, former U. S. Secretary of the Interior Dept. 2 Channel Islands National Park is one of 388 National Park System sites. The National Park Service Mission Though the first national park, Yellowstone, was created in 1872, the National Park Service was not established until 1916. During the early years, our national parks were protected by the U.S. Army. Troops of cavalry fought fires, guided visitors, and built roads and trails. By the turn of the century, a few far-sighted individuals saw the need to better manage the rapidly evolving system of national park areas. Their efforts resulted in the Organic Act of 1916, which replaced soldiers with civilians as the guardians of the parks. In this act, Congress established the purpose of the National Park Service, which is: The National Park System was the beginning of an idea for the whole world, and I wonder if it is not the best idea the U.S. ever gave the world. Margaret E. Murie, conservationist ...to conserve the scenery The National Park and the natural and historic Service is a federal gency, like the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service objects and the wild life therein and to provide for and the U.S. Geological Survey. Each agency's director works for the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, who in turn the enjoyment of the same in such reports to the President. manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations. The National Park Service symbol is in the shape of an arrowhead, to signify the agency's mission of protecting cultural resources. The interior details, buffalo, and mountain scenery, represent the protection of natural resources. 3 Establishing Channel Islands National Park A series of federal and landowner actions have helped to preserve the Channel Islands. Federal efforts began in 1932 when the Bureau of Lighthouses (precursor to the United States Coast Guard) brought Santa Barbara and Anacapa Islands to the attention of the National Park Service (NPS) and proposed that the islands be turned over for national park purposes. In 1937 biologist Theodore D. A. Cockerell of the University of Colorado, who had been collecting specimens on the islands for several years, wrote an article, planned a book, and tried to get his publications into the hands of people to explain why the islands were considered of unusual interest. He was impressed with the extraordinary importance of the islands for natural history studies and urged the park service to accept a land transfer. Cockerell may well have tipped the balance of opinion towards park service takeover, for in 1938 the NPS made the decision to take the excess lighthouse property and ask for national monument status. On April 26, 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a proclamation designating Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands as Channel Islands National Monument. The first words of the opening paragraph of the proclamation explained why the land warranted preservation, and read, “Whereas certain public islands lying off the coast of Southern California contain fossils of Pleistocene elephants and ancient trees, and furnish noteworthy examples of ancient volcanism, deposition, and active sea erosion, and have situated thereon various other objects of geological and scientific interest . . .” President Roosevelt believed that gradual recovery of the islands’ natural characteristics could only be effected by a good management plan, one the NPS was obliged to carry out in accordance with its traditional duties to preserve resources in their natural condition. Geology received special mention in the proclamation. The new Channel Islands National Monument was placed under the supervision of the superintendent of Sequoia National Park. After a visit to the islands in 1946, Thomas Vint, Chief Landscape Architect for the NPS, was so impressed with the ocean life and underwater world of the islands he recommended that the monument should extend offshore to protect the underwater life. On February 9, 1949, President Harry S. Truman signed Proclamation No. 2825, which added 17,635 acres to the park. The proclamation stipulated addition of “the area within one nautical mile of the shoreline of Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands.” In 1957 management of the monument was transferred to Cabrillo National Monument. Don Robinson, a ranger who had worked at Cabrillo since the 1940s, became superintendent of the combined monuments. In February 1961, President John F. Kennedy sent a special message to Congress about natural resources. He observed that “America’s health, morale, and culture have long benefited from our national parks and forest [but they are] not now adequate to meet the needs of a fast-growing and more mobile population.” He urged Congress to “enact legislation leading to the establishment of seashore and shoreline areas” and urged the Secretary of the Interior, Stewart Udall, to conduct a survey to determine where additional seashore parks should be proposed. The Santa Barbara News-Press printed the President’s remarks and among other backers recommended the Channel Islands for a national park. Editor Thomas Storke urged California’s senators to lead the way and opened correspondence with an old friend of his, James K. Carr, Undersecretary of the Interior. Included in the park would be Santa Barbara, Anacapa, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and San Miguel Islands. 4 Finding the right time to move in Washington combined with the difficulty of finding an agreement with the private owners of Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands put off submission of a bill until 1963, when California Senator Clair Engle backed a bill for a Channel Islands National Seashore rather than Park. In this way the government would not need to acquire all of the private property. No action was taken. In 1966 five bills came before the House on the matter; in 1970, two came before the Senate. Momentum slowed as the debate moved into the decade of the 1970s. In May 1963 the Department of the Navy and Department of the Interior entered a Memorandum of Agreement for the “protection of natural values and historic and scientific objects” on San Miguel. However, both parties recognized the priority of military uses and, therefore ownership stayed with the Navy and San Miguel was not opened for public recreational purposes. Channel Islands National Monument finally received its own headquarters and superintendent in May 1967. Donald Robinson was called upon to be the superintendent, where he served until February 1974. About a year after Robinson took his post, Island Packers Company began to offer public transportation to the monument. William H. Ehorn became the monument’s superintendent in June 1974 and would help guide the planning and creation of Channel Islands National Park and establish the foundation of the new park during its first ten years in existence. In 1977 Senator Alan Cranston and Congressman Anthony Beilenson introduced bills in the Senate and House, respectively, which would authorize Channel Islands and Santa Monica Mountains National Park. Neither passed, and so on March 14, 1979, Congressman Robert J. Lagomarsino introduced a bill creating Channel Islands National Park. With the help of Cranston and Congressman Phillip Burton of San Francisco, the bill passed the House that summer and the Senate approved it in October. President Jimmy Carter signed the legislation, Public Law 96-199, on March 5, 1980. The new national park would include Santa Barbara and Anacapa Islands (the former Channel Islands National Monument) and add Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and San Miguel Islands, the latter to remain under the ownership of the U. S. Navy but managed by the NPS. Although included within the boundaries of the park, both Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands remained private holdings. It was not until December 1986 that the federal government purchased Santa Rosa Island from Vail and Vickers. Ten percent of Santa Cruz Island’s private holdings were purchased from the Gherini family during the 1990s. In 2000 The Nature Conservancy donated 8,500 acres of its holdings on Santa Cruz Island to the NPS resulting in 24 percent public ownership of the island. These acquisitions have placed all of the park islands in conservation ownership. In order to protect the nationally significant natural, scenic, wildlife, marine, ecological, archeological, cultural, and scientific values of the Channel Islands in the State of California……there is hereby established the Channel Islands National Park. Public Law 96-199, signed March 5, 1980 5 Protecting Natural Resources at Channel Islands National Park The Channel Islands are critically important to the protection of biological diversity in southern California—more important than one might think from their relatively small size. For example, almost all of the seabirds in the area rely on the islands for nesting and rearing their young. Without Close to the mainland, yet worlds apart, the Channel Islands and their encircling waters are home to thousands of species of plants and animals—nearly 150 of which are found nowhere else on Earth. Isolation and the mingling of warm and cold ocean currents have given rise to the rich biodiversity of these islands. The protection of these fragile island resources was assisted when Congress, in the act that created Channel Islands National Park in 1980, established a long-term ecological monitoring program to gather information on the current health of resources and predict future conditions. Every year park staff and cooperators gather information on the health of kelp forests, rocky intertidal communities, seabirds, landbirds, terrestrial animals, and vegetation. This information provides park and natural resource managers with useful products for recreation planning, conservation programs, and early identification of critical issues. the islands, birds such as the California brown pelican, double-crested cormorant, Xantus’s murrelet, and Cassin’s auklet would virtually disappear from this area. The same is true of seals and sea lions who rely on the relatively undisturbed island beaches and nearby rich food resources of the ocean to breed Saving the Island Fox Thousands of years of isolation and evolution in a unique island environment have resulted in the endemic island fox, a dwarf form of the mainland gray fox. The island fox lives on three of the five islands in the park—San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz. Each island has its own subspecies, and they are found nowhere else in the world. Between 1994 and 2000, the park monitoring program documented a 95 pecent decline in their population due to golden eagle predation. For the past five years the park has been implementing recovery actions on Santa Rosa and San Miguel Islands to save the island foxes, including captive breeding of foxes and removal of golden eagles. The National Park Service (NPS) and The Nature Conservancy began captive breeding of island foxes on Santa Cruz Island in 2002. In an effort to restore natural populations, several island foxes were returned to the wild from their captive rearing facilities on Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel Islands in 2003 and 2004. and raise their young. Because the islands were never connected to the mainland, many of the plants and animals have evolved in islolation and are unique to the islands. Recovery of Brown Pelicans and Pinnipeds The decline of hunting and collection, and the isolation and protection of the islands have allowed the pinniped population to recover from the brink of extinction. Currently, four species of pinnipeds (the northern elephant seal, California sea lion, harbor seal, and northern fur seal) occupy their former range and breed on park islands. Brown pelicans have also recovered from near extinction. In 1970 only one chick survived on Anacapa Island, an island that had historically been the largest breeding colony for California brown pelicans on the west coast of the United States. Scientists pinpointed DDT as the cause. With the designation of the brown pelican as an endangered species in 1970, the ban on DDT in 1972, and the establishment of West Anacapa as a Research Natural Area (closed to the public), pelicans have made a remarkable recovery. 6 Reintroduction of Bald Eagles and Peregrine Falcons Natural areas, such as Channel Islands National Disappearing from the islands in the 1960s due to DDT poisoning, bald eagles and peregrine falcons have been reintroduced . Today, breeding pairs of peregrine falcons can be found on all islands within the park, while recently released juvenile bald eagles are thriving on the northern islands. Cooperative Management of Santa Cruz Island On August 23, 2000, The Nature Conservancy of California transferred 8,500 acres of its holdings on Santa Cruz Island to the NPS. This generous gift ensured the effective cooperative management by the two organizations of the entire island in restoring the natural habitat and protecting natural and cultural resources. Park, play an important role in indicating when critical changes are happening on Earth, our life support system. Parks can play the role of “the canary in the mine.” Just as the miner’s canary alerted mine workers to poison gases in a shaft, natural Establishment of Marine Reserves Data from the NPS kelp forest monitoring program helped to identify long-term decline of marine resources around the Channel Islands and contributed to the decision by the California Fish and Game Commission to create the largest network of marine protected areas off the West Coast. Over 20 percent of the waters within Channel Islands National Park are currently protected. areas can alert us to biological, chemical, and environmental changes that will affect our quality of life and the survival of species. Recovering from an Alien Invasion Ranching and development in the late 1800s introduced animals and plants that had adverse effects on island ecology. By working to remove these nonnatives, the NPS has made substantial progress in protecting threatened and endangered species, restoring ecosystems, and preserving natural resources for generations to come. Eradication of rats on Anacapa has led to a substantial recovery of rare seabirds, such as Xantus’s murrelet; the endemic island deer mouse; Channel Islands slender salamander; and the side-blotched lizard. Removal of non-native grazing animals (including cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, rabbits, and burros) has led to the tremendous recovery of native plant communities on the islands and to the protection of endangered and threatened plant species. For example on sheep an burros overgrazed San Miguel Island, reducing it to what one botanist in the 1930s called “a barren lump of sand.” Just 30 years after the removal of the non-native animals, native vegetation has returned and started to stabilize the island. The planned eradication of pigs on Santa Cruz Island will help bring back 10 island species, including the island fox, from the brink of extinction. Pig rooting causes massive destruction of plant communities, resulting in bare ground that is easily eroded and colonized by invasive weeds. In addition, feral piglets provide a year-round food source for golden eagles, allowing these occasional visitors to expand their range and establish resident populations on the island and prey on island foxes. Our national parks encompass the best—and in some cases last examples —of undisturbed wilderness in the country. Not only are they a haven for the solitude-seeking, they are crucial to science—serving as benchmarks for ecological health, endangered species, and a host of other fields of inquiry. National Parks Foundation 7 Jan. Event, Location, & Program Information 11th & 12th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* Protecting Biological Diversity—The Role of the National Park Service Russell Galipeau, Superintendent, Channel Islands National Park 8th & 9th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* History of Santa Cruz Island John Gherini, Santa Cruz Island descendant 1st Tuesday 25th Anniversary Media Trip to Anacapa Trip sponsored by Island Packers Company. 4th Friday Channel Islands National Park Anniversary Reception 5th Saturday Channel Islands National Park 25th Anniversary Public Celebration National Park Service Employee Reunion 8th & 9th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* History and Establishment of Channel Islands National Park Robert J. Lagomarsino, Former Congressman, U.S. House of Representatives Bill Ehorn, Former Superintendent, Channel Islands National Park 12th & 13th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* Protecting Islands Worldwide: The Importance of the Channel Islands and the Anacapa Restoration Project Bernie Tershy, Executive Director, Island Conservation Group 10th & 11th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* Coming of Age: How Channel Islands Became a True Ocean Park Gary Davis, Chief Scientist for Oceans Program, National Park Service 14th Saturday Channel Islands National Park Volunteer Recognition Event 14th & 15th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* The Ranching Years at Santa Rosa Island Vail Family, Santa Rosa Island former landowners 25th & 26th Saturday Sunday 2005 Ventura Harbor Village Sea Festival features 25th anniversary of Channel Islands National Park and National Marine Sanctuary 12th & 13th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish – A Talk about Rockfish Milton Love, Research Zoologist, UCSB Marine Science Institute Mary Yoklavich, Biologist, National Marine Fisheries Service July June May April Date March Feb. 2005 Calendar of 25th Anniversary Events 8 Aug. Event, Location, & Program Information 9th & 10th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* 35 years with Pinnipeds at San Miguel Island: A Celebration of Population Recovery Bob DeLong, Biologist, National Marine Fisheries Service October September 13th & 14th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* 37 Years of Island Adventures The Connally Family, Island Packers Company, park concessionaire 20th Tuesday Channel Islands Naturalist Corps Recognition 22nd Thursday Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary 25th Anniversary 2nd Sunday Channel Islands Fox Festival at the Santa Barbara Zoo 11th & 12th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: Charting a Course for the Future Dan Basta, Director, National Marine Sanctuary Program Chris Mobley, Manager, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary 15th Saturday 2005 Santa Barbara Harbor & Seafood Festival features 25th anniversary of Channel Islands National Park and National Marine Sanctuary 8th & 9th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* Three Decades of Botanical Exploration on the Channel Islands Steve Junak, Herbarium Curator, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden 13th & 14th 7pm From Shore to Sea Lecture Series* Brown Pelicans: A Summary of 35 Years of Research at Anacapa Island Frank Gress, Seabird Biologist, California Institute for Environmental Studies Dec. Nov. Date *The 2005 From Shore to Sea lecture series takes place at 7PM on Tuesdays in Santa Barbara at the Chase Palm Park Building, 236 E. Cabrillo Blvd and 7PM Wednesdays in Ventura at the Robert J. Lagomarsino Visitor Center at 1901 Spinnaker Drive in the Ventura Harbor. Welcome to Channel Islands National Park. This booklet will introduce you to the National Park Service, explain how the Channel Islands became a part of the National Park System, and tell what has been accomplished since 1980. As you enjoy the islands and attend these activities, consider the value of public lands. Russell Galipeau, Superintendent 9 Protecting Cultural Resources at Channel Islands National Park Cultural resources provide a connection to our ancestors. A prehistoric woven sandal fragment, a journal entry, a historic ranch house, or an 1879 map—each links us to the past and establishes important Channel Islands National Park preserves a record of more than 10,000 years of human use and occupation of the five northern islands. This record is contained in more than 2,000 recorded archeological sites both on the islands and beneath park waters, and in the historic structures and landscape features associated with European exploration and settlement of the islands. Park cultural resource specialists continually seek to expand our knowledge of the islands’ resources and the people who used and lived on the islands. Researchers locate and record archeological sites, undertake historical and archeological investigations of sites and structures, and preserve and record artifacts, buildings and records associated with the islands. connections to the present. They tell a compel- Archeological Research ling story of our ancestors, Native peoples, and communities and help us understand how we got where we are today. America’s cultural resources also provide evidence about important historical trends and events, reflect people’s everyday lives and significant accomplishments, and illustrate distinctive architectural, landscape, and engineering designs. Cultural resource specialists work to be sure that America’s cultural Researchers from institutions as far-flung as France and the Smithsonian conducted excavations on the islands as early as the 1870s. In the early 20th century, expeditions from local universities and institutions, such as natural history museums in Los Angeles and Chumash midden site, San Miguel Island Santa Barbara, recorded sites and collected specimens on the islands. In 1959 archeologist Phil Orr from the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History extracted a human femur from an eroding hillside at Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Island. Scientific tests at the time indicated the bones were some 10,000 years old. In 1994 the park and the museum conducted radiocarbon dating using the most modern techniques, which produced a date of more than 13,000 years of age, making “Arlington Woman” the oldest dated human remains in North America. Investigation into the Arlington site continues, and we are learning more about the flora, fauna and climate at the time Arlington Woman lived. Archeologists from UCLA, UC Santa Barbara, University of Oregon, and California State University at Long Beach have a long-term relationship with the islands, conducting research into development and changes in Island Chumash culture. A sandal fragment recovered from a site on San Miguel Island is the oldest woven textile known from the Pacific Coast, more than 9,000 years old. This site is being nominated for designation as a National Historic Landmark. resources are carefully identified, evaluated, documented, registered, preserved, and interpreted. Chickasaw wreck 10 Underwater archeology comprises another major component of the park’s archeological research program. Park and volunteer divers have located some 20 of the 150 known wrecks in the park waters, which they record and regularly monitor. The park’s maritime archeological resources are described in a Submerged Cultural Resources Assessment that was published in 1996. Preservation of Historic Buildings and Landscapes Cultural resource specialists protect With the acquisition of Santa Rosa Island and the eastern 24 percent of Santa Cruz Island, the park gained responsibility for preserving the historic ranching resources on these islands. The park has inventoried these buildings and landscape features and has begun to stabilize and restore them. On Santa Cruz Island, the Scorpion ranch house is undergoing seismic retrofit and rehabilitation for use as a visitor contact station and ranger offices. Several of the ranch outbuildings at Scorpion and the Scorpion Ranch House warehouse building at Prisoners Harbro have been stabilized. Maintenance of the historic groves of eucalyptus, olive, and cypress trees also helps preserve the character of the historic ranch landscape. On Santa Rosa Island, the main ranch house and barns were reroofed, several of the ranch outbuildings have been stabilized, and measures to preserve the historic China Camp line cabins have been undertaken. these important places, sites and objects, and documents so they can continue to convey their important history about people from the past to present and future generations of Americans. Stewards work hard to make sure that the public can visit real historic places to see and learn about what people from the past created, used, and valued and the meaning they Paleontology The larger park islands are a rich source of fossil remains of plants and animals. In 1994, a geologist conducting research in the park stumbled upon what turned out to be a nearly complete skeleton of a pygmy mammoth. With the assistance of the park archeologist and 1994 pygmy mammoth excavation paleontologists from across the country, the park excavated the skeleton, which is now preserved in the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. Casts of the skeleton are on exhibit in the park visitor center and the Santa Barbara museum. have to all of us today. If future generations are to remember us with gratitude rather than contempt, we must leave them with more than miracles of technology. We must leave them Historical Research The park has completed a 1,000-page Historic Resource Study that details the history of human use and occupation of the islands and describes the significance of the historic buildings, structures, and landscapes that illustrate that use. Historian D. S. (Dewey) Livingston’s study provides an island-by-island history of the five park islands and describes their development over the 200-year historic period. National Register of Historic Places nominations for the historic resources on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands are underway. a glimpse of the world as it was in the beginning, not just after we got through with it. Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th U.S. President 11 Providing for Visitor Enjoyment at Channel Islands National Park Visitor Center The islands were set aside by Congress not only to preserve park resources, but also to provide for visitor enjoyment of these resources. The National Park Service has made a tremendous effort to conserve and interpret park resources while serving the needs of current and future generations of visitors. • Between 1938 and 2005, Channel Islands National Park lands and waters increased from approximately 1,338 acres to 249,354 acres. • Annual visitation to the islands and the mainland visitor center has increased to over 500,000 visitors in 2004. • Channel Islands National Park Robert J. Lagomarsino Visitor Center opened in Ventura, 1982. • Outdoors Santa Barbara Visitor Center opened, 1999. • Anacapa Island Visitor Center opened, mid 1970s. • Santa Barbara Island Visitor Center opened, 1991. • Eastern Santa Cruz Island Visitor Center planned to open in 20062007. • Campgrounds and trails have been developed on each island. • Piers and docks on Santa Barbara, Anacapa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa have been constructed to provide safe access to the park. • Live Underwater Video program began on Anacapa Island, 1985. • Volunteer program grew to 481 volunteers, donating nearly 52,000 hours in 2004—the equivalent of 26 full-time positions. • Junior Ranger program established, 2004. • First park newspaper published, 2000. • Parks As Classroom program educated over 20,000 children in 2004. • Park partners with the JASON Expedition and other agencies/ non-profits to reach over 1.6 million students through live satellite broadcasts from the islands, 2002—2003. • Park concessionaire Island Packers celebrated 37 years of visitor transportation to the islands, 2005. Anacapa campground Point Bennett trail JASON broadcast First Junior Ranger, 2004 Islander, Island Packers 12 The Future of Channel Islands National Park Channel Islands National Park is one of America’s newest and most complex national parks. As one of America’s “crown jewels,” this park will continue to serve as a model for park management. It is important that park resources, both terrestrial and marine, continue to be preserved and protected for future generations. The current General Management Plan (GMP) was completed in 1985. Since that time much has occurred, such as completion of the park’s major land acquisition effort, expansion of park operations and visitor facilities, and an increase in the number of resource issues we are facing. In 2001 the park began to revise the GMP that will help guide the park’s management policies and direction for the next 15—20 years. This new GMP will provide a vision for the park’s future, as well as guidance in resource preservation, protection, and management that will help achieve that vision. It will also help identify how the National Park Service may best protect cultural and natural resources while providing for visitor enjoyment of the park. The park wants to communicate, consult, and cooperate with all individuals and groups of the interested public in this planning process. We urge you to take advantage of all opportunities in this process to share your vision and support for this magnificent national park. Your participation will ensure a strong public voice to help guide us and result in a better vision than we alone could provide. For more information about the planning process contact: Channel Islands National Park, Attention: GMP Coordinator, 1901 Spinnaker Drive, Ventura, CA 93001-4354; or CHIS_GMP@NPS.GOV. You can also log on to the park’s home page at www.nps.gov/chis or the NPS planning web page at www.nps.gov/planning. All newsletters will be posted on the websites, along with an electronic response form. Please let us know your concerns, issues, and thoughts on what should be addressed in the GMP. The Channel Islands National Park planning team appreciates your interest and looks forward to hearing from you. What is a GMP? GMPs identify the overall direction for future management of national parks. They take a longrange, broad, conceptual view, answering the question, “What kind of place do we want this park to be?” GMPs provide a framework for managers to use when making decisions about such issues as how best to protect resources, what levels and types of uses are appropriate, what facilities should be developed, and how people should access the park. All concepts, strategies, and actions in a GMP must be consistent with the

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