"Views of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico" by National Park Service , public domain

Birds of the Gila Wilderness

brochure Birds of the Gila Wilderness
United States Department of Agriculture Southwestern Region PRODUCED IN COOPERATION WITH Dale A. Zimmerman, Ph.D. Southwest New Mexico Audubon Society PREPARED BY Forest Service Birds of the Gila National Forest: A Checklist C – Common U – Uncommon Permanent Resident (present year-round) Summer Resident (present from spring until fall migration) or Summer Visitor (not known to breed on the Gila) Winter Resident (typically from October through March) Transient (present as a migrant in spring and/or fall) Visitant (present at various seasons, often irregularly) The remaining columns indicate the usual habitat(s) of each species. On the forest, vegetation types range from spruce/fir forest high in the Mogollon Mountains to the desert scrub and remnant grassland in the lower Burro Mountains. Small expanses of grassland are scattered in the higher ranges. Generally, ponderosa pine is the dominant species at elevations between 6,000 and 7,000 feet. Somewhat higher, and in many canyons, is a mixed conifer forest typically dominated by Douglas fir, often with Gambel’s oak. Woodlands of piñon pine, juniper and oak, in varying combinations, are present on drier sites throughout the forest. Riparian areas support rich deciduous or coniferous woodland and, locally small areas of marsh or other open habitats. This great ecological diversity provides for a remarkably varied bird fauna. This checklist includes 166 species known to breed on the Gila, 114 others that are more or less regular non-breeders, and 57 species considered to be casual (recorded 3-5 times) or accidental (recorded but once or twice. W– T– V– P– S– The second column reflects seasonal status, showing the time of year when the species normally appears in the checklist area: A – Abundant F – Fairly Common R – Rare The first column after the species name is an indication of the bird’s abundance. Bear in mind, however, that many species are locally distributed and do not range throughout the Gila National Forest which embraces a highly diverse range of elevations and habitats (see below). Thus, the expressions of abundance are to be viewed as general indications, and of course only for the habitat(s) favored by the species in question. Abundance also varies seasonally, and often from year-to-year as well. Additionally, actual abundance is often distinct from detectability. Some species may be common but secretive and only rarely seen. Others may be numerically sparse, yet highly vocal or otherwise conspicuous. The following designations relate to abundance, not necessarily to frequency of detection. An asterisk (*) following a species name indicates breeding on the Gila National Forest. Using the Checklist W P C C __Pied-billed Grebe* S T R R F R U R U U C U R F R R F F C R U Herons and Ibises __American Bittern __Least Bittern __Great Blue Heron* __Great Egret __Snowy Egret __Green Heron __Black-crowned Night Heron __White-faced Ibis Vultures __Turkey Vulture Swans, Geese, and Ducks __Snow Goose __Ross’s Goose __Canada Goose __Tundra Swan __Wood Duck __Gadwall __American Wigeon __Mallard* __Blue-winged Teal* P T W W T W T T S T S S T T P T T T R __Neotropic Cormorant T U Cormorants __Double-crested Cormorant T U __Clark’s Grebe T F T C __Western Grebe S F T Grebes Eared Grebe Abundance R Residence Loons Common Loon Desert ■ Oak Woodland ■ Oak-Juniper ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ Mt. Grassland ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Abundance S T U C Green-winged Teal* U C T U __Zone-tailed Hawk* Red-tailed Hawk* S F __Swainson’s Hawk* P P S S R F __Common Black Hawk* P __Northern Goshawk* F __Cooper’s Hawk* W P U U S W R S U T S S T P T T T W T R U R U R F R U F C R T F __Sharp-shinned Hawk* __Northern Harrier __Bald Eagle Hawks, Eagles, and Falcons __Osprey* __Ruddy Duck* __Red-breasted Merganser __Common Merganser* __Hooded Merganser __Common Goldeneye __Bufflehead Lesser Scaup __Greater Scaup S U T U Ring-necked Duck S U __Redhead T U __Canvasback W F Northern Pintail T T S F F F Residence Northern Shoveler Cinnamon Teal* Desert ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ Oak-Juniper ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian Conif. Riparian Spruce-Fir T W C F U Rails, Coots and Cranes __Virginia Rail* R C U R R F R R U U __Common Moorhen American Coot* __Sandhill Crane Plovers __Black-bellied Plover __Semipalmated Plover __Killdeer* Avocets and Stilts __Black-necked Stilt __American Avocet Snipes and Sandpipers Greater Yellowlegs Lesser Yellowlegs U C __Gambel’s Quail* Sora* U __Scaled Quail* F Wild Turkey* U U __Blue Grouse* Quail __Montezuma Quail* U T T T T P T T W P T S S P P P P P P T R Grouse and Relatives __Ring-necked Pheasant* S R __Peregrine Falcon* P W U U T U Prairie Falcon* __Merlin S F American Kestrel* P U Golden Eagle* W W U R T Abundance U Residence Rough-legged Hawk Ferruginous Hawk Desert ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ * ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ F F U R U __Western Sandpiper __Least Sandpiper __Baird’s Sandpiper __Pectoral Sandpiper __Long-billed Dowitcher __Greater Roadrunner* Cuckoos and Roadrunners __Yellow-billed Cuckoo* __Common Ground Dove __Inca Dove U U W R C U __White-winged Dove* __Mourning Dove* F U R __Band-tailed Pigeon* Pigeons and Doves __Rock Dove* __Black Tern U R __Forster’s Tern U __California Gull R R R U __Ring-billed Gull __Bonaparte’s Gull Gulls and Terns __Franklin’s Gull __Red-necked Sandpiper __Wilson’s Phalarope F R __Common Snipe R W R __Marbled Godwit S R __Long-billed Curlew T F __Spotted Sandpiper* P S R V P S S P T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T R __Willet Abundance R T Residence Snipes and Sandpipers (cont.) __Solitary Sandpiper Desert ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian Mt. Grassland Conif.Riparian Mt. Grassland S W U F U R R U R U __Western Screech Owl* __Great Horned Owl* __Northern Pygmy Owl* __Elf Owl* __Burrowing Owl* __Spotted Owl* __Long-eared Owl* S T U F C Nightjars __Lesser Nighthawk __Common Nighthawk* T S R R Swifts __Black Swift T W S R C R U C C U U R __Magnificent Hummingbird* __Black-chinned Hummingbird* __Anna’s Hummingbird __Calliope Hummingbird __ Broad-tailed Hummingbird* __Rufous Hummingbird Kingfishers __Belted Kingfisher* T S T T S S S R Hummingbirds __Blue-throated Hummingbird S F __White-throated Swift* S F __Whip-poor-will* S F __Common Poor-will* S W R __Northern Saw-whet Owl T R __Short-eared owl P S S P P P S F P __Flammulated Owl* Abundance U Residence Owls __Barn Owl* Desert ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ ■ ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ R S S T W C R U U __Western Kingbird* Shrikes __Loggerhead Shrike S S S S R C __Ash-throated Flycatcher* C F __Vermilion Flycatcher* P __Cassin’s Kingbird* C __Say’s Phoebe* P S S T T S S S S P P P P P W S W T S S P S Residence __Brown-crested Flycatcher* C C F __Black Phoebe* __Cordilleran Flycatcher* __Gray Flycatcher* F F __Hammond’s Flycatcher __Dusky Flycatcher R C __Willow Flycatcher* __Western Wood Pewee* __Greater Pewee* F C __Northern Flicker* Tyrant Flycatchers __Olive-sided Flycatcher* R C U U R U R C F R C U Abundance __Three-toed Woodpecker* __Hairy Woodpecker* __Downy Woodpecker* __Ladder-backed Woodpecker* __Williamson’s Sapsucker* __Red-naped Sapsucker* __Gila Woodpecker* __Acorn Woodpecker* Woodpeckers __Lewis’s Woodpecker* Desert ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian W C U R __Plumbeous Vireo* __Hutton’s Vireo* R R __Clark’s Nutcracker* S T C F U C C Larks __Horned Lark* Swallows and Martins __Purple Martin* __Tree Swallow* __Violet-green Swallow* W F C F F U Tits and Relatives __Mountain Chickadee* __Bridled Titmouse* __Juniper Titmouse* __Verdin S U __Cliff Swallow* T F __Barn Swallow* S P P P S T R __Bank Swallow* S F __No. Rough-winged Swallow* T S P P U C __Common Raven* P P P __Chihuahuan Raven F W C __Pinyon Jay* __American Crow* S C __Mexican Jay* P C __Western Scrub Jay* P T C C S C S R Corvids __Steller’s Jay* __Warbling Vireo* S W __Cassin’s Vireo S R S __Gray Vireo Abundance R Residence Vireos __Bell’s Vireo* Desert ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ C F U __Pygmy Nuthatch* __Brown Creeper* Wrens __Cactus Wren* C R U F __House Wren* __Winter Wren __Marsh Wren Dippers __American Dipper* S T W F C C F S T W S W T S __American Robin* R F U F F C P W S W T S P P W W S P P P P P P P P P Residence __Hermit Thrush* __Swainson’s Thrush __Townsend’s Solitaire* __Mountain Bluebird* C R Thrushes __Eastern Bluebird __Western Bluebird* F C C F __Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* __Ruby-crowned Kinglet* F C __Bewick’s Wren* Kinglets and Gnatcatchers __Golden-crowned Kinglet* C __Canyon Wren* C C __Rock Wren* F __White-breasted Nuthatch* C Abundance Nuthatches and Creepers __Red-breasted Nuthatch* Tits and Relatives (cont.) __Bushtit* Desert ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian Mt. Grassland T U F Pipits __American Pipit S T R U C __Tennessee Warbler __Orange-crowned Warbler* T W F C C U __Yellow Warbler* __Yellow-rumped Warbler* T F U C R U __Townsend’s Warbler __Hermit Warbler __Grace’s Warbler* __Black-and-white Warbler __American Redstart T T S T S T F S S F __Black-throated Gray Warbler* S F __Lucy’s Warbler* S F __Virginia’s Warbler* T U __Nashville Warbler T P U Wood Warblers and Relatives __Olive Warbler* P T F U W U P __Phainopepla* Waxwings and Relatives __Cedar Waxwing W U Starlings __European Starling* P U __Crissal Thrasher* P F W U __Curve-billed Thrasher* T U W R __Sage Thrasher S F T __Northern Mockingbird* Abundance R Residence Mimids __Gray Catbird Desert ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ W F R __Rufous-crowned Sparrow* W T U U __Sage Sparrow S U P F W __Black-throated Sparrow* S R U __Lark Sparrow* T F __Vesper Sparrow W S U U W U T T A C S C P __Black-chinned Sparrow* __Brewer’s Sparrow __Chipping Sparrow* S R __Abert’s Towhee* P F __Canyon Towhee* P W T S S C R C C S S S S T __Spotted Towhee* __Green-tailed Towhee Towhees, Sparrows, Longspurs __Western Tanager* F F __Yellow-breasted Chat* __Summer Tanager* U __Painted Redstart* F F __Red-faced Warbler* Tanagers __Hepatic Tanager* C __Wilson’s Warbler S T U C T C __Common Yellowthroat* S R T U Abundance __MacGillivray’s Warbler* Residence Wood Warblers & Relatives(cont). __Northern Waterthrush Desert ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Ponderosa Pine ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ ■ ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian R __Indigo Bunting* Icterids __Red-winged Blackbird* __Eastern Meadowlark* U __Lazuli Bunting S S S S S W C R W C __Blue Grosbeak* U C __Black-headed Grosbeak* T S R __Rose-breasted Grosbeak W P T U C U __Pyrrhuloxia W F F W C Cardinals, Grosbeaks, Buntings __Northern Cardinal* T A __Chestnut-collared Longspur S C __Dark-eyed Junco* R W W C __Golden-crowned Sparrow T A __White-crowned Sparrow T T R R W R T R __Harris’s Sparrow __White-throated Sparrow W R T C __Swamp Sparrow W U W F __Lincoln’s Sparrow W R T T R F W W R U T Abundance F Residence __Song Sparrow __Fox Sparrow __Savannah Sparrow __Lark Bunting Desert ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Ponderosa Pine ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Abundance W C __Evening Grosbeak* __American Gold finch W F F T C __Lesser Goldfinch* S F __Pine Siskin* R W S P F P C T F __Red Crossbill* W S S S W S S P W T S T S W S F U F U R C R U R C C U U U F Residence __House Finch* Finches __Cassin’s Finch __Scott’s Oriole* __Bullock’s Oriole* __Hooded Oriole* __Brown-headed Cowbird* __Bronzed Cowbird* __Great-tailed Grackle* __Brewer’s Blackbird* __Yellow-headed Blackbird* __Western Meadowlark* Desert ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak Woodland ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Oak-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pinyon-Juniper ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Ponderosa Pine ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Spruce-Fir ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Mt. Grassland ■ ■ Marsh/Open ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Decid. Riparian ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Conif.Riparian Horned Grebe (C) American White Pelican Brown Pelican Magnificent Frigate-Bird Yellow-crowned Night Heron Trumpeter Swan Surf Scoter (C) White-winged Scoter Black Scoter White-tailed Kite Mississippi Kite Gray Hawk Broad-winged Hawk Crested Caracara Mountain Plover Snowy Plover Short-billed Dowitcher American Woodcock Laughing Gull ___Heermann’s Gull Black-billed Cuckoo Groove-billed Ani Chimney Swift White-eared Hummingbird Costa’s Hummingbird Red-headed Woodpecker Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Buff-breasted Flycatcher (formerly) ___Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Couch’s Kingbird Eastern Kingbird Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Eastern Phoebe (C) Northern Shrike Yellow-throated Vireo Red-eyed Vireo Blue Jay ___Veery Brown Thrasher (C) ___Bendire’s Thrasher Blue-winged Warbler Northern Parula Cape May Warbler Chestnut-sided Warbler Magnolia Warbler Yellow-throated Warbler Palm Warbler Bay-breasted Warbler Blackpoll Warbler Worm-eating Warbler Ovenbird Hooded Warbler (C) ___Dickcissel Bobolink Orchard Oriole Painted Bunting Purple Finch Lawrence’s Goldfinch (C) Casual (C) or accidental species on or closely adjacent to the Gila National Forest. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Notes:

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