"Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project" by Jeff Keyzer , public domain

Manhattan Project

Guide 2020

brochure Manhattan Project - Guide 2020
Manhattan Project National Historical Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior 2020 Edition Official Visitor Guide Welcome to Manhattan Project National Historical Park. This guide is designed to provide information about how to make the most of your visit to the park. The Children’s Museum of Oak Ridge is a great place to start your adventure. There you can speak to a park ranger for information on the latest events and activities. You can pick up our visitor guide and map to help navigate the many historic sites of Oak Ridge. Be sure to stamp your NPS passport book while you’re there. The park provides free year-round ranger-led programs at various locations across the city. Programs include informative talks at the Gatehouse, bike rides around the city, and hikes through the historic district. For more information about upcoming ranger-led programs, call (865)482-1942. Often referred to as “the nation’s storytellers,”National Park Service staff work to bring you the stories that make the Oak Ridge so special. Walk or bike to cemeteries and churches which tell the stories of the farmers and store owners who lived here before the Manhattan Project. Take the bus tour to see Y-12 New Hope Center, X-10 and K-25 Complexes, drive by the original houses and eat lunch at historic Jackson Square to learn about the soldiers, scientists and construction workers who built the “Secret City.” Visit the American Museum of Science and Energy or ring the International Friendship Bell to see what current residents are doing to lead Oak Ridge into the future. Welcome to the Manhattan Project National Historical Park With three sites located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Los Alamos, New Mexico; and Hanford, Washington, this far-reaching park tells the story of the people, events, science, and engineering that led to the creation of the atomic bomb, which helped end World War II. JAPANESE FOREIGN AFFAIRS MINISTER MAMORU SHIGEMITSU SIGNS INSTRUMENT OF SURRENDER ON USS MISSOURI AS GEN. RICHARD K. SUTHERLAND WATCHES, SEPTEMBER 2, 1945. Manhattan Project National Historical Park is unique in another way as the National Park Service is in partnership with the Children’s Museum of Oak Ridge (CMOR) to help tell this powerful story. Together, we look forward to presenting more information about the many people who worked to create the atomic bomb, which helped bring an end to World War II. As you explore the Oak Ridge site, please look for information about the people who were instrumental in the Manhattan Project. Their contributions and efforts to end World War II are thought-provoking and inspirational. It took many people from all walks of life to make this all become an integral part of America’s history. ALLIED PERSONNEL CELEBRATE JAPANESE SURRENDER IN PARIS. Manhattan Project NHP at Oak Ridge is one of three National Park Service sites where the atomic bomb was developed. We encourage you to visit the other Manhattan Project NHP sites in Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, New Mexico. In addition to Manhattan Project NHP, there are 12 other National Park Service units located in Tennessee. Each of these special places share a unique story, preserves a part of our collective history, or offers an opportunity to view incredible landscapes. We encourage you to make time to discover these places for yourself. As you “Find Your Park” and discover what these places mean to you, whether it’s the history of the Manhattan Project, or a large natural area like the Big South Fork National River & Recreation Area, take a moment to think about what makes these places so special. If you have questions, please contact either a park ranger or one of the staff at CMOR. They are there to help you discover the history, significance, and importance of this site. We hope you enjoy your visit and will continue to come back to see the growth and development of the Manhattan Project National Historical Park. MANHATTAN PROJECT PIN - (1945-1950). PRESENTED TO INDIVIDUALS WHO WORKED ON THE MANHATTAN PROJECT. BRONZE WAS ISSUED TO INDIVIDUALS WITH UNDER 1 YEAR SERVICE, AND SILVER TO THOSE WITH OVER 1 YEAR OF SERVICE. National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Manhattan Project National Historical Park Mailing Address 461 W. Outer Drive Oak Ridge, TN 37830 E-mail mapr_information@nps.gov Park Visitor Desk (865) 482-1942 STAY CONNECTED WITH US Follow us on Twitter @MnhtnProjectNPS Like us on Facebook as ManhattanProjectNPS Follow us on Instagram as ManhattanProjectNPS Subscribe to our YouTube channel Manhattan Project National Historical Park The National Park Service cares for the special places saved by the American people so that all may experience our heritage. Lost & Found Report any lost items to rangers at the Children’s Museum of Oak Ridge located at 461 W. Outer Drive, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Found items should be turned in at this location as well. The 75th Anniversary of V-J Day The Year 2020 marks the 75th anniversary to the end of the most devastating war the world has ever seen. Lasting 6 years with an estimated 75,000,000 deaths, World War II was the bloodiest and largest war in history. A war of this magnitude has left many lasting impressions on our world including the birth of the nuclear era. In the United States, the Manhattan Project can trace its roots back to 1939 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt received a letter signed by Albert Einstein warning him about the potential of the creation of a nuclear chain reaction and Germany’s search for such a device. This letter began a series of events in the United States that lead to the revolutionary science and engineering between the scientific community and the United States Government. As the war continued in Europe and the Pacific, the Manhattan Project remained a quiet partner in the fight. Billions of dollars were spent and thousands of people worked on the Manhattan Project. New towns and factories were created in dedication to the goal to create the atomic bomb. Oak Ridge, Tennessee was the first Manhattan Project site chosen in September 1942 due to the temperate climate, electricity provided by a nearby hydroelectric dam, and a sparse population. The key roles in Oak Ridge were administrative headquarters and production of uranium-235. Uranium production in Oak Ridge took place in three different plants; S-50 which oversaw liquid thermal separation, K-25 which oversaw gaseous diffusion, and Y-12 which oversaw electromagnetic separation. These plants produced all of the uranium-235 that was used in the “Little Boy” atomic bomb. By the end of the war over 75,000 people were living within Oak Ridge. Uranium production was not the only thing that took place in Oak Ridge. The X-10 Graphite Reactor was constructed as a pilot plant. X-10 became the world’s first continually operating production reactor. Operating for 20 years, this facility had the ability to produce plutonium although this was not the main production site for the bombs. In 1965 it was named a National Become A Junior Ranger Manhattan Project NHP has a Junior Ranger book and a patch for you to earn for your jacket or book bag. Kids from age 4-12 are invited to use this book to explore Manhattan Project. Many activities will help you learn about the science behind the project. Historical Landmark, only two years after shutting down. Los Alamos, New Mexico was chosen in November 1942 to serve as a weapons laboratory for the Manhattan Project where scientists could design, engineer, and overcome the challenges of creating an atomic weapon. With a population of only 6,000 people and one post office box, Los Alamos was more secluded than the other Manhattan Project sites. Hanford, Washington was home to the larger reactor that produced the plutonium used for the “Gadget”, a test bomb detonated in New Mexico, as well as the “Fat Man” atomic bomb. Construction of the Hanford site began in late 1943 and the first reactor was built in 11 months. By the end of the war over 50,000 people were living and working in Hanford. These towns and factories seem to have been built overnight in an enormous rush to beat Germany. At a cost of over two million dollars, the United States was able to be the first to create an atomic weapon. Near the end of the war, the United States was left with the decision to invade Japan, and the potential for millions of lives lost in the invasion. Rather than invade the main island of Japan, the United States made the decision to drop a new weapon; the atomic bomb. On August 6, 1945 at 8:15 am, the Enola Gay dropped “Little Boy” on the city of Hiroshima. It is estimated that 70,000 people died. On August 9, 1945 at 11:02 am, Box Car dropped the “Fat Man” on Nagasaki. It is estimated 40,000 people died in the blast. Years later the death tolls of the two bombs rose to over 200,000 people. Many died as a result of cancer and long term effects from the bombs. After years of fighting and millions of deaths, World War II ended on August 14, 1945. Japan announced their surrender and on September 2, 1945 onboard the U.S.S. Missouri, Japan signed the surrender documents in Tokyo Bay, Japan. Become A Volunteer For information on how you can become a National Park Service v o l u n t e e r, c o n t a c t Vo l u n t e e r Coordinator, Effie Houston, at (423) 569-9778, or email Effie_ Houston@nps.gov. Visit us online at http://www.nps.gov/ mapr/workwithus.htm to see all of the wonderful opportunities that are available. Things to Do U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY’S OAK RIDGE FACILITIES BUS TOUR Manhattan Project National Historical Park is pleased to partner with the Children’s Museum of Oak Ridge. The park’s visitor center contact station is found within the Children’s Museum front entrance, located inside the former Manhattan Project grade school, Highland View Elementary. Bus tour schedules and other information can be found at www.amse.org. AUTHORIZED VISITOR SERVICES PROVIDER Ray Smith - Tours - (865) 660-9527 www.draysmith.com The Children’s Museum provides fun and diverse educational programs and exhibits emphasizing play and hands-on learning for all ages in arts, science, history, culture and healthy living, while collecting and preserving objects in a historic Manhattan Project Community. The Children’s Museum was conceived in 1973 as a Girl Scout project by Troop 69 and its leader, Joyce Maienschein. It was formally opened on March 11, 1973 in the library of the former Jefferson Junior High School in 2,000 square feet of space and later moved to the former Highland View Elementary School in January 1974. The museum purchased the building and land from the city of Oak Ridge in 1983 and now operates in 54,000 square feet with exhibits, classes and programs for all ages. Alvin K. Bissell Park is home to the Peace Pavilion that houses the International Friendship bell. The 8,000 lb. bell symbolizes the peace and reconciliation between Japan and the U.S. after W WII ended. Just east of the park is the Secret City Commemorative wall, Birth of a City Monuments, and the Public Library. The Library is home to the Oak Ridge Room which preserves the city’s history and oral history records of early Oak Ridge residents. For more information on how you can become an authorized visitor services provider, send an email to tish_neal@nps.gov or call (423) 569-7321. Historic Jackson Square, also known as Townsite, and Grove Center are original dining, shopping and recreation centers of Oak Ridge. Both locations still offer restaurants and recreation. Jackson Square features restaurants, a Playhouse and specialty shops with the Historic Alexander Inn Guest House nearby. The Guest House was where many scientists stayed during the secret project in the 1940s. Grove Center features the Oak Ridge Outdoor Swimming Pool. The pool was constructed in 1944 and was considered the largest spring fed pool in the United States at that time with a grass beach, offshore island, diving boards, and depths up to 13 feet. Oak Ridge offers over 80 miles of public greenways for walking, hiking, running, and biking. Greenways are open during daylight hours, some trails are closed during hunting season be sure to read all posted signs prior to hiking on the trails. Oak Ridge is proud of their flat water, with what some call the smoothest rowing water around, rowers travel from all over just to paddle on Melton Hill Lake. Children’s Museum of Oak Ridge Information *ADMISSION FEES Adults - $8 Seniors - $7 Children 3 & Up - $6 Children under 3 - FREE Members - FREE DIRECTIONS FROM OAK RIDGE: -Head Southwest on Oak Ridge Turnpike -Turn right onto Robertsville Road -Take the 2nd right onto Highland Avenue -Turn left onto West Outer Drive -The Children’s Museum will be on your left HOURS OF OPERATION Mondays: Closed except during the summer months of June, July, & August 9:00 AM—5:00 PM Tuesday-Friday: 9:00 AM—5:00 PM Saturday: 10:00 AM—4:00 PM Sunday: 1:00 PM—4:00 PM DIRECTIONS FROM WEST KNOXVILLE: -Take I-40 to TN-162 N / Pellissippi Parkway -Continue onto TN-62 W / Oak Ridge Highway -Continue to follow TN-62 W / S. Illinois Avenue -Go straight through the the intersection of Illinois Avenue and Oak Ridge Turnpike -Turn right onto West Outer Drive at the top of the hill -The Children’s Museum will be on the right – watch for the caboose! *There are NO admission fees to visit the NPS desk and/or attend any ranger-led programs. National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Manhattan Project National Historical Park Oak Ridge, TN Manhattan Project NHP EMERGENCY NUMBERS Oak Ridge Site 461 W. Outer Drive Oak Ridge, TN (865) 482-1942 Hanford Site 1000 Logston Boulevard Richland, WA (509) 376-1647 Los Alamos Site 475 20th Street Los Alamos, NM (505) 662-8105 E X P E R I E N C E YO U R A M E R I C A™ SCAN THIS CODE for directions from website 911 DIAL for EMERGENCIES Oak Ridge Police Department 200 S. Tulane Ave. Oak Ridge, TN (865) 425-4399 Methodist Medical Center 990 Oak Ridge Turnpike Oak Ridge, TN (865) 835-1000 Anderson County Sheriff’s Department 101 Main Street Clinton, TN (865) 457-2414 Oak Ridge Fire Department Station 2 (East End) 609 Oak Ridge Turnpike Oak Ridge, TN (865) 425-3912

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