NHT Auto Tour Guides

Iowa

brochure NHT Auto Tour Guides - Iowa

The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail route across Iowa. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

National Trails System National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Historic Trails Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide The Mormon Pioneer Trail Across Iowa in 1846 Leaving Nauvoo and “Crossing the Mississippi on the Ice,” by C. A. Christensen Reconstructed Latter-day Saints Temple at Nauvoo, Illinois. NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS AUTO TOUR ROUTE INTERPRETIVE GUIDE The Mormon Pioneer Trail Across Iowa in 1846 Prepared by National Park Service National Trails Intermountain Region 324 South State Street, Suite 200 Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 Telephone: 801-741-1012 www.nps.gov/cali www.nps.gov/oreg www.nps.gov/poex www.nps.gov/mopi NATIONAL PARK SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR April 2007 Second Printing September 2010 contents Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A New Faith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Clash of Cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Exodus From Nauvoo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Winter Retreat Across Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Places to Pause, To Rest…To Die. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 A Far Reaching Impact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Sites and Points of Interest Nauvoo, Illinois to Council Bluffs, Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 For More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Regional Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Back Cover Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Introduction T he Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail follows the route Auto Tour established by Brigham Young Route to bring his followers from Nauvoo, Illinois, to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, where The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has been based for more than 160 years. That first migration of Latter-day Saints to the Great Basin occurred in two stages: in 1846, from western Illinois to the Missouri River in the area of today’s Council Bluffs, Iowa; and in 1847, from the Missouri River to Salt Lake City. This Auto Tour Route interpretive guide covers the 1846 segment of Mormon Trail from Illinois through Iowa. Because they have not been designated by Congress Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska as part of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, routes and sites used by later Mormon wagon trains and handcart companies are not included in this guide. Individual Auto Tour Route interpretive guides such as this one are in preparation for each state through which the trail passes. As you follow the guide, watch for Auto Tour Route highway logos marking the general route of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. In addition, a National Park Service brochure with a map of the entire Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail is available at many trail-related venues, and also can be requested from the trail’s administrative office at 324 South State Street, Suite 200, Salt Lake City, Utah. Historic Nauvoo, pioneer wagon ruts, emigrant camps, and other places of interest along or near the trail corridor are listed within this guide. Driving directions are also provided. Entrance and parking fees may be charged at some locations; hours may vary at the discretion of the managers —you may want to call ahead. Large groups are encouraged to make prior arrangements for tours, where available. 2 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska A New Faith M ormons, as Latter-day Saints are popularly called, practice a unique religion that arose in 1830 from the teachings of church founder Joseph Smith, Jr. Early converts to the new faith followed their prophet from New York to Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois through the 1830s and ’40s. They were driven from each state by threats and violence. The reasons for the Latter-day Saints’ early troubles still are debated, but religious, political, economic, and social practices all were at issue. Because Mormon beliefs about God and family differed in important ways from mainstream Christianity, they drew criticism and scorn. Because the Latter-day Saints created their own separate towns, religion-based governments, and security forces, their neighbors became uneasy and fearful. Resentment grew as the church became involved in local, state, and eventually, national politics. Disagreements led to legal battles and, in cases, violence and retribution. Joseph Smith and his followers were repeatedly forced to move on. …I intend to lay a foundation that will revolutionize the whole world. —Joseph Smith, founder, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Why it is, that so many professing Christianity, and so many professing to reverence the sacred principles of our Constitution (which gives free religious toleration to all), have slandered and persecuted this sect of Christians? —Unknown correspondent, Juliet (Illinois) Courier, June 1841 3 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Clash of Cultures I n 1839, Joseph Smith and his faithful fled Missouri, whose governor had ordered the Mormons to leave or be exterminated. They found refuge in Illinois, where an advance group of Latter-day Saints had prepared a new town site. There, in a horseshoe bend of the Mississippi River, they built up the settlement of Nauvoo, meaning “The Beautiful Place,” and began work on a stately limestone temple. The Saints impressed their new neighbors with their industry and order, but goodwill soon was eroded by disputes over money, livestock, and politics. Nauvoo’s neighbors warily eyed Joseph Smith’s impressive Nauvoo Legion, a 3,000 to 4,000-man militia that the Illinois state legislature had authorized Nauvoo to form. (County militias were common at that time.) Latter-day Saints were accused of protecting law-breakers and debtors among them; anti-Mormons were accused of kidnapping citizens of Nauvoo to face charges elsewhere. Feelings were heated further by doctrinal disagreements within the church itself, and especially by whispers that some leaders at Nauvoo were secretly practicing “plural marriage” —polygamy, the marriage of a man to more than one wife. 4 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Tragic events were set in motion in June 1844 when disaffected Mormons published a newspaper criticizing Joseph Smith. The Nauvoo city council, acting under a new libel ordinance, declared the paper a “public nuisance” and had the Nauvoo Legion destroy the press. Angry free-speech supporters and anti-Mormons accused Smith, who was Nauvoo’s mayor, of ordering the destruction, and demanded his arrest. Authorities charged Joseph Smith with inciting riot and ordered him to appear in court at the county seat of Carthage, about 25 miles southeast of Nauvoo. Fearing violence, Smith briefly fled Nauvoo but went voluntarily to Carthage after the governor of Illinois guaranteed his protection. Joseph, his brother Hyrum, and several other high church leaders were jailed there and placed under the guard of local units of the Illinois State Militia. A few days later, on June 27, a mob of some 200 men —likely with help from some hostile militia guards— stormed the Carthage jail and murdered Joseph and Hyrum Smith. The brutal shootings shocked the Mormon settlements, leaving both Latter-day Saints and their non-Mormon neighbors fearing more bloodshed. Officials on both sides struggled to keep the peace as rumors flew and fears deepened. During that uneasy time, several followers of Joseph Smith claimed the right to succeed him as church leader. Brigham Young, who was a senior church official and a strong supporter of plural marriage, soon assumed leadership. It was the most beautiful town site that I ever saw. The temple was built on the high ground about the middle of the town plat and was a perfect building, built of cut stone… —Hawkins Taylor, Sheriff, Lee County, Iowa …[Nearly] all of the old [nonMormon] citizens are anxious to sell their property, and many of them I have no doubt will move away. There is not only in this village, but all through the country, a strong disinclination to live near the Mormons. —Benjamin F. Morris, American Home Missionary Society, Warsaw, Illinois, August 21, 1841 5 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Acts of violence sparked now and then over the following year, but serious hostilities flared again in September 1845 when anti-Mormon raiders burned about a hundred homes and several farmsteads. Weary of conflict, Brigham Young promised Illinois state officials that the Latter-day Saints would leave Nauvoo and their outlying farms the following spring. Oh wretched murd’rers, fierce for human blood! You’ve slain the Prophets of the living God, Who’ve borne oppression from their early youth, To plant on earth the principles of truth. —Eliza Roxcy Snow, poet of the Latter-day Saints and plural wife of Joseph Smith, July 1, 1844 6 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Exodus From Nauvoo O ver the winter, the stricken Saints labored to complete their temple even while preparing to move to some undetermined place beyond the Rocky Mountains. Mormons gathered money, maps, and supplies, built sturdy wagons, and organized themselves into companies of 10, 50, and 100. They planned to begin an orderly, phased emigration of up to 17,000 church members in the spring, but rumors of a coming raid prompted Brigham Young to evacuate the families of key church leaders during the bitter late winter of 1846. Young hoped the early departure of church authorities would deflect further attacks on Nauvoo by showing that the Latter-day Saints were serious about leaving in the spring, as promised. The first train of Mormon wagons ferried across the Mississippi on February 4, and then camped for nearly a month at nearby Sugar Creek while waiting for Young to conclude business at Nauvoo. During the wait, temperatures dropped further and the river froze. Some from Nauvoo, afraid of being left behind, took advantage of the apparent miracle by crossing the ice to join the advance company, the “Camp of Israel.” Others crossed the river in both directions to retrieve supplies, visit relatives, and conduct business. By the time camp was ready to move, the company had grown from Young’s intended 1,800 to about 2,500 emigrants. Some 500 wagons in Brigham Young’s Camp of Israel rolled northwestward out of Sugar Creek Camp on Sunday, March 1, 1846, heading across southern Iowa Territory toward the Missouri River. If all went well, they would cross that river by late April, leaving enough time to reach the Rocky Mountains by fall. Meanwhile, the main body of Saints prepared to leave the Nauvoo area in spring, as originally planned. Once the grass was high enough to feed their livestock, some 10,000 Mormons set out in small companies to catch up with the Camp of Israel. Theirs was the second and largest emigration from Nauvoo. Over the summer, a few hundred of those who had stayed behind left to join dissident factions of the church. (Several of those groups merged in 1860 to create the New Organization, later called the Reorganized Church 7 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, now named the Community of Christ. This group, which opposed polygamy but followed other Mormon teachings, eventually was led by Joseph Smith III, oldest son of Joseph Smith, Jr. and his widow, Emma.) A few Mormon families quietly remained in the area and peacefully continued their lives there. By early autumn, only about 700 Latter-day Saints remained in oncebustling Nauvoo and nearby Mormon settlements. Many of those left behind —too poor, too ill, or too infirm to travel— were driven out by anti-Mormon raiders in September 1846. Some of these refugees found shelter and work in surrounding communities, while others camped on the Iowa side of the river, in need of food, transportation, and medical help. Several died there, outside of Montrose, Iowa, of hunger, disease, and exposure. Church leaders sent back three rescue wagon trains to move these people to places where they could spend the winter safely. Theirs was the third and final Mormon emigration from Nauvoo. As they started West, many emigrants looked back across the river for a last glimpse of Joseph Smith’s shining, white temple. At a public dedication on May 1, shortly before the main body of Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo, the people had prayed that the temple would We all halted & took a farewell view of our delightful City….We also beheld the magnificent Temple rearing its lofty tower towards the heavens… we also took a farewell look of our Comfortable homes we had labored so hard to rear for the Comfort of our families…my heart did swell within me. —Newel Knight, Nauvoo, April 24, 1846 8 Great injustice inflicted by a lawless and irresponsible mob. Can these things be done in a republic and not be rebuked by an efficient expression of public sentiment? —Bloomington (Illinois) Herald, October 30, 1846 The great body of [Mormons] removed voluntarily, but a small remnant of them were barbarously expelled with force, and in a manner which reflects but little credit on the state or its institutions. —Illinois Governor Thomas Ford, December 7, 1846 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska stand as a monument to Joseph Smith. Despite the prayers, an arson fire destroyed the abandoned structure in 1848 and a tornado knocked down some of its remaining walls two years later. By then, the Latter-day Saints would be planning a new temple and building their greatest tribute to Joseph Smith: a Mormon Zion in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, in present-day Utah. Mormon Trail through Garden Grove Historic Site, Garden Grove, Iowa. 9 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Winter Retreat Across Iowa I n February 1846, the first party of Mormon pioneers faced nearly 300 miles of winter-bare prairie stretching between Nauvoo and the Missouri River gateway to the Oregon Trail. Those emigrants who left Nauvoo in a panic were poorly equipped for the trek, and few carried enough feed for their draft animals. Lacking spring grasses along the established roads, Young’s company traveled poorer tracks close to the Missouri border in order to trade with the Missouri settlements for livestock feed and supplies. Bad weather made travel more difficult. As rain set in and the ground thawed, narrow wagon wheels mired axle-deep, bringing wagons to a halt. Families waited miserably in camp as the men fanned out across the lightly settled territory to work for food and pay, and trade teams crossed cautiously into unfriendly Missouri to bring back needed supplies. The Camp of Israel spent a month crossing the first 100 miles, a distance that should have taken but 10 days. The pioneers comforted and helped each other along: those who had food, bedding, and shelter shared with those who had none; those with musical or literary talent tried to cheer and inspire the camp. Their hardships brought the people together, forging their faith, group identity, and sense of destiny. The spirit of these Mormon pioneers rings in the lyrics of their now-famous anthem, “Come, Come, Ye Saints,” written one miserable, muddy night in southcentral Iowa by emigrant William Clayton, in honor of the birth of his son. A large portion of our journey in Iowa seemed to me to be a continuous mud hole. —Benjamin Critchlow, autobiographical account of the 1846 Mormon emigration 10 Come, come, ye Saints, no toil nor labor fear; But with joy wend your way. Though hard to you this journey may appear, Grace shall be as your day....All is well! All is well! —William Clayton, author of Come, Come, Ye Saints, April 13, 1846 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Places to Pause, to Rest…to Die T wo months on the trail, battling mud and mishaps across half of Iowa, exhausted the Camp of Israel, depleted its food supplies, and threatened to unravel Brigham Young’s loose-knit plan to reach the Rocky Mountains that summer. Many emigrants were too ill or too poorly equipped to continue west. Church leaders worried, also, for the thousands of faithful who followed. The Mormon wagon train stopped far short of the Missouri River on April 19 to build a temporary way station called Garden Grove. Almost overnight, the pioneers dug wells, built houses, bridges, and fences, plowed and planted. Several hundred emigrants settled in to rest, heal, and prepare for the final push to the Rockies. If their crops were successful, they would also help feed the later Nauvoo wagon companies that would soon be arriving. Garden Grove was good farming country, but it was infested with rattlesnakes. It was not the entire solution to their problems. The main body of the company rolled on. On May 16, a scout selected a beautiful site that he named Mt. Pisgah, after the hilltop from which Moses looked upon the chosen land. The Latter-day Saints built more cabins and dugouts there, and they plowed and planted a thousand acres of prairie. At least 200 emigrants stayed there, and the population grew to about 700 as later arrivals joined them over the summer. Despite the beauty of its setting and the promise of its name, however, Mt. Pisgah was a place of sorrow. Several score of people, forced from their homes and weakened by exposure, exhaustion, and poor nutrition, would die there over the coming months. This was a great place for rattlesnakes. Either an ox or a horse came up almost every night with a swelled head, etc. I became very much dissatisfied with this place, and it seemed as though I could not tarry there under any consideration. —Ezra Benson, autobiographical account, Garden Grove, Iowa, 1846 [My son] died in my arms about four o’clock....He died with the hooping cough & black canker [scurvy]…We are entirely destitute of any thing even to eat much less to nourish the sick. —Hosea Stout, Garden Grove, Iowa, May 8, 1846 11 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Meanwhile, the bulk of the Camp of Israel moved on once more, finally reaching the Missouri River Valley on June 14, 1846—too late for even a “swift company” to start across the Great Plains and over the mountains. On the Iowa side of the river they established a “Grand Encampment,” which continued to receive oncoming emigrants through the summer. By winter, some 2,500 Mormons would be settled into make-do shelters along the east bank of the Missouri River. Thousands more fanned out from the Grand Encampment, ultimately establishing over 90 cluster settlements within a 40-mile radius of Council Bluffs. In return for sending 500 men (the Mormon Battalion) to serve in the recently declared U.S. war against Mexico, Brigham Young received permission from the federal government to camp on Indian lands west of the river, as well. Many Mormons crossed over to Nebraska, built more temporary towns, and settled in for the winter “on the edge of the wilderness.” By December, the largest community, called Winter Quarters, consisted of about 540 cabins, dugouts, and shanties, home to nearly 4,000 people. “Kanesville” Mormon settlement on the banks of the Missouri River (presentday Council Bluffs). Courtesty of the Utah State Historical Society. 12 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska At Mt. Pisgah, Garden Grove, Winter Quarters, the Grand Encampment, and other Mormon settlements, hundreds of emigrant men, women, and children died that sad winter. All told, more than 700 perished of exposure, malnutrition, scurvy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, malaria, and other diseases during the winter and spring of 1846-47. The Latter-day Saints’ hope for a new Zion might have died there, as well —but it did not. Under Brigham Young’s encouragement and leadership, the survivors soon would pick up their feet and begin the second half of their journey to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. The shaking ague fastened deathless fangs upon me…I shook till it appeared my very bones were pulverized. I wept, I prayed, I besought the Lord to have mercy on me. —Louisa Barnes Pratt, Cold Springs encampment near Winter Quarters, 1846 Scarcely a family escaped sickness and very few where death did not make an inroad. A general spirit of lamentation and sorrow pervaded Pisgah. —Lorenzo Snow, Mt. Pisgah, Iowa, 1846 “Winter Quarters” on the banks of the Missouri River, by C.A. Christensen. Courtesy of the Brigham Young University Museum of Art. 13 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska A far-reaching impact B righam Young and many of his followers left their Missouri River prairie settlements for the arid expanses of the Great Basin in the spring of 1847. There, the Latter-day Saints hoped, they would be out of the reach of old enemies. Young and a small advance party of emigrants and scouts arrived in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake in late July 1847. The main body of Nauvoo emigrants, including many who had wintered at Garden Grove and Mt. Pisgah, soon followed their trail into the valley to begin new lives in an unfamiliar land of desert, mountains, and salt flats. The historic “Gathering to Zion” that began in 1846 continued via Brigham Young’s original route and other trails, from many points of departure and by various means —including handcart brigades— until the transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. Altogether, the Mormon wagon trains and handcart brigades were the greatest organized movement of people across the American West in the entire emigration era—an emigration based on the deeply held American principle of freedom of religion. Non-Mormon emigrants traveling to California and Oregon also used the roads, bridges, ferries, settlements, and trading posts established by the Mormons on And at [Mt.Pisgah] we had many testimonies that the Lord had not forsaken us, and that He was mindful of His people who put their trust in Him. —Sarah Rich, autobiographical account of 1846 emigration There was great want of bread in camp, so that we were oppressed on every hand, but we cried to the Lord, who heard our prayers, and we were fed by his all-bountiful hands… —Allen Stout, Garden Grove, Iowa, April 3, 1846 14 There are times and places in the life of every nation when great spiritual heights are reached, when courage becomes a living thing, when faith in God stands as the granite mountain wall — firm and immovable— while hardships, want, hunger, sickness, sorrow, and death beat down to crush. Winter Quarters was such a time and place for the Mormon people. — Heber J. Grant, President, Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints, September 20, 1936 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska their way to Utah. Under church direction, Latter-day Saints settled throughout the Southwest and Intermountain West. The journals, letters, sketches, and photographs they created to document their experiences across that vast region remain invaluable to historians. Their stories continue to inspire and fascinate. Today, Latter-day Saints are mainstream Americans, recognized participants in national politics, international economies, and the global community. Clearly, the Mormon exodus to Utah was not a mere footnote in the history of the American West. It is an integral part of the American story. 15 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Sites and Points of Interest Nauvoo, Illinois to Council Bluffs, Iowa The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail begins at Nauvoo, Illinois, and ends at Salt Lake City, Utah. This guide follows only the route taken across Iowa by the 1846 Nauvoo emigrant company led by Brigham Young. Routes and sites used by later Mormon wagon trains and handcart companies are not included in this guide because they are not at present congressionally authorized as part of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. Begin this segment of your trip at Nauvoo, Illinois, and follow the trail west toward Council Bluffs, Iowa. The driving directions below, along with Auto Tour Route signs along the major highways, will help you along the route. Please respect private property by staying in public areas, and help protect our national heritage by leaving all historic sites undisturbed. 16 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska 1. Nauvoo National Historic Landmark (Nauvoo, Illinois) is the historic town site of old Nauvoo, established in 1839 by followers of Joseph Smith. The Nauvoo Temple, destroyed shortly after the Mormon exodus, was rebuilt on-site and re-dedicated in 2002. The temple is not open to Farmstead exhibit at Old Nauvoo. the public, but tours of the historic district, with 25 historic homes, businesses, visitor centers, and demonstration sites, are available free to all visitors. Attractions at the Joseph Smith Historic Site (operated by Community of Christ Church) include the Joseph Smith Homestead and Mansion House, a reconstruction of his Red Brick Store, and the Smith Family Cemetery, where Joseph and many of his family members are buried. Tours start at the Joseph Smith Historic Site Visitor Center; orientation and exhibits are available there, as well. Closed Sundays; hours vary by season. For more information go to www.cofchrist. org/js or call 217-453-2246. Admission to the Visitor Center, site orientation video, museum exhibits and Red Brick Store is free. There is a modest fee for the guided tour of the Smith homes. The LDS Nauvoo Visitor Center (operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) offers site orientation and historical information, theatrical performances, and exhibits. For Center visiting hours go to www.ldschurch.org/placestovisit and search “Navoo.” Other Navoo attractions include the Brigham Young Home, the reconstructed Nauvoo Temple, the Trail of Hope interpretive walk, a 3-hour handcart trek, plays and musical programs, ox-drawn wagon rides, carriage rides, and horse-drawn wagon tours of historic Nauvoo. All except the temple interior are open to the general public. Some activities require reservations, but all are free. Historic sites are open year-round, but some activities are available only seasonally. Visit www.ldschurch.org/placestovisit, or call 217-453-2237 for events schedule and information. 17 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Location: Nauvoo, Illinois, is the trailhead of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. It is located on the east bank of the Mississippi River, across from the southeastern-most corner of Iowa. To arrive at the main historic district, follow IL-96/ Mullholland Street west through the town’s business district and past the temple. Where the paved highway makes a sharp bend to the left, leave the pavement and continue straight on the gravel street toward the river, then turn left on Main Street. Maps to specific historic attractions are available at local guest establishments and church-operated visitor centers. 2. Nauvoo Landing (Nauvoo, Illinois), at the foot of Parley Street on the riverfront, is one of the eastern departure points from Nauvoo where emigrants lined up their wagons to be ferried across the Mississippi River in February 1846. Later that month, during several days of freezing weather, a few Nauvoo Landing. hundred people drove their wagons across the ice from this location. Nearby is a memorial naming those who died on the Mormon Trail. Directions: Take IL-96/Mullholland Street west toward the river, through the town’s business district. Follow the paved highway where it makes a sharp turn to the left (south) and becomes Park Street. Continue south on Park Street for 6 blocks to Parley Street. Turn right and drive to the riverfront. 3. Nauvoo State Park and Museum (Nauvoo, Illinois) is the location of Nauvoo’s first vineyard, which began producing grapes in the mid1800s. The park features a 1840s-era Mormon house with museum exhibits, wine cellar, and press room, a 13-acre lake, 18 Nauvoo State Park & Museum. Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska camping, hiking, fishing, and other outdoor activities. Open yearround, free. Directions: Take IL-96/Mullholland Street west toward the river and through the town’s business district. Follow the paved highway where it makes a sharp turn to the left (south) and becomes Park Street. Follow Park Street for 4 blocks and turn left onto a gravel road leading into the park, then continue for approximately 0.15 mile to the vineyard and museum on the right side of the road. 4. Carthage Jail & Visitor Center (307 Walnut St., Carthage, Illinois). Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum lost their lives here on June 27, 1844. The jail and visitor center are open year-round; no admission is charged. For visiting hours, go to www. ldschurch.org/placestovisit and Carthage Jail. search “Navoo, “ or call 217-3572989. Free guided tours available. Directions: From Nauvoo, take IL-96/Park Street south along the Mississippi River for approximately 10 miles to Hamilton. Turn left (east) onto U.S.-136 and continue another 12 miles to Carthage. Turn right on North Fayette Street and follow directional signs to the jail at the corner of Walnut and North Fayette. 5. Linger Longer Park (Montrose, Iowa). A pavilion with Mormon Trail exhibits commemorates the destitute Mormon refugees who subsisted in that area after being driven from Nauvoo in September 1846. The park also offers a panoramic view of Linger Longer Pioneer Trail Memorial at Riverfront Park. 19 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Nauvoo, across the river. Open dawn to dusk. Directions: From Nauvoo, follow IL-96 east then north 9 miles to Niota. Turn left onto IL-9, a toll bridge (no fare when crossing west to east, modest fare when crossing east to west) over the river. Mid-river, IL-9 becomes IA-2. Enter Fort Madison and turn left onto U.S.-61, paralleling the railroad, and continue for 1.8 miles. Where U.S.-61 intersects with IA-103, jog left (south) and several blocks later jog right (west) to stay on U.S.-61. Continue on U.S.-61 for 10.4 miles. Upon passing 289th Street to the left, slow and watch for a left turn onto Mississippi River Road, which parallels the river. Turn left there, then immediately turn left into Linger Longer Park. Trail exhibits are in the pavilion and at the opposite end of the park. 6. Riverfront Park (Chestnut Street, Montrose, Iowa) is the location of old Fort Des Moines, and the place where Mormons initially settled in Iowa while creating Nauvoo across the river. Because the fort had been abandoned before Brigham Young and others arrived in early 1839, Riverfront Park at Montrose. numerous families, including that of Young, temporarily took shelter in the vacant barracks. Here, Joseph Smith performed faith healing and predicted that his Latterday Saints one day would gather in the Rocky Mountains. Here, too, Smith hid from hostile anti-Mormons shortly before his arrest and murder. At the river’s edge is Montrose Landing, where Mormon emigrants came to shore after leaving Nauvoo in 1846. Open dawn to dusk. Directions: From Linger Longer Park, continue south on Mississippi River Road, paralleling the river, and follow it into Montrose. The road becomes First Street. Turn left on Chestnut Street, cross the railroad tracks, and enter Riverfron

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