Petroglyph

Guide 2017

brochure Petroglyph - Guide 2017
Park News National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior The official magazine of Petroglyph National Monument 2017 Volume Fourteen A B e aut i f ul Mystery What’s Inside... Manhatten Project NHP Valles Caldera NP & PRES Page 5 park magazine 2017.indd 1 Page 8 Page 14 8/29/2017 10:49:48 AM 1916 Celebrating 100 Years of the Welcome to Petroglyph National Monument Rio Grande Rift Valley and how landforms influence culture over time. New Mexico has 15 national park units. Each of these places shares a unique story, preserves a part of history, or offers inspiring natural beauty. I invite you to visit and experience the wonders of each of the national parks in New Mexico and other public lands managed for your enjoyment. A visit to Petroglyph National Monument will begin a lifetime of experiences exploring your national park system or can be another stop on your life-long journey. In 2016, the National Park Service celebrated its 100th anniversary as a federal agency caring for special places saved by the The centennial of the National Park SerAmerican public so that all may experience vice is the perfect opportunity for each of our heritage. As we engage the next genus to create a new relationship or rekindle eration of park stewards, we invite you to an old one with our public lands and our Find Your Park. shared natural and cultural heritage. Explore Petroglyph National Monument, As you visit Petroglyph National Monuexplore New Mexico, and explore the ment, I hope that you find something that country! With over 400 units of the nainspires wonder, provokes a question, tional park system in all 50 states and the piques your curiosity, or leaves you wantterritories, get out there and... ing more. The thousands of petroglyphs Find Your Park! etched into ancient volcanic rocks offer a tangible connection to this land and its Experience your America, people over a long continuum. These images hold profound significance for the Dennis A. Vásquez native peoples of the middle Rio Grande Superintendent Valley and others, and offer an opportunity for visitors to contemplate the meaning of cultural continuity in our world of accelerating change. A brief silent moment surrounded by the ancient images may lead you to a mental exploration of land stewardship and cultural identity in the American Southwest. You may find that a walk through the field of volcanic cones and lava flows can facilitate both an understanding of the rich geologic history of the Page 2 park magazine 2017.indd 2 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:49:50 AM 2016 f the National Park Service Dennis A. Vásquez Superintendent Photo: Mark Bohrer Globemallow (Sphaeralcea incana) Photo: NPS Bird of Paradise (Caesalpinia gilliesii) Photo: NPS Apache Plume (Fallugia paradoxa) Photo: NPS Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 3 Blanket Flower (Gaillardia pinnatifida) Photo: NPS Page 3 8/29/2017 10:49:57 AM Understanding the Petroglyphs Allison Martin, Interpretation and Outreach Some of the most important questions we get asked are,“What do these petroglyphs mean? Who made them and why are they here?” These are my favorite questions, as it opens up topics for interpretation and communication between myself and the visitor. The easy answer is that we have no way of possibly interpreting an image to mean something specific because the individual who created the image can not tell us the meaning. This begs the question, How can we begin to understand these images? One place to start is to understand the lifestyle and culture of the Ancestral Puebloans, the ancient Native people that lived here 400-700 years ago. Then, we must look at how that culture shaped not only Native lifestyle during that time, but the lifestyles of those living in New Mexico today. When we see a petroglyph of an animal we may ponder, “What purpose did this animal serve to the Ancestral Puebloans?” Many animals were used for meat, skin and other necessities to help aide survival. Other animals were domesticated and used for protection or celebration. These are the perspectives that help shine light on the reason of the petroglyphs. The more questions we ask, the more knowledge we obtain. Many different cultural groups in and around New Mexico recognize this area, from the petroglyphs to the volcanoes, as a sacred place. The Ancestral Puebloans settled in this area for a reason. The Rio Page 4 park magazine 2017.indd 4 Grande supplied them with water, food, and a place to flourish. It holds special meaning to the Pueblo people as they created a community of life here some 700 years ago. Everything that they depended on for survival was found in this area, which makes every rock and tree a part of their life and culture. The images here were carved not only by the Ancestral Puebloans, but also the Spanish settlers traveling through this area. Some petroglyphs in the monument appear to represent sheep brands and crosses. These images are a glimpse into the Spanish arrival and introduction into Southwest culture. The images open the door for researchers and historians to understand the purposes of the Spanish land grants that ran through parts of the monument. One of the greatest revelations of the petroglyphs is that we get to see two different lifestyles and cultures developing and existing in a single place. The petroglyphs in the monument hold stories for all of us to see. They are the gateway to an ancient lifestyle that reveals itself through the basalt rocks. These abstract designs of human figures, crosses, and geometric shapes are complex images of different cultural references and ideologies that are secrets, hidden in plain view. So as a first time visitor take a moment and view the petroglyphs not for individual understandings but for a larger purpose and reason for existing. We hope you have a wonderful visit. Shield petroglyph in Piedras Marcadas Canyon Photo: NPS Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:49:58 AM Petroglyphs are carved by chipping away the dark desert varnish that forms on the basalt boulders. Over time, images will darken making it difficult to see these iconic symbols. Handprints in Piedras Marcadas Canyon Photo: Mark Bohrer Crosses in Rinconada Canyon Photo: NPS Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 5 Bird image in Rinconada Canyon Photo: NPS Page 5 8/29/2017 10:50:02 AM Why Rocks Matter Ronald Fields, Archeologist Rarely does one pass an arrowhead or pottery sherd without at least stopping and pondering about the person that made it. Yet rarely does one ever stop and give a thermally altered rock or a fire-cracked rock (FCR) a second glance. What is so special about a rock that has been thermally altered or cracked? What natural processes can cause a rock to be altered? 1) Natural freezing of water in voids in a rock can crack a rock. 2) Heated rock in a natural forest fire can be cracked by a cool rain or cool temperatures. 3) Tree roots can find voids in rocks and slowly crack them. However, to the trained eye, some thermally altered rock may be cracked or discolored suggesting that prehistoric people once lived and cooked in the immediate area. transferring heat to the water. These stones were easily gathered in the form of waterworn cobbles along the Rio Grande river valley floor. When quartz cobbles are heated in a fire and then dropped into water they suddenly contract, crack, and sometimes break apart – producing fire cracked rocks. Why cook using hot rocks? Rocks can retain heat and slowly radiate that heat long after being removed from a fire. Second, before the appearance of pottery the only other method of cooking was directly over a fire. Instead, humans have discovered three ingenious cooking techniques: 1) heating slabs of rock and cooking directly on them; 2) heating rocks and putting them in a pit and slowly roasting the food; and 3) heating rocks and dropping them into a container of water and boiling the food. The container can be as simple as a pit lined with a fresh So what does hot rock cooking have to do hide, or as complex as a water-tight basket, with Petroglyph National Monument? Re- a hide, a bark container or a pottery concent archaeological surveys on Petroglyph tainer. Through the simple incorporation of hot rocks, cooking by boiling and roasting National Monument confirm earlier observations that fire-cracked rock was used was invented. So what we would consider herbal teas became soup or stew overnight. extensively in and around Petroglyph National Monument. Indigenous people selected rocks that could be heated up until they were glowing red and yellow hot and then were dropped into water-filled containers such as water-tight baskets, rawhide containers, or shallow pits lined with hides (Figure 2). The water would boil and cook the food therein. Quartzites, given their high silica properties, proved ideal for retaining heat and Page 6 park magazine 2017.indd 6 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:04 AM A Thermally Altered Rock the Result of Hot Rock Cooking Photo: NPS Top View of an Earth Oven Rock Roasting/Cooking Pit Plan View of an Earth Oven Rock Roasting/Cooking Pit Potsherd Photo: NPS Side View of an Earth Oven Rock Roasting/Cooking Pit Side View of an Earth Oven Rock Roasting/Cooking Pit Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 7 Page 7 8/29/2017 10:50:07 AM Welcome to Petroglyph N Non-petroglyph viewing trail: Petr Volcanoes Day Use Area -Free, undeveloped trail -Scenic hike, no petroglyphs -One to four miles total length -Takes 1- 2.5 hours to hike -No water, vault restrooms -Leashed pets allowed, you must pick-up waste Pied Can -Fre -1.5 sand -Tak -No -Lea you -See Boc -De -3 sh -Tak -Tra stro -Wa avai -No -See -$1 M park Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis) Photo: NPS Rinco -Free -2.2 m sandy - Take -No w -Leas must -See 2 Page 8 park magazine 2017.indd 8 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:11 AM yph National Monument Petroglyph viewing trails: Piedras Marcadas Canyon -Free, undeveloped trail -1.5 miles round-trip on a sandy, dirt path -Takes 1.5 hours to hike -No water, no restrooms -Leashed pets allowed, you must pick-up waste -See 300-400 petroglyphs Boca Negra Canyon -Developed trail system -3 short trails, partly paved -Takes 1 hour to walk -Trails not wheelchair or stroller accessible -Water and restrooms available -No pets allowed -See 100 petroglyphs -$1 M-F/$2 Sat & Sun parking fee Rinconada Canyon -Free, undeveloped trail -2.2 miles round-trip on a sandy, dirt path - Takes 1.5-2 hours to hike -No water, vault restrooms -Leashed pets allowed, you must pick-up waste -See 200-300 petroglyphs Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 9 Page 9 8/29/2017 10:50:15 AM The Rio Gra Why EarthScope? Because Shift Happens Susanna Villanueva, Interpretation and Outreach Petroglyph National Monument is located along the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift. Its ancient volcanic flows are the direct result from the rift’s activity over the last 30 million years. Continental rifts are created when Earth’s crust stretches and thins creating an elongated valley on the surface. The Rio Grande Rift runs south to north from Chihuahua, Mexico to Leadville, Colorado. Rifts like the Rio Grande, form basins that fill with sediments over millions of years. In Albuquerque, the basin sediments are three miles deep. Rift movements can be caused by relative tectonic plate shifting, gravity, and rising magma bodies. Here we have two of the three processes causing a little movement; the slight rotation of the microtectonic plate called the Colorado Plataeu, located just west of the Rio Grande Rift; and the rising of a large maga body that is under Socorro, New Mexico (50 miles south of Albuquerque). How much movement and shifting are we talking about? Is Albuquerque going to have a large-scale earthquake or a volcanic eruption? This is where EarthScope comes into the picture. EarthScope, a program of the National Science Foundation (NSF), is a nationwide effort that applies the latest science and technology to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and understand processes that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The western United States is a prime target area for EarthScope to investigate processes that result in elevated topography, earthquakes, and volcanism because it’s hot, literally. The crust under the western U.S. is young, hot, and restless. That’s why we have such diverse topography, from some of the highest mountain ranges to the lowest desert flats. How is EarthScope studying the Rio Grande Rift? A team of scientists from the University of Colorado and the University of New Mexico, with funding from the NSF, are collecting data on how much the Rio Grande Rift is moving by setting global positioning systems (GPS) in a grid system that runs from the central Colorado Rockies into Southern New Mexico. The team is using GPS instruments, which rely on satellites for their measurements, to measure the movements of the Rio Grande Rift. Results have confirmed that the movements of the rift are miniscule and slow, only between 0.5 and 2 millimeters per year. Compare that to our average rate of fingernail growth of 3mm a month. Rio Grande River, looking west towards volcanoes Photo: NPS Page 10 park magazine 2017.indd 10 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:18 AM Grande Rift Photo courtesy of: http://www.abqenvironmentalstory.org/ EarthScope is a collaborative project whose partners include the National Science Foundation, the USGS, and NASA. For more information on EarthScope visit www.earthscope.org Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 11 Page 11 8/29/2017 10:50:21 AM Outdoor Adventures: Ongoing Discovery Education Opportunities Allison Martin, Interpretation and Outreach Petroglyph National Monument has a variety of opportunities for students to rediscover the outdoor world. Educating our children about the importance of stewarship by being a part of our monument’s past, present and future is a great way to continue to pass down history, tradition, and culture. Stewardship will allow children to gain a sense of pride, competence, and importance in their role of protecting and preserving this park and other geologic formations around the world. So let’s work together and get everyone outside. By scheduling a guided tour, classroom visit, or educational program at Petroglyph National Monument, young students and adults alike can gain an appreciation of all aspects of history, from human impacts and our vital relationships to the natural landscape. Page 12 park magazine 2017.indd 12 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:25 AM Here are some of the ways YOU can be a part of the National Park Service Outdoor Education Learning Experience Join one of the many youth employment or volunteer partnerships. These opportunities allow young students to meet and work with other young adults and professionals to help carry out projects that protect, restore and maintain our public lands and historic landmarks, gain leadership skills, and become intimately connected to the beauty and diversity found in our national parks. Looking to start your relationship with the National Park Service? There are many ways to work with us. Some of these opportunities include: Youth in Parks, Pathways Program, Youth Conservation Corps, Youth Land Corps, the Student Conservation Association and internships. Start your relationship with a national park today at: http://www.nps.gov/getinvolved/volunteer.htm Photos: NPS Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 13 Page 13 8/29/2017 10:50:32 AM Over 50 Units of the National Park System Turkey Vultur Photo: NPS Valles Caldera NP & PRES Page 14 park magazine 2017.indd 14 Manhatten Project NHP Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:36 AM em Your Next Adventure Awaits Annual and Lifetime Federal Land Passes 2017 Federal Lands Passes. Photos may change by year. Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) Photo: NPS We sell and issue America the Beautiful Federal Recreational Lands Passes which provide a convenient and affordable way to visit recreation areas managed by six Federal agencies. Interagency Annual Pass: $80.00 USD; anyone can purchase this pass. Valid for one year from month purchased. Interagency Senior Pass - Lifetime: $80.00 USD; U.S. citizens and permanent residents who are 62 years of age. Must be purchased in person. Proof of age (valid driver’s license, passport, birth certificate, or permanent resident card) required. Valid for lifetime of card holder. Interagency Senior Pass - Annual: $20.00 USD; U.S. citizens and permanent residents who are 62 years of age. Must be purchased in person. Proof of age (valid driver’s license, passport, birth certificate, or permanent resident card) required. Valid for one year from month purchased. Interagency Military Pass- Annual: Free; issued to current active duty military personnel and their dependents with proper identification. Valid for one year from month issued. Interagency Access Pass: Free; issued to U.S. citizens or permanent residents medically determined to have a permanent disability. Documentation required. Valid for lifetime. Every Kid in a Park 4th Grade Pass: Free; issued to 4th grade students with printed voucher. Valid September 1 through August 31. Visit www.everykidinapark.gov for voucher information. Albuquerque, NM Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 15 Page 15 Page 15 8/29/2017 10:50:39 AM Kids Corner Junior Ranger Program Hey Kids! Have you ever been curious about nature or history? Want to learn more about National Parks? Here is YOUR opportunity. Did you know that there are over 400 national parks that have Junior Ranger Programs? That’s right. Each park is unique and you can earn your very own badge at each park. The more you collect, the more you know. It’s never to late to start. Become a Junior Ranger today. Step 1: Ask a park ranger for a Junior Ranger booklet. Step 2: Do as many activities as you can. Step 3: Bring your completed booklet back to the visitor center and have a ranger look over your answers and drawings. Step 4: Get sworn in and become an official Junior Ranger. If you are 5 years old or younger ask for a Ranger Scout Book, designed for pre-readers. Senior Ranger Program Have you ever wondered if YOU could be Feeling little too old toyour do the Junior a junioraranger? Here’s chance! Ranger Program but still want something fun toare do?Junior Just ask our rangers about our What Rangers? Senior Ranger are Program. This program Junior rangers students who are in-is a little more and aadventure, whole lot of terested in challenging exploring, enjoy fun. and want to learn more about the world around them. Step 1: Are you 12 years old or older? Then the Senior be more How can a Ranger studentprogram become may a junior ranger appropriate for you. at Petroglyph National Monument? Step as many activities on Easy 2: asComplete 1, 2, 3! your hike as you can. Step your book back to at our 1: Ask3:aBring ranger at the front desk the visirangers and become an official Senior tor center about how you can become a Ranger. junior ranger! You will receive a book and pencil and you’re on your way! 2: Complete different activities on your adventure at our park! 3: Say the junior ranger pledge and earn your certificates, badges and patches! When are you too old to become a Junior Ranger: NEVER! Junior rangers can be ANYONE who is intereasted in national parks. If you are 12 and over, you may want more of a challenge. IN that case, would you like to become a senior ranger?Are you a 4th grader? Don’t forget to get your Every Kid in a Petroglyph National Monument offers Park for Pass12voucher SENIOR RANGER programs year at: https://www.everykidiold and above. Ask us about HOW to earn napark.gov your patch and pin today! Page 16 park magazine 2017.indd 16 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:42 AM der? et a at: rykidi- N C D R A Z I L I P Y U C C AR O D S T E T O Y O C Can you find these words? CULTURE HISTORY PETROGLYPH VOLCANO RIFT BASALT MILLIPEDE COYOTE ROAD RUNNER LIZARD DESERT YUCCA SOUTHWEST PROTECTION PRESERVATION Western Diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) Photo: NPS “I give my pledge as a Petroglyph National Monument Junior Ranger, to protect and preserve the cultural and natural resources of this park today and in the future.” Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 17 Page 17 8/29/2017 10:50:44 AM Western National Pa Western National Parks Association (WNPA) supports 67 parks across 12 western states. Throughout our 75 year history as a partner of the National Park Service, we’ve provided millions of dollars in support to national parks across the West. WNPA is best known for its Park Stores. Retail sales are a critical means to support the parks, but WNPA also has the goal of helping drive a greater appreciation and better understanding of national parks. We will continue to work in order to reach more diverse populations, focusing on educating visitors of all ages who have never had a national park experience. Research matters to our national parks. Since 1938, WNPA has funded scientific research to help advance the management, preservation, and interpretation of our national parks. One of the key goals of our research program is to turn research findings into relevant narratives that engage, inform and entertain. One way you can support your National Parks is to become a WNPA member. Membership dollars go toward direct aid for our partner parks across the West. They also help provide educational materials to park visitors of all ages. As a thank you, WNPA members get discounts at all WNPA partner Park Stores. Please help us support the mission to keep these special places preserved for future generations to enjoy. Membership levels vary from $45 to $250. Inquire at the visitor center. Your purchases support your parks Page 18 park magazine 2017.indd 18 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:47 AM al Parks Association Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 19 Page 19 8/29/2017 10:50:54 AM How our National Park is going GREEN! National Park Service S Diane Souder, Chief of Interpretation and Outreach The National Park Service is addressing climate change today because the choices we all make do make a difference. Petroglyph National Monument installed the National Park Service’s first solar powered electric vehicle charging station. Petroglyph also uses solar lighting throughout the park near parking lots and walkways, recycles plastics and wood, has installed low flow plumbing features and low energy lighting, re-uses building materials, buys green cleaning products and encourages ride sharing. The Las Imágenes Visitor Center, once the home of Dr. Sophie Aberle and William Brody, was purchased in 1991. This adaptive reuse of the adobe home created an instant place for visitors to learn about the monument’s resources. Shading of the patio and use of shade ramadas helps keep the visitor center cool in the heat of the summer while the massing of the adobe structure keeps the temperatures warmer in winter. The amphitheater is made from rammed earth, reducing the amount of required concrete. The National Park Service seeks to maintain a natural landscape as much as possible. This effort works to ensure a successful stewardship by taking care of the resources for present and future generations. Petrogyph National Monument does not use herbicides, pesticides or fertilizers because of their impact on the natural environment. A drip watering system has been installed to help some plants survive long periods of drought. Other plants, especially those that have been here a long time, may experience damage by small animals but that is part of the natural process. Throughout the park, you will see recycling bins. We recycle plastic, aluminum, and glass. Recycling, along with proper disposal of food waste and trash, can reduce litter and pest problems in the park. Using the easily identified recycling receptacles for waste will reduce the amount of garbage sent to the local landfills. So help us think GREEN! With your efforts, together we CAN make a difference. To learn more about how other parks are going green visit: https://www.nps.gov/articles/greenparks-plan.htm Sustainable landscaping adds beauty and helps maintain a special sense of place. The native vegetation planted in front of the visitor center not only helps to inform visitors about native plants, their traditional uses by Native Americans and early Spanish settlers, but helps conserve water and minimizes weeding or mowing. Page 20 park magazine 2017.indd 20 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:56 AM ce Strives to be GREEN! Greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus) Photo: NPS Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 21 Page 21 8/29/2017 10:50:58 AM We Hope You En Regulations and Safety • All visitors must stay on designated trails to avoid damage to the fragile desert vegetation. • Pets are allowed (except at Boca Negra Canyon) but must be on a leash 6 feet in length or less, must be under the control of the handler at all times, and have their waste removed to a trash receptacle. • Motorized vehicles (ATVs, motorcycles) are only permitted in parking lots. • State firearms laws apply. The discharge of any weapon is prohibited. Target practice, sport shooting, traps and hunting are prohibited. The carrying or shooting of BB/air soft pellet guns, sling shots or paintball guns is prohibited. • Camping is not permitted anywhere within the park. • Littering and/or dumping trash is prohibited. • It is prohibited to excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface any archeological resource. Page 22 park magazine 2017.indd 22 • Damage or altering fences or signs is prohibited. • All fireworks and other explosives are are prohibited. • Destroying, injuring, defacing or damaging property is prohibited. By following these simple rules and laws, you will help protect these invaluable and irreplaceable resources. Your cooperation is appreciated. GPS coordinates to trails: Boca Negra Canyon: Lat. 35.160565 Long. -106.719646 Rinconada Canyon: Lat. 35.126968 Long. -106.724635 Piedras Marcadas Canyon: Lat. 35.18874, Long. -106.685601 Volcanoes Day Use Area: Lat. 35.130817, Long. -106.780826 GPS coordinates to Visitor Center: Lat. 35.1385 Long. -106.710801 Petroglyph National Monument 8/29/2017 10:50:59 AM Enjoy Your Visit For ALL Medical Emergencies Call: 911 Parking lots for all sites close at 5:00 pm MST. To report violations call: Petroglyph National Monument at (505) 899-0205 ext. 335 After-hours Dispatch (928) 638-7805 Park Hours (MST): Visitor Center: 8 am-5 pm Boca Negra Canyon: 8 am-4:30 pm Rinconada Canyon: 8 am-Sunset Piedras Marcadas Canyon: 8 am-Sunset Volcanoes Day Use Area: 9 am-Sunset Petroglyph National Monument is jointly managed by the National Park Service and the City of Albuquerque. This publication was funded from the generous donations of visitors like you. Thank you for your continued support. 09/17-2k Albuquerque, NM park magazine 2017.indd 23 Page 23 8/29/2017 10:51:01 AM National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Photos: NPS park magazine 2017.indd 24 8/29/2017 10:51:05 AM

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