"Glen Canyon National Recreation Area - Lake Powell - Reflection Canyon" by NPS Photo/Gary Ladd , public domain
Foundation Document Overview
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE • U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Foundation Document Overview Glen Canyon National Recreation Area Rainbow Bridge National Monument Arizona and Utah Contact Information For more information about the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Rainbow Bridge National Monument Foundation Document, contact: email@example.com or 928-608-6205 or write to: Superintendent, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Rainbow Bridge National Monument P.O. Box 1507, Page, AZ 86040-1507 Purpose Significance Significance statements express why Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Rainbow Bridge National Monument resources and values are important enough to merit national park unit designation. Statements of significance describe why an area is important within a global, national, regional, and systemwide context. These statements are linked to the purpose of the park unit, and are supported by data, research, and consensus. Significance statements describe the distinctive nature of the park and inform management decisions, focusing efforts on preserving and protecting the most important resources and values of the park unit. Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, located at the center of the Colorado Plateau, provides for public enjoyment through diverse land- and waterbased recreational opportunities, and protects scenic, scientific, natural, and cultural resources on Lake Powell, the Colorado River, its tributaries, and surrounding lands. Rainbow Bridge National Monument protects an extraordinary natural bridge that captures public and scientific interest with its rainbow form and appearance. • The Colorado River and its many tributaries, including the Dirty Devil, Paria, Escalante, and San Juan rivers, carve through the Colorado Plateau to form a landscape of dynamic and complex desert and water environments. • The vast, rugged landscapes of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area provide an unparalleled spectrum of diverse land- and water-based recreational opportunities for visitors of wide-ranging interests and abilities. • Glen Canyon National Recreation Area preserves a record of more than 10,000 years of human presence, adaptation, and exploration. This place remains significant for many descendant communities, providing opportunities for people to connect with cultural values and associations that are both ancient and contemporary. • The deep, 15-mile-long, narrow gorge below the dam provides a glimpse of the high canyon walls, ancient rock art, and a vestige of the riparian and beach terrace environments that were seen by John Wesley Powell’s Colorado River expedition in 1869, providing a stark contrast to the impounded canyons of Lake Powell. • Rainbow Bridge is one of the world’s largest natural bridges and is a premier example of eccentric stream erosion in a remote area of the Colorado Plateau. • For many indigenous peoples in the Four Corners region, Rainbow Bridge is a spiritually occupied landscape that is inseparable from their cultural identities and traditional beliefs. Fundamental Resources and Values Fundamental resources and values are those features, systems, processes, experiences, stories, scenes, sounds, smells, or other attributes determined to merit primary consideration during planning and management processes because they are essential to achieving the purpose of the park and maintaining its significance. Below are the fundamental resources and values of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Rainbow Bridge National Monument. • Heritage Resources: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area is the steward of heritage resources exemplified by the archeological and historic sites, cultural landscapes, and traditional cultural properties that illustrate the connection of people with the landscape of the Glen Canyon region. • • • • • • • • • • • Photo by Gary Ladd • Lake Powell: Lake Powell, set dramatically against a backdrop of eroded red rock canyons and mesas, is the largest man-made lake in North America and is widely recognized by boating enthusiasts as one of the premier water-based recreation destinations in the world. • Landscape: The vast landscape of Glen Canyon contains rugged water- and wind-carved canyons, buttes, mesas, rivers, seeps, springs, and hanging gardens where diverse habitats sustain an array of endemic, rare, and relict plant and animal communities. • Paleontology: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area preserves one of the most complete sections of Mesozoic strata in the world; new discoveries continuously add to our scientific understanding of the past. • Water: Water quality and quantity is essential for public outdoor recreational use and enjoyment and for sustaining terrestrial and aquatic life in the high desert. • Rainbow Bridge: The bridge itself is a fundamental resource. • Traditional Cultural Property and Values: Rainbow Bridge and the immediately surrounding landscape are considered sacred by, and are vitally linked with the histories, cultural practices, ceremonial activities, and oral traditions of associated American Indian tribes. Location of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Rainbow Bridge National Monument To 70 To 70 To 70 CA EF HI ET HO R SPU TH E ON C L I F FS C A NY A RD R O CK ELATERITE S EN AB ad l or GR GE GORDON FLATS ORANGE CLIFFS Co ON C ANY CT RA AU PLATE ON NY CA CA N YO N AT FL RK DA D AN NY H SE GU LC CL U D L IC KH OR N GR A N CH G UL DA CE R EE R DR IND IRLW ST WH CA CA N O H AW D RE N YO RK NY T ON FO k e s tl Ca MESA CH RT NO AY GR N LE M IL L O R AN H C HATC N S C A NY O Y N A C LL POWE r eC SE RT th F o rk Sm i THE N OE C A NY O SE S H ES O NY CA ON R NY TTE CA BU R ST AI INU AR M O N S IE CK RO E TL LIT g r in DE G RY W A CA C r e ek RI N SP Ol j a t o ll B Train Rock ut OL JA Oljato TO M UTAH ARIZONA ES Monumen tW Goulding Trading Post SENTINEL MESA ek ht A li g M ES on Mo TO RI L L CA P ITAN L VAL R I DG EY CO M E To Farmington, N. Mex. B MESA TON N LE SKELE CA N YO L I TT 163 Cr IT O SEE IEB KE E T GI ON 6320 SH Floating dump station/restroom Zebra mussel decontamination station L C A NY ON N YO C AN e 160 ek Kayenta ZH LONG DO WO NAVAJO NATIONAL MONUMENT 16 TYENDE Rooster Rock MERIDIAN BUTTE THE WE MESA ZI U TEA PLA 6321 Spearhead Mesa HUNTS MESA ES M LN EZ Agathla Peak ON SAN JUAN APACHE Visitor Center MONUMENT VALLEY NAVAJO TRIBAL PARK Cr e N FLAT Boot Mesa R E S E R V A T I O N COCONINO NAVAJO EAGLE MESA a sh A Hat Rock A I N D I A N Mexican Hat 163 te NAVAJO APACHE NOKAI KIN NI N I ME S A MESA HOLIDAY MESA HOS Wash te P iu NY CA B IT AB KR Was h Piute Farms Wash ARM nC G YO N CAN HA D ES ON ME S A LE ng I va jo LO N Na he BIG POINT To Blanding and Hovenweep NM 316 EY PIUTE N BALANCED ROCK C DRIFTWOO DC ari TAP EST C r ee N G C A N YO N YO AN BO W N S C r I nd i a N N CA ee k Cr ck Ro RN ER CA STO NY NE ON CA N Y O N M i d d le R o c S hit a m NE k ON rC YO Ro ck k F O R B I D D IN G C CH A e Cr e NY CA W CO GU DA VI S ac Bl ON NY CA MES W as s at u L BE D l er COA ON EN EV ST kb Cle a ek Cr e u rn f k e Mu dh ol Fi ON NY CA ee Cr AY ND EY A h E Sa N YO M I CA CH BEN CK RO OP W CA AY ND MO SU C w at e et Sw rr Bu S E C AN Y O N HOR CH GL U T HE NY CA ET LL CO ND HA FT LE TW R UPPE C re e k er nt H i gh w R CO Jacobs Monument SAN JUAN NAVAJO Muley Point SA LITTLE VA LL unpaved switchbacks Alhambra Rock LL C o p p e r m in e R oa d r W N 431 ME S M O KY H O LL O CA Goosenecks State Park VA N S S O ve HN LA FS Ri JO UG ON Ju DO NY N YO an O C LIF 261 S Sa n h as W ECH F NT r GR AND GULC H PR IMITIVE AR EA ME CA C LI FS NU M A To Blanding and Hovenweep NM ( Bur e a u of L a nd Ma na ge me nt ) S IL L MO o Visitor Center La gu North 59 na To Canyon de Chelly NM E ad C RE ON TS Colo r TU Y AN c N N 275 M it IO YO NATURAL BRIDGES NATIONAL MONUMENT H ON IL N CA ay Fry Canyon Permit required from Bureau of Land Management (Monticello office) for San Juan River trips. LC NY RM OE l 430 CA CA N Y O N VE iv e r YON SH Kane Gulch Bureau of Land Management (closed in winter) H GU A MESA Marina EN MOSS BACK BUTTE S PA E ES NO K A I Thumb Rock ON Restaurant and lodge Campground S C AN ON ia nn R EE US M NO MANS NY Boat Launch C R OS N NY te w HO R ER Wash CA Ranger Station Primitive Campground BLACK STEER C C A NY O CA en gh ON Organ Rock L Trail Hi CK ITO PP hi ON A AO NY OD RO MONITOR BUTTE ON CO sk a NY CA 6325 MESA River mileage from dam 88 Bi c S EA S KE Ne EP PE CH CA MANTI-LA SAL NATIONAL FOREST O WOODENSHOE BUTTES ON ee Clay Hills I Crossing M SA Waterfall ME ES portage may IK M be required ZAHN BAY DE Hawkeye Natural Bridge Navajo Mountain Trading Post CH ( F or e s t S e r v i c e ) 276 ST JUAN ON DARK CANYON W I LD E R N E SS Y ON N GREAT BEND I k ee Most unpaved roads require a 4-wheel-drive vehicle. Off-road travel is prohibited. Inquire locally about road conditions; check with a ranger. C GS The Heel NY CA UI O NY P L A T E A U Overlook UN CAN LOWER HORSE FLATS LON G I TE UE OQ NOKAI DOME AH C Unpaved road YO D AR K CA L GU Y ON on Tsai Skizzi Rock G R AY BLA PLATEAU C A N Y ON M ils Navajo Mountain 10388ft 3166m NG N CANYO T POIN CK -TO LE A N WH D O M N Chocolate Drop NY Y 450 OD C SAN JUAN COCONINO LO ( Bur e a u of L a nd Ma na ge me nt ) Sundance Trailhead RE ROCK PITA EL CA Small Butte DARK CANYON P R I MI T I V E A R E A W BL CA E GR BEEF BASIN YO 95 N Cr THE NEEDLES AT GY PS U ATA DRY MESA SHEEP CANYON Blue Notch Canyon R CAN 6310 NY E r N CA sh Wa WO W CA OL o CH C N WILSON MESA N a vajo 98 N OT ve M IN T N RH C 633 IN MA Z E ERNIES COUNTRY FL ISLAND THE SKY Ri TS A N D Y M I L LE R F L A Copper Point YO N E BL U t ER AT N RW YO EA N CL CA S rth CAN MANCOS MESA DA N YO Navajo Begay Cr ee k VE 650 ek R A I N B O W e To Grand Canyon NP (south rim) and Flagstaff RU P L AK E C A ES N A V A J O Do not use this map for navigation. Marinas and visitor centers sell navigational maps. Only Lake Powell’s main channel is marked with navigational aids. Map shows lake at full pool elevation (3,700 feet). Butte EN C AN Y O N H L Indian Head Pass Cal Black Memorial Airport Glen Canyon National Recreation Area is a fee area. 89 GOTT EB CO 656 6310 r TH MILLE CRAG BEND YO C ON VE C PETES MESA 787 a il Tr Teapot Rock E AT W K OC All Glen Canyon NRA lands north of this line require backcountry permits which are issued by Canyonlands NP. Special regulations apply. 651 123 Castle 16 ON R CO 632 AN AN BA NY K N O W LE S RG JO O Cre YO C AN BE on CE M S L IC K R O C K ek RAINBOW BRIDGE NATIONAL MONUMENT C SC O YO N KE 110 96 88 Fiddler Butte 657 RED I CE 77 st We BI N CA Cr ee k Fe OG LF R BUL BAY y C re N N E A JO AV Navajo Generating Station No te YO NASJA MESA LA LL TA L SPRING Halls Crossing SAN UTAH ARIZONA YO TS CAN Y O N ON TH NY R IN CA BY ny PO hy Cre e k AN IFF rr C JA Ca ac en T k OIN TT 64 E CA N O UR M I L 117 Stanton Creek P M E SA 71 R O C K C A NYO N K TO N YS 530 ANNIES CANYON R IB B O N C C courtesy dock CL H an s C EP k RO CA TICABOO MESA GOOD HOPE MESA FOR 92 C EN MILE 763 633 730 Maze Bagpipe Butte 731 N 630 White Canyon THE HORN Defiance House CR 104 THE RINCON C YO NYON MESA C ED LD OA AN L CA CUMMINGS CA N 49 ELL EP 53 ST BA L ERI T E Navajo Point LC RA ED CATH E MOUNTAIN SH C POW 43 TH WE ON TO GE G R OT DUN C WE S LO r CO F paved airstrip Visitor Center Clinic Bullfrog POLLYWOG BENCH Point LLEWEL LYN GULC T WO 276 Road floods at lake level 3695 feet. 531 SA K A N N JU E AN I ASA Z AN AY LA Pinnacle Rock N Hole-inFiftymile the-Rock E KB PT N YO H R EE Y BA FA C Antelope Point L CAD CASC KC NE CE AN KA 28 Gregory Butte TE S DL e CR HA EE LLS K BA Y Dump/ pump station H r le C La mi ty Gorce Arch H C 330 Dangling Rope Marina 40 HY IN og re 133 NY O N in IN THE 756 Hite 139 Mount Ellsworth 8235ft 2510m Sp L os t h Was M ES A G ULC AN Fl N A RR O W C CA N YON L Mount Holmes Ticaboo H ALL r ee H a ll s C IL k W LO Spencer Point CH LA KE T R AI DLE Dirty Devil (BLM) N D Broken Bow Arch EC ER OR N PL EX NYO CA Three Roof rtymile Cree NC INT l lf r ID L CH FE GE SOUTH HATCH CANYON NCHE AC TA Bu M GU C E RED BE TR N NY N E ILE Fo y MAIDENWATER SANDS I DGE BI G R U CA PSO OM TH ESA M TYM RIDG ek Dr p Antel o 89 C S PO AY Y AN Stevens Arch Cliff Arch Coyote Natural Bridge W LeChee Navajo Bridge Interpretive Center AY h I e Cr ST C Tower Butte ANTELOPE CANYON NAVAJO TRIBAL PARK 20 CL RID BIG 633 Bagpipe Butte Buckacre Point FID Farley Canyon CL as ne k R OC LA PAD R E Y BA 10 PAGE 98 BIG ca THREE FORKS Hog Springs Rest Area w M a i denCra t e r Mount Hillers 10723ft 3268m Starr N ek G L E N CA N YO N N AT IO N A L RE CRE AT IO N A RE A Dance Hall Rock TA 18 N ALT Bitter Springs BENCH IN To Grand Canyon NP (north rim) LE Cre k TA GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK RB N D ee UN e l ey Cr O EEK ON v Ri THE SAND HILLS Page Airport Park Headquarters Y NG HALL DIVIDE ON ce CR NY (Bureau of Land Management) GRAN an M CA PARIA CANYON – VERMILION CLIFFS WILDERNESS 89 LE N ECHO PEAKS Marble Canyon ALT G A Horseshoe Bend FS ON A NY E C Ch AR W IA IF T A NY O DY C LAK st M k ee Cr CK C ERO S AS GR N IRE W NYO CA R PA v THOUSAND POCKETS Lees Ferry CL AS MO N C R OT O N C La Y ar W LON Ri (B u r e a u o f La n d M an ag em en t) PA R I A P L AT E A U O C DY Bement Arch 262 23 Crossing of the Fathers 13 Glen 1 Canyon Dam Carl Hayden Visitor Center C PADRE BAY Gunsight Padre Butte Butte ROMANA MESA ANTELOPE ISLAND ON LO FOL O ON OK BE k er U 279 264 Castle Rock ON LC H FOR ON M NY CA SM TI B LE ap Dump/ pump station Wahweap V E R MI LI O N C L I F F S NAT I O NAL M O N U M E N T rr i U Y NY 230 WA e H WE Lon Rd AP BAY Rock WATER POCKETS SIT DOWN BENCH m 231 ND A DR ON PP we r ia U N G Cass Creek Peak INDIAN SPRINGS BENCHES CA N Y TT AN Jacob GULCH Hamblin Arch COYOTE Hu H 265 GR A IL NY ON NI h Wa Pa T M TE tain A S C CH N NY Lone Rock KANE COCONINO Ro ad Y Ro a d S SE N BE YO CA BENCH 230 MO LE er A Moun WE GS C AN T ee Big Water DD K E ON ON IG K R O TE NC B e Mile Wash DRY F OR JAC CO Y Cr EAST CLARK 89 To Zion NP BE R PI O S C OR PL NY NY KE H ad CA CA FOUR MILE BENCH S Twenty fiv F FT TE TA NK IF F AN IP CL IF FI L DR CKE Ca n y o n LE CA ERPO M o o dy RC CL y ES O Mu ES CI te Ro ok TL E Sm LIT lan Flash Flood Country Washes and narrow canyons are subject to sudden, unexpected flash flooding. It may be sunny weather where you are, but a distant storm can dump rain upstream sending a wall of water rushing down a normally dry wash or canyon. NEVER ENTER WASHES OR NARROW CANYONS WHEN IT IS RAINING OR THREATENING TO RAIN. ca N k S BA C EN Riv oc IT CH -R O BU PURPLE HILLS he W TH Springs Ant Knoll Halls Creek 332 -t H T RO k n A IG ee -i IP GARFIELD KANE A Cr lls le A er Ho K sh Wa Ha rr is (Bureau of Land Management) Devils Garden lv Fa Es NAT IONAL MONUMENT R W AT M ad Si GRAND STAIRCASE - ESCALANTE ST d X Ro r PE To Tropic and Bryce Canyon NP A op R iv e Bulldog Peak NO MAN MESA BO Lo Es cal a n t e Tr TAYLOR RIDGES Ro a KS 12 UP 276 g PE A SE i ne Wolverine Petrified Wood Natural Area Calf Creek OR BLM, NPS, USFS L EY A llfro Wol DH AR 95 Mount Pennell 11371ft 3466m N WAGO STU v er L VA 12 Escalante ON - Bu Deer Creek r ee k d C NY A UL Ragged Mountain The Horn M om (Forest Service) Wide Hollow Reservoir CA Ro a d il Tra Anasazi State Park Boulder S an k N Y NR HE N ot ad NT RA TA ES M P OI N T Turkey Knob D Ro Escalante State Park AI Cedar Mesa ON NY CA PY The Pinnacle NORTH HATCH CANYO FOL BOX-DEATH HOLLOW WILDERNESS e M Homestead ll s on OX E B S ee ay ckb TH N TA I N h Cr w P S BA 765 IL NORTH TRA CANYON Grand View Point R ON NY IN OU TE M rc By n ic HA BERT MESA P O I S O N SP RI N G CA NY ON C ED Ba LAN He Posy Lake Bi T TA ESCA Blue Spruce Cyclone Lake S ce 12 ay SAMS MESA (BLM) Steep Creek DIXIE NATIONAL FOREST M G Panorama Point 744 TWIN CORRAL FLATS C BOX ANYO N A Ekker Butte 774 CANYON X L BO McMillan Springs Oak Creek 775 CA N RI UA Mount Ellen 11522ft 3512m Cleopatras Chair Hans Flat er U AQ US Lower Bowns Dirty Devil Bull Mountain 7187ft 2800m (BLM) CKE O Pleasant Creek RRA J U SA W ANN AY NE 763 Natural Arch CO IN CA S S SAM WAYNE GARFIELD Lonesome Beaver AN ON NY Riv ERPO a vil N M Pl s ea De AI NT k BURR DESERT ay hw OU ee W AT M R Cr Larb Hollow U EA AT PL Hig S ER DE Big Lake n ia l IN UL Singletree Lookout Peak 11124ft 3391m M NO n te n M BO WAYNE GARFIELD H OR Y LE VA L Y rty EF Notom (site) E 95 B ic e RE Fruita BB Buttes of the Cross 777 n L Visitor Center U.S. Forest Service RO ON Di TO R RS C A NY ST OO ER AT LLW PI DR m r S F re Caineville R i ve ont PA RK SODA SPRINGS BASIN Green River STI Ri A Torrey Teasdale CA N YO N LA N D S N ATI O N A L re e C ve r B IG H OLL O W Bureau of Land Management 24 CAPITOL REEF N AT I O N A L PA R K Bicknell LL t HI on UE em BL Fr PA ES BLUE VALLEY BENCH PIUTE WAYNE T W Hanksville R A NORTH PINTO HILLS E SE AT D N AT I O N A L F O R E S T p r in g s C r S eve nm i l Lyman U EA CANYONLANDS NATIONAL PARK HORSESHOE CANYON UNIT Hanksville Airport TH Wa rm S Loa U.S. Forest Service PL U FISHLAKE G SO RS 24 24 A N YO N 72 Fremont CA NY 0 ON 564 221 Tsegi 0 5 10 Kilometers 5 10 Miles To Tuba City N CA P D EE A Wa sh DE SH te Piu YO N CA AB B IT UTAH ARIZONA N Navajo Mountain 10388ft 3166m ON JA C eek N N AVA J O I N D I A N R E S E R V AT I O N 49 rm O NY YO N CAN CHA CANYO N R O C K CY N RAINBOW BRIDGE NATIONAL MONUMENT North Cr nA N AVA J O I N D I A N R E S E R V AT I O N KR CANYON Rainbow Bridge FORBIDDING NY Y E C n N A L C yo B A LD C ree k ck Ro ry COR NE RS TO NE Middle Ro c L IT SMOKY HO LL O W Roc k Cr D S C FA N ANYO HC t C es W NT Co lo r IL HER ET W N YO RI an EP CY YN courtesy dock NASJA MESA YN I C ASAZ AN E HE C K N RAL CY G ON OA HED CAT T NY ON 49 AI N M O U NT IN y CA 53 Dangling Rope Marina D UN Ba 98 NAVAJO POINT ce 98 h an 89 N PAGE R PO YO AN o ON CA N BY LA C ad YN 40 WE ST 3700ft 1128m 18 13 1 l Hayden or Center ver i 28 23 ANTELOPE N 10 AV ISLAND AJ Antelope Point O Marina (proposed) anyon Dam k Bay ree tC NE Marina GUNSIGHT BUTTE THE SAND HILLS y Lone Bay Wahweap Rock Padre Bay Lake Powell Ba ap KA k Cre e arm W ROMANA MESA Las E CYN DR PA k ee Cr Rainbow Bridge to Wahweap by water 50mi 80km kC CH ar G L E N CA NY O N AT I ON A L R E CR E AT I O N A RE A we R oc W m C ua San J ANY N YN DE C TA I EN D B N Rainbow Bridge to Bullfrog and Halls Crossing by water 50mi 80km IGHT C U Cr SPENCER POINT CA S C A O C M DOWN re a n SIT ek c e BENCH k L TWI Ch GRAN KY st O La SM TLE CAN VA L LEY YON Glen Canyon NRA Park Map Febuary 2009 Lake mileage from Glen Canyon Dam 0 0 5 Kilometers 5 Miles Other Important Resources and Values Glen Canyon National Recreation Area contains other resources and values that are not fundamental to the purpose of the park and may be unrelated to its significance, but are important to consider in planning processes. These resources and values have been selected because they are important in the operation and management of the park and warrant special consideration in park planning. The following other important resources and values have been identified for Glen Canyon National Recreation Area: • Wilderness: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area includes 588,855 acres of proposed wilderness and 48,955 acres of potential wilderness. Together this represents 51% of the total land area of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, containing a variety of culturally and ecologically unique landscapes where visitors can experience the character and solitude of wilderness within a recreation area. Interpretive Themes Interpretive themes are often described as the key stories or concepts that visitors should understand after visiting a park—they define the most important ideas or concepts communicated to visitors about a park unit. Themes are derived from—and should reflect—park purpose, significance, resources, and values. The set of interpretive themes is complete when it provides the structure necessary for park staff to develop opportunities for visitors to explore and relate to all of the park significances and fundamental resources and values. • The land and water features of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area provide a remarkable variety of opportunities to satisfy our hunger for adventure, discovery, and recreation. • Rainbow Bridge is one of the largest known natural bridges in the world, a symbol of strength, balance, and change that spans geologic time. • For many indigenous peoples in the Four Corners region, Rainbow Bridge is a spiritually occupied landscape that is inseparable from their cultural identities and traditional beliefs. • Even in a landscape of dramatic and distinctive features, the immense presence of Rainbow Bridge often inspires the strong desire to both see and protect it. • Though remote and in some ways difficult to access, the uniqueness of Rainbow Bridge has inspired many people over time to make the journey and experience its grandeur. • The dramatic landscape of Glen Canyon lays bare the geological portrait of Earth, which reveals the ancient history of rock, water, and life on the Colorado Plateau with nearly limitless opportunities for research and personal revelation. • From the first native peoples to contemporary societies, thousands of years of human history along the Colorado River illuminates the intricate web of relationships between peoples, their interaction with the landscape, and the results that shape cultural exchange, create conflict, achieve progress, command choice, and deliver consequences. • Environments within Glen Canyon remind us that much of life is hidden to casual observation—and entice us to slow our pace and more intimately observe the subtle intricacies and adaptations of both plant and animal communities. Description Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (Glen Canyon) and Rainbow Bridge National Monument are located in a geographic area commonly referred to as the Colorado Plateau. This desert region is characterized by expansive areas of exposed and uplifted rocks that have been carved by the Colorado River and several tributaries. Lake Powell, formed by the impounded waters of the Colorado River above the Glen Canyon Dam, is the best known and most visited feature at Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The Bureau of Reclamation manages the Glen Canyon Dam. The surrounding desert landscape and river corridors also provide a wide range of recreational opportunities and provide habitat for a diverse assemblage of terrestrial and aquatic species. Glen Canyon encompasses more than 1.25 million acres in northern Arizona and southeastern Utah. The recreation area includes portions of Garfield, Kane, San Juan, and Wayne counties in Utah and Coconino County in Arizona. The park’s southern boundary runs contiguous to lands of the Navajo Nation for almost 500 miles. Other national park system units, including Grand Canyon National Park, Capitol Reef National Park, Canyonlands National Park, and Rainbow Bridge National Monument also share a boundary with the park. Glen Canyon adjoins approximately 9.3 million acres of other federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management, including the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Vermilion Cliffs National Monument, and the Paria Canyon-Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness. The park staff consults regularly with the Hopi Tribe, Kaibab Paiute Tribe, Navajo Nation, Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah, Pueblo of Zuni, San Juan Southern Paiute, and Ute Mountain Ute in areas of mutual interest. Rainbow Bridge National Monument was established in 1910 to protect a large and exceptionally scenic natural bridge and its surrounding area. At 160 acres, the monument is bounded by Glen Canyon and the Navajo Nation lands. Rainbow Bridge is sacred to several American Indian tribes, including the Hopi Tribe, Kaibab Paiute Tribe, Navajo Nation, San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe, Pueblo of Zuni, and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe (White Mesa Band). The stone arc of Rainbow Bridge is composed of Navajo sandstone on a base of Kayenta sandstone. Rainbow Bridge spans 275 feet, reaching a height of 290 feet above Bridge Creek and ranging from 33 to 42 feet thick. Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Rainbow Bridge National Monument are managed as one unit; therefore, they are both included in this foundation document.