Yellowstone Handbook 2019

Preserving Cultural Resources

brochure Yellowstone Handbook 2019 - Preserving Cultural Resources

Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

P RE S E RVAT I O N Yellowstone’s cultural resources tell the stories of people, shown here around 1910 near the Old Faithful Inn, and their connections to the park. The protection of these resources affects how the park is managed today. Preserving Cultural Resources Yellowstone National Park’s mission includes preserving and interpreting evidence of past human activity through archeology and historic preservation; features that are integral to how a group of people identifies itself (ethnographic resources); and places associated with a significant event, activity, person or group of people that provide a sense of place and identity (historic buildings, roads, and cultural landscapes). All of these materials and places tell the story of people in Yellowstone. Collectively, they are referred to as cultural resources. Archeology Archeological resources are the primary—and often the only—source of information about humans in Yellowstone for nearly the entire time that people have been in the area. Archeological evidence indicates that people began traveling through and using the area that was to become Yellowstone National Park more than 11,000 years ago. Because the intensity of use varies through time as environmental conditions shift, archeological resources also provide a means for interdisciplinary investigations of past climate and biotic change. Many thermal areas contain evidence that early people camped there. At Obsidian Cliff, a National Historic Landmark, volcanic glass was quarried for the manufacture of tools and ceremonial artifacts that entered a trading network extending from western Canada to the Midwest. These remnants of past cultures must be preserved, as they are invaluable in our understanding of early people in the Quick Facts Archeological • More than 1,850 known prehistoric and historic Native American archeological sites and historic European American archeological sites Ethnographic • More than 300 ethnographic resources (animals, plants, sites, etc.) Historic • 25 sites, landmarks, and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places; many more eligible for listing • Museum collection of more than 1 million museum items, including 30 historic vehicles • Archives containing millions of historic documents • More than 900 historic buildings • • 1 National Historic Trail Research library holds more than 20,000 books and periodicals available to the public; plus manuscripts and rare books available to historians and other researchers Collections Housed in the Yellowstone Heritage and Research Center Preserving Cultural Resources 29 P RE S E RVAT I ON area. Historic archeological sites in Yellowstone include the remains of early tourist hotels and army soldier stations. Findings in Yellowstone Although more than 1,850 archeological sites have been documented since the archeology program began in 1995, less than 3% of the park has been inventoried. Most documented sites are in developed areas because archeological evidence has been identified there inadvertently, or as part of National Historic Preservation Act compliance related to construction, hazard fuel reduction, or other projects. Condition assessments performed on most of the documented sites found 1,013 were in good condition, 383 were fair, and 190 sites were in poor condition. Twenty-five of the sites no longer existed because of natural factors or disturbance as a result of construction or other authorized activity, and 238 lack condition data. Emergency excavations have been conducted at some sites where archeological remains are especially vulnerable to disturbance or loss through erosion or illegal collecting. Multiple significant sites along the Yellowstone River have been nominated to the National Register of Historic Places. These contain projectile points or arrowheads, scrapers and other tools, and concentrations of burned and butchered bone, including the first evidence of fishing found in the park. Radiocarbon dating is used to establish the age of organic artifacts such as charcoal or bone. However, organic materials (wood, bone, basketry, textiles) rarely persist in the Yellowstone environment because of the acidic, thermally influenced soils. Stone artifacts provide most of the chronological information on Yellowstone’s prehistory. Most of the stone tools that can be associated with a particular time period are projectile points. At Malin Creek, campsites from five distinct periods of indigenous use spanning more than 9,000 years are stacked upon each other starting at five feet below the surface. These occupations have revealed how tool manufacture and foodways changed over time. The earliest evidence of humans in Yellowstone is an 11,000-year-old Clovis-type spear point found near the park’s north entrance in Gardiner, Montana, and made of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff. (Obsidian from different lava flows can be chemically fingerprinted using X-ray fluorescence analysis.) Later in time, point types increase in number and type, which may indicate that the number of people in the area was becoming larger as well as more diverse. Most documented sites in the park date to the Archaic period (8,000 to 1,800 years ago), suggesting that it was the most intense period of use by prehistoric people. Recent archeological surveys have identified a large number of sites dating to later periods in prehistory (approximately 1400–1800 CE). Distinguishing use of these sites by different ethnic groups or tribes, however, has not yet been possible. Cultural Resource Laws The Antiquities Act (1906) Provides for the protection of historic, prehistoric, and scientific features and artifacts from federal lands. The Historic Sites Act (1935) Sets a national policy to “preserve for future public use historic sites, buildings, and objects.” The National Historic Preservation Act (1966) Requires that federal agencies take into account effects of their undertakings on historic properties. Authorizes the creation of the National Register of Historic Places and gives extra protection to National Historic Landmarks and properties in the National Register. National parks established for their historic value are automatically registered; others, such as Yellowstone, must nominate landmarks and properties to the register. The Archeological and Historic Preservation Act (1974) Provides for the preservation of significant scientific, historic, and archeological material and data that might be lost or destroyed by federally sponsored projects. For example, 30 Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook, 2019 federal highway projects in Yellowstone include archeological surveys. American Indian Religious Freedom Act (1978) Protects and preserves American Indian access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonial and traditional rites. The Archeological Resources Protection Act (1979) Provides for the preservation, protection, and custody of excavated materials, records, and data. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (1990) Assigns ownership or control of Native American human remains, funerary objects, and sacred objects of cultural patrimony to culturally affiliated Native American groups. Executive Order 13007 Guarantees access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites by Indian religious practitioners to ensure that these sites are not adversely affected. P RE S E RVAT I O N The earliest intact cultural deposits in the park have been found at a site on the shore of Yellowstone Lake. The Northern Pacific Railroad established Cinnabar (shown here in 1901) in 1883 as the last stop on its branch line to Yellowstone National Park, and caused its abandonment after the railroad was extended to the park boundary in 1902–1903. Yellowstone Lake Some of the earliest intact archeological deposits in the park have been found at a site on the shore of Yellowstone Lake. The site was excavated because it was at risk of erosion, and that excavation revealed evidence of a 9,350-year-old camp likely occupied by several families. People used this area while hunting bear, deer, bighorn, and rabbits, and perhaps making tools and clothes. Artifacts dating to 3,000 years ago have also been discovered on islands in the lake, leading some archeologists to speculate that indigenous peoples used watercraft to travel there, or crossed over on the frozen lake. Town Site of Cinnabar, Montana In 1932, Yellowstone National Park increased in size by 7,609 acres to the north, on the west side of the Yellowstone River. Most of what are called the “boundary lands” was purchased from willing ownners; the rest was taken by eminent domain. But the town of Cinnabar had been abandoned long before. Construction of the branch line from Livingston in 1883 made Cinnabar a hub for passengers and freight until the last three miles to the park entrance were built 20 years later. Nothing remains of the town today except archeological evidence through which we can learn about the lives of its residents in the late 1800s. Assessing Wildland Fire Impacts Archeological resources can inform us about paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, and the human response to climate change over the past 11,000 years. Long-term climate data suggest current temperature rise and precipitation contribute to longer annual droughts and shorter wet seasons. Given changing environmental conditions, in 2016 the park embarked on a project to assess wildfire impacts on archaeological resources from the 2016 Maple Fire and Tatanka Fire Complex. Condition assessments have been completed for over 70 sites, and analysis of data is ongoing. Preliminary results indicate sites subjected to intense heat and loss of vegetation are more susceptible to post-fire erosion, flooding, and other landscape processes which expose or threaten archeological resources. Lewis and Snake River Headwaters Survey In 2014, archeology staff completed an intensive inventory of 60 square kilometers of the Lewis and Snake river valleys, which served as major transportation corridors for many nomadic people. Newly identified sites include prehistoric quarries, campsites, and lithic scatters dating to between 10,000 and 1,500 years ago, as well as historic period quarries, campsites, and refuse dumps. The prehistoric sites are changing our understanding of how early humans procured stones and made them into tools. Most sites show heavy reliance on Obsidian Cliff materials and chert, a cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock. However, along the Lewis and Snake rivers a more diverse range of materials was used. Obsidian was primarily locally sourced from nearby Warm Spring, Teton Pass, and Park Point quarries, while orthoquartzite, a clastic sedimentary rock, was the most common material used for manufacturing tools. More Information Doss, P.K. and A. Bleichroth. 2012. Following the Path of Stone. Yellowstone Science. 20(2). Johnson, A. 2010. An overview of precontact archeology in Yellowstone. Yellowstone Science. 18(1). Preserving Cultural Resources 31 P RE S E RVAT I ON Livers, M. 2012. Stone circles in Yellowstone. Yellowstone Science. 20(2). MacDonald, D.H. 2018. Before Yellowstone: Native American Archaeology in the National Park. University of Washington Press:Seattle. Moore, B. 2008. Buffalo Bill Cody’s Cinnabar cowboys. Montana Pioneer. March 2008. Livingston, MT. Pfau, J.M., and D. H. MacDonald. 2016. Archaeological Survey for the Snake Headwaters Project: 2013–2014 Survey and Evaluation Report. University of Montana, Missoula. Sanders., P. 2002. Prehistoric land-use patterns within the Yellowstone Lake basin and Hayden Valley region, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. In Yellowstone Lake: Hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience?: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Yellowstone Center for Resources and The George Wright Society, Yellowstone National Park, WY, 213–231. Available at www.georgewright.org/01yp_sanders.pdf Shortt, M.W. 2001. Museum of the Rockies archeological research in the canyons of the Yellowstone. Yellowstone Science. 9(2). Shortt, M.W. 2003. Record of early people on Yellowstone Lake: Cody Complex occupation at Osprey Beach. Yellowstone Science. 11(4). Szamuhel, R. 2007. A new prehistoric source for stone tools. Yellowstone Science. 15(1). Whittlesey, L. 2015. Gateway to Yellowstone: The raucous town of Cinnabar on the Montana frontier. TwoDot Books. Staff Reviewers Tobin Roop, Chief of Cultural Resources Elizabeth Horton, Archeologist Lee Whittlesey, Historian Native American Affairs Yellowstone’s location at the convergence of the Great Plains, Great Basin, and Plateau Indian cultures means that many Native American tribes have a traditional connection to the land and its resources. For thousands of years before the park was established, this area was a place where Indians hunted, fished, gathered plants, quarried obsidian, and used the thermal waters for religious and medicinal purposes. Yellowstone’s “ethnographic” resources are the natural and cultural features that are significant to tribes. They include sites, plant and animal species, objects associated with routine or ceremonial activities, and migration routes. Federal law requires the National Park Service to consult with Yellowstone’s associated tribes on a government-to-government basis on decisions which affect resources that are significant to tribes. 32 Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook, 2019 Nez Perce tribal members in traditional regalia ride along the Firehole River during a memorial ceremony in 2004. Consultation and Associated Tribes The first tribes to request association came forward in 1996. Now 26 tribes are formally associated with Yellowstone. Since 2002, park managers have met periodically with tribal representatives to exchange information about park projects and ethnographic resources. The tribes have requested to participate in resource management and decision-making, to conduct ceremonies and other events in the park, and to collect plants and minerals for traditional uses. Bison Tribes are most concerned about the management of bison that leave the park; many tribes have a physical and spiritual connection to bison in Yellowstone. Since 2007, some associated tribes have had the opportunity to conduct bison hunts outside the park boundaries. Since November 2009, the Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes, the InterTribal Buffalo Council, and the Nez Perce Tribe have joined the Interagency Bison Management Plan and participate in the development of adaptive management strategies for bison and Brucellosis in the areas immediately outside Yellowstone National Park. Representation In 2018, the park will consult with associated tribes on increasing opportunities for non-consumptive ceremonial use of the park. Consultants will also review park educational media and programming for representation of native peoples and perspectives. Previous education consultation focussed on the Yellowstone segment of the Nez Perce National Historic Trail and the associated sites and events of the 1877 Nez Perce War. Park Names Native Student Opportunities Currently, Yellowstone hosts an internship program which places Native American students from the University of Montana into resource management and resource education jobs with the National Park Service. In addition, Yellowstone also hosts Native American youth conservation volunteers through the Montana Conservation Corps. P RE S E RVAT I O N In 2016, the Executive Committee of the Blackfoot Nation contacted Yellowstone National Park to request that the names of two locations inside the park be changed. National place names are managed by the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) and the representatives were referred to the USGS Board of Geographic Names at that time. The committee requested the park change Mount Doane to “First People’s Mountain” and that Hayden Valley be changed to “Buffalo People’s Valley.” They requested the changes to reflect an acknowledgement of Lieutenant Gustavus C. Doane’s involvement in the 1870 Marias massacre of the Piikani (Peigan) tribe, and Ferdinand V. Hayden’s insistence on the settlement or “extermination” of native people in the Yellowstone area. The Yellowstone Youth Conservation Corps provides an opportunity for young people aged 14-17 to come work, live ,and learn in Yellowstone National Park. More Information Janetski, J.C. 2002. Indians of Yellowstone Park. Revised edition. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. Keller, R., and M. Turek. 1998. American Indians and national parks. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Nabokov, P., and L. Loendorf. 2004. Restoring a Presence: American Indians in Yellowstone National Park. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Spence, M.D. 1999. Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the national parks. New York: Oxford University Press. Staff Reviewer Tobin Roop, Chief of Cultural Resources Preserving Cultural Resources 33 P RE S E RVAT I ON Historic Structures, Districts, and Cultural Landscapes In addition to archeological sites and artifacts associated with prehistoric human use of the region, there are many historic districts, historic structures, and cultural landscapes that are essential to the inherent value of Yellowstone National Park. Many of the park’s developed areas are within historic districts that contain hundreds of cultural resources such as buildings, bridges, trails and roads (linear resources), and cultural landscape features (overlooks, vegetation) that have historic, architectural, and/or engineering significance. The majority of Yellowstone’s hotels, lodges, general stores, residences, maintenance shops, and offices are listed on or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The need to protect and understand the importance of these resources affects how the park is managed today. So far, 895 buildings, trails, roads, bridges, utility structures, and grave markers have been documented as culturally significant. Many more of Yellowstone’s properties have still not been thoroughly evaluated, including 173 structures on the List of Classified Structures, approximately 127 buildings constructed during the NPS Mission 66 period (1945–1972), and 124 trails. Only seven (25%) of the park’s cultural landscapes have been inventoried and evaluated for their historical significance. Fort Yellowstone National Historic Landmark District is located within Mammoth Hot Springs Historic District and is the headquarters for The Geyser Baths Bathhouse, opened in 1914, was a swimming pool at Old Faithful and was razed in 1951. Historic structures and the historical character of the park are carefully considered in park planning. Yellowstone National Park. Historic buildings, structures (Roosevelt Arch, Powerhouse), and sites (parade grounds, cemetery) contribute to the significance of this district. Yellowstone is also home to five influential examples of park “rustic” architecture—the Old Faithful Inn, the Northeast Entrance Station, and the Norris, Madison, and Fishing Bridge museums. Preserving a historic structure requires minimizing the rate at which historic fabric is lost and ensuring additions and alterations are compatible with historic character. Many structures in the park require in-kind replacement of historic materials and strengthening to withstand seismic events to avert structural failure. Historic Designations 34 The National Register of Historic Places is the nation’s official list of historic places worthy of preservation. Authorized by the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the National Register coordinates and supports efforts to identify, evaluate, and protect historic and archeological resources that are significant in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture. Properties from Yellowstone include • Lamar Buffalo Ranch Historic District • Mammoth Hot Springs Historic District • North Entrance Road Historic District value or quality in illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the United States. Today, fewer than 2,500 historic places bear this national designation. In Yellowstone, they include • Old Faithful Area Historic District • • Roosevelt Lodge Historic District Fishing Bridge, Madison, and Norris Trailside Museums • Obsidian Cliff Kiosk • • Queen’s Laundry Bathhouse Fort Yellowstone; includes Norris and Bechler River soldier stations, and Roosevelt Arch. • Mammoth Post Office • Northeast Entrance Station • Grand Loop Road Historic District • Obsidian Cliff Archeological Site • Fishing Bridge Historic District • Old Faithful Inn • Lake Fish Hatchery Historic District National Historic Landmarks are nationally significant historic places designated by the Secretary of the Interior because they possess exceptional • Lake Hotel Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook, 2019 Yellowstone Lake Fish Hatchery, 1930 People began stocking western high-elevation lakes with fish in the 1800s. Hatchery operations at Yellowstone Lake became part of this undertaking when fish hatched from Yellowstone’s trout were used to stock waters in the park and elsewhere; sportfishing was promoted to encourage park visitation, and satisfying a recreational interest took precedence over protection of the park’s natural ecology. Built in 1930 by the National Park Service, the hatchery’s log frame is also an example of the period of rustic architectural design in national parks. The hatchery was thought to be among the most modern in the West. The main room was outfitted with tanks and raceways for eggs, fingerlings, and brood fish taken from 11 streams that flowed into the lake. Small fry were fed in three rectangular rearing ponds in a nearby creek until they were ready for planting. Superintendent Horace Albright explained that the hatchery had also been designed with visitor education in mind, by making it possible “to take large crowds through the building under the guidance of a ranger naturalist without in any way impairing the operations of the Bureau of Fisheries.” Yellowstone was the largest supplier of wild cutthroat trout eggs in the United States, and park waters received native and nonnative fish. A rift developed, however, between the federal fish agencies and the National Park Service, which began moving away from policies that allowed manipulation of Yellowstone’s natural conditions. In 1936, Yellowstone managers prohibited the distribution of nonnative fish in waters that did not yet have them and opposed further hatchery constructions in the park’s lakes and streams. After research showed that it impaired fish reproduction, egg collection was P RE S E RVAT I O N Lake Hotel, 1891 The Lake Hotel is the oldest operating hotel in the park. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2015. When it opened in 1891, the building resembled other hotels financed by the Northern Pacific Railroad. In 1903, the architect of the Old Faithful Inn, Robert Reamer, designed the Ionic columns, extended the roof in three places, and added the 15 false balconies, which caused it to be known for years as the “Lake Colonial Hotel.” By 1929, additional changes—dining room, porte-cochere (portico), sunroom, plus interior refurbishing—put the finishing touches on the “grande damme” we see today. Lake Hotel resembled other hotels financed by the Northern Pacific Railroad when it opened in 1891. curtailed in 1953. Four years later, the fish hatchery ceased operations, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service transferred ownership of the building to the National Park Service. Official stocking of park waters ended by 1959. Current Status Vegetation and stream flow have largely reclaimed the rearing ponds on Hatchery Creek, but their outlines can still be detected. Although its condition has deteriorated, the hatchery building has changed relatively little. Nearly all of the exterior and interior materials are original to the building or have been repaired in kind. Now used as a storage facility, it is the primary structure of the nine buildings in the Lake Fish Hatchery Historic District, which was listed on the National Register in 1985. Fishing has a long history as recreation in Yellowstone. The Lake Fish Hatchery produced trout to stock waters in and outside the park. Preserving Cultural Resources 35 P RE S E RVAT I ON Mammoth Hot Springs Historic District and Fort Yellowstone Historic Landmark District The Mammoth Hot Springs Historic District includes Fort Yellowstone, where 35 structures remain from the 1890s and early 1900s when the US Army administered the park. Park managers here developed significant conservation policies that led to the origin of the National Park Service. The Mammoth Hot Springs Historic District also has statewide significance as the administrative and concession headquarters of the largest national park in Wyoming. Fort Yellowstone is listed as a National Historic Landmark District, the highest designation. Mail Carrier’s Cabin, 1800s The origins of the building at the edge of Fort Yellowstone that became known as the mail carrier’s house are unclear, but it is significant as the only 1800s log structure still standing in Mammoth Hot Springs. Its style is more typical of construction of the area and time than the buildings put up by the US Army for Fort Yellowstone. It was probably built in the mid-1890s, and over the years it has provided quarters for mail carriers as well as employees of concessions and the National Park Service. History When mail delivery was not yet provided in rural areas, mail carriers delivered the mail from railroad distribution points to post offices, where people traveled, often from many miles away, to pick up their mail, their only link to the rest of the world. In the 1800s, a mail carrier was contracted to transport mail from the railroad station in Livingston, Montana, to Mammoth Hot Springs and then to Cooke City, Montana, before returning to Livingston, a trip of Albright Visitor Center, part of the Mammoth Hot Springs Historic District and Fort Yellowstone Historic Landmark District, housed the first “information office” (visitor center). several days’ duration. The cabin was either built by or later sold to an early park concession, the Yellowstone Park Association. A lean-to with a shed roof was built onto the back of the two-room structure in about 1903 to serve as a kitchen and dining area. In the 1930s, a mudroom and bathroom were added to the north side of the building, bringing the total square footage to 512. In the early 2000s, removal of the insulation added to the walls and ceilings in the 1930s exposed a layer of newspapers beneath, announcing the 1903 flight of the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk. In 1972, the building, then owned by a park concessioner, was “in a state of general deterioration.” Historic structure experts recommended that the vacant house be demolished because they doubted that it “could serve any useful function” that would justify the “great cost” of restoration. However, the house was listed on the National Register in 1982. Despite the building’s poor condition, it continued to house park staff for another two decades. It was structurally stabilized in 2009. The mail carrier’s house, built around 1895, photographed at an unknown date (left) and in 2009 (right). 36 Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook, 2019 Current Status The Yellowstone post office was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987 with 11 other Wyoming post offices built from 1908 to 1939. The buildings were said to “record the evolution of both the political/economic philosophies and the design philosophies of the federal government” during a period when building design was used “to provide a symbol of the monumental presence of the federal government in its post offices.” Roosevelt Arch, 1903 The five-mile road from the park’s boundary at Gardiner, Montana, to its headquarters at Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming, was built in 1884. The arch constructed over the road became known P RE S E RVAT I O N Mammoth Post Office, 1938 Yellowstone’s main post office was one of 1,007 post offices constructed from 1935 to 1938 during the Great Depression “with a view to relieving countrywide unemployment.” Using standardized plans developed from guidelines provided by the Treasury Department, these post offices were built in sizes and styles that reflect transitions in architectural design and the context of the communities in which the offices were located. The Yellowstone Post Office is a concrete building with a hipped roof in the French Renaissance Moderne style, compatible with the Art Moderne style ornament on the nearby Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, which was partially rebuilt in 1936. The post office lobby has walls of travertine from a quarry outside the park’s north entrance. It is still a working post office today, serving park residents and visitors. The two bears at the post office entrance were added in 1941 and commissioned by the Federal Works Agency to enhance federal buildings with artwork. Gladys Caldwell Fisher sculpted the cubs from Indiana limestone based on her observations of grizzly bears at one of the feeding grounds then permitted in the park. The three-ton bears were shipped by rail from Denver to Gardiner, Montana. as Roosevelt Arch because President Theodore Roosevelt, who happened to be vacationing in the park, spoke at the ceremony to lay the cornerstone in 1903. The plaque on the arch is inscribed with a phrase from the legislation that established Yellowstone National Park: “For the benefit and enjoyment of the people.” Roosevelt Arch continues to serve as a historical marker for a time when cultural values called for a monumental entrance to Yellowstone. The Roosevelt Arch is in the North Entrance Road Historic District and is part of the Fort Yellowstone Historic Landmark District. The structure was conceived by US Engineer Hiram Chittenden; architect N.J. Ness contributed to the design, and Robert Reamer may have also worked on it. The Roosevelt Arch, pictured here on a Haynes postcard. Preserving Cultural Resources 37 P RE S E RVAT I ON The Old Faithful Historic District, which includes the inn and many of the surrounding buildings, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Old Faithful Historic District The Old Faithful Historic District, which includes the inn and many of the surrounding buildings, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Like the Inn, the district is historically significant because of its rustic architecture and its role in the development of concessions to accommodate growing tourism in the early 1900s. The Old Faithful Lodge, located near the Inn, reached its present configuration in 1928 after numerous changes. The consolidation into one complex was designed by NPS Landscape architect Daniel Hull in collaboration with Gilbert Stanley Underwood, a famous architect of the time. Old Faithful Inn, 1904 Named for the nearby geyser, the Old Faithful Inn exemplifies the use of rustic architecture at a large scale to complement a natural landscape. The rhyolite that formed Yellowstone’s caldera during volcanic upheavals provided the stone for the building’s foundation, and local lodgepole pine the logs for its walls. Skilled The roof shingles of the Old Faithful Inn, shown here in 1912, were originally coated with a red mineral paint believed to hinder flammability. 38 Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook, 2019 craftsmen embellished the windows and stairways with gnarled wood selected for its inherent beauty. As designed by architect Robert Reamer, the inn combines rugged materials and organic

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