by Alex Gugel , all rights reserved
Zion Maps and Guides
2009 Centennial Newspaper
The official 2009 Centennial Newspaper of Zion National Park (NP) in Utah. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).
Zion National Park Official Centennial Newspaper National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior A Century of Sanctuary 1909–2009 Isaac Loren Covington, untitled, 1929, oil on canvas. Collection of Hal Canon and Teresa Jordan This special edition newspaper highlights the last 100 years of events, people, and places of Zion National Park, but the timeline of Zion began much earlier. Humans, who have inhabited southern Utah for over 10,000 years, continue to visit this mysterious canyon. Why? Originally it wasn’t to hike or take pictures, rock climb or rest. Food and water…it was as simple as that. Human survival meant gleaning from the land its scant harvests. Archaic peoples, Ancestral Puebloans, and Southern Paiutes, the latter inhabiting this area for the last several hundred years, had extensive and intuitive knowledge of the plants, animals, and seasons. Homes were temporary brush shelters used for sleeping or to escape the heat. As they observed their surroundings, they knew they could “make a living.” They would hunt, ﬁsh, gather, and grow modest crops. Whatever was necessary to ensure their survival was used, but the harvest did not begin until asking and thanking the generous bounty. This ancient way of life is gone now. Today, when traveling through on vacation, our temporary home isn’t a brush shelter but a tent or motel. We graze on granola rather than rice grass. Our water source comes from a tap, not the natural springs in the rocks. We don’t need to forage in order to live. But what may not have changed is a deeply felt, personal experience after we set foot here: the sound of the song of a river; a canyon wren scolding us; the subtle perfumery of sagebrush and juniper; the sight of cliﬀs that make us think big and feel small. Yet here we stand, mouths agape, eyes wide. What will your harvest be? Joy, relief, excitement, challenge? Unlike our earliest visitors, we come to collect not things but knowledge, not resources but memories, not trophies but satisfaction. Zion National Park has shed its winter whites, brushed oﬀ the dry remains of last season’s display, and opened its arms to you. The sun warms the ground. Buds and birds return once more. A quiet liveliness rustles and shuﬄes through the park. This year is special. We have the chance to reﬂect on the last century of what it has meant to come to this place. A Century of Sanctuary—1909 to 2009—includes the millions of people who have made their journey to Zion and, in many ways, made their mark. From the initial establishment of Mukuntuweap National Monument in 1909 to this year’s gala packed with events, dedications, and programs; we can know, always, that we have an unchanging landscape to visit. With all the changes in the world, we can take comfort in returning to this spot. We can believe that, even though our personal world may be unsettled, sitting and gazing deep into the soul of this canyon, we might ﬁnd contentment— we might ﬁnd peace. John Muir suggests: “Keep close to Nature’s heart... and break clear away, once in awhile, and climb a mountain or spend a week in the woods. Wash your spirit clean.” May your spirit be renewed and soar as high as the highest cliﬀs. May this visit to your park be a remarkable experience. To conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations. National Park Service Organic Act 1916 Zion National Park Altar of Sacrifice Superintendent Jock Whitworth Mailing Address Zion National Park Springdale, Utah 84767 Web Site www.nps.gov/zion Park Headquarters 435 772-3256 Fax 435 772-3426 E-mail ZION_park_information@nps.gov Printing made possible by the National Park Foundation. Printed on recycled paper with soy ink. Please recycle again. Special Thanks Robin Hampton, Jacqueline Drake, Holly Baker, Adrienne Fitzgerald, Mike Large, Jennifer Aguayo, Karen Mayne, Ron Terry, Tiffany Taylor, J.L. Crawford, Betsy Ehrlich, and all the staff of Zion National Park, present and past. ZNP 3-24-09 Part of the Towers and Temples of the Virgin, behind the Human History Museum, this distinctive cliﬀ was named for the red iron oxide streaking down its front. The streaking of minerals washed down the cliﬀ confers the appearance of blood on a sacriﬁcial altar. Angels Landing Named by Methodist Minister Frederick Vining Fisher during an excursion up Zion Canyon in 1916. Fisher was accompanied by two Rockville boys acting as guides, Claud Hirschi and Ethelbert Bingham. After Fisher praised the striking presence of the Great White Throne he turned toward what would soon become Angels Landing and stated “The Angels would never land on the throne, but would reverently pause at the foot [of Angels Landing].” believed he was the ﬁrst Anglo to explore this far up canyon noting, “the narrows… the most wonderful deﬁle [gorge] it has been my fortune to behold.” in 1901 by young pioneer David Flanigan. His hope was to fulﬁll Brigham Young’s prophecy that one day timber would come down from the cliﬀs of Zion Canyon “like a hawk ﬂies.” The cable works proved to be a success. The system was used to provide building timber for the pioneers around Zion Canyon. The cable works and a sawmill were in place for over 20 years. Wood for the Zion Lodge came down the cable works. believed that Paiute Indians drove mule deer onto the mesa here, trapping them for food. Located across from the Lodge and within Heaps Canyon are a series of three pools: the lower, middle, and upper Emerald Pools. These pools were named for the emerald green tint of the water, caused by the algae that grows in it. Orderville Checkerboard Mesa The Great White Throne The Organ Found near the east entrance. The name stems from the cliﬀs distinctive checkerboard pattern. The horizontal lines are caused by crossbedding, a remnant of ancient sand dunes. The vertical lines formed because of the contraction and expansion of the sandstone. This peak was originally named Checkerboard Mountain by the third superintendent, Preston P. Patraw. Named by Methodist Minister Frederick Vining Fisher while he was accompanied by Claud Hirschi and Ethelbert Bingham. Fisher was noted as saying: “I have looked for this mountain all my life but never expected to ﬁne it in this world. This is the Great White Throne.” Formally named “the Great Organ.” It is believed to have been named by Claud Hirschi and Ethelbert Bingham, residents of Rockville, on their 1916 trip with Methodist Minister Frederick Vining Fisher. Behunin Canyon Above Lower Emerald Pools; named for Isaac Behunin, the ﬁrst settler who had a farm near the present day Zion Lodge. A Tunnel Through Time Coalpits Wash In the southwestern corner of the park, it was named for the “ﬂowing” black lava rock that had the appearance of coal. Bridge Mountain Formally referred to as Crawford’s Peak because of its location near the Crawford family homestead. Later the cliﬀ was renamed for a long narrow arch or “ﬂying buttress” found near the top of the cliﬀ. Cougar Mountain Cable Mountain Deertrap Mountain Named for the cable works structure at its top. The cable works were implemented This cliﬀ is found near Cable Mountain and accessible oﬀ the East Rim Trail. It is Located oﬀ of the Kolob Terrace Road between North Creek and Coalpits Wash, this cliﬀ formation was named for the abundance of cougars found in the area. Thomas Moran visits and makes the first paintings of Zion Canyon. switchbacks leading from Refrigerator Canyon to Scout Lookout. It was named in honor of Walter Ruesch, ﬁrst custodian of the park around the time of construction in 1925. Ruesch not only conceived the idea for this section of trail, but was active in the engineering and building. Emerald Pools Kolob The name of the major star in Mormon cosmography—the star nearest to the throne of God. During the time of Mormon pioneering, an economic system was in place in Orderville known as the United Order. The town was named after this system; however, the system was eventually abandoned. The Watchman It is believed to be named for its location watching over the entrance to the canyon. It is unclear where the name may have originated; some believe it was Methodist Minister Frederick Vining Fisher. Early pioneers referred to this peak as Flanigan Peak because the Flanigan family homestead sat at the base of this cliﬀ. West Temple Refrigerator Canyon The highest feature in Zion Canyon. Called “Temp-o-i-tin-car-ur” meaning “Mountain without a trail” by the Paiute, “Steamboat Mountain” by the local Mormons, and “West Temple” by John Wesley Powell on his explorations in 1872. This cool canyon brings a breath of fresh, crisp air as one ascends Angels Landing in the heat of the summer. Refrigerator Canyon is just before the famed Walter’s Wiggles and was named for the surprisingly cool breeze. It receives very little sunlight. Mukuntuweap The Narrows Named for the narrowest section of canyon of the North Fork of the Virgin River. Grove K. Gilbert named this section on an 1872 expedition of southern Utah. It’s Scout Lookout 1873 Walter’s Wiggles Refers to a short section of the Angels Landing Trail with twenty-one short The east entrance bridge during construction. Leo A. Snow, of the U.S.Geological Survey, maps the area and is struck by its wild beauty. He states that Zion Canyon ought to be made a national park. Isaac Behunin homesteads in the canyon, settling at what is now the Zion Lodge. He refers to it as a place of sanctuary and calls it Zion. 1872 1879 Grand Canyon National Monument is set aside by President Theodore Rosevelt. President Taft uses the Antiquities Act of 1906 to proclaim Zion Canyon as Mukuntuweap National Monument. Courtesy J.L. Crawford William L. Crawford grows up in a home at the site of the Human History Museum and takes hundreds of photographs of the area. August 25, 1916 The National Park Service is created by act of Congress to manage the parks and monuments in such manner as to leave them unimpaired for future generations. Drilling in the tunnel was grimy work. Congress redesignates Mukuntuweap National Monument as Zion National Park and expands the boundary to include the high plateaus above the canyon. Walter Ruesch is the first custodian. Visitation is 1,814 people. 1916 July 31, 1909 1903 Frederick S. Dellenbaugh’s paintings of Zion Canyon are exibited at the World’s Fair. People don’t believe the scenery is real. Methodist Minister Frederick Vining Fisher and local boys Claude Hirschi and Ethelbert Bingham explore Zion Canyon and name many of the features. Most of the names stick. 1908 1904 Explorer John Wesely Powell visits what is now Zion Canyon and names it Mukuntuweap, thinking it a Paiute word meaning “straight canyon.” Yellowstone becomes the first national park. 2 A Century of Sanctuary 1896 Weather station established in Zion Canyon, possibly the longest continuosly operating station in Utah. Zion NP ZION 38105 1864 Zion NP Yellowstone NP YELL 23063 1858 By the mid-1920s, interest in Zion National Park as a vacation spot was growing. This monumental project was proposed to make Zion more accessible and to allow tourists to make their way around the Grand Circle of parks (Zion, Bryce, and Grand Canyon). The project created hundreds of jobs and Mormon pioneer Isaac Behunin is credited with naming Zion Canyon: “These are the Temples of God, built without the use of human hands. A man can worship God among these great cathedrals as well as in any man-made church—this is Zion.” Zion is a Hebrew word, later interpreted by Mormons to mean a place of safety and refuge. A viewpoint 1,000 feet above the canyon ﬂoor, on the way to Angels Landing. The origin is unknown, but possibly named for John and Barney Giﬀord who ﬁrst “scouted” the route for the West Rim Trail. Frederick S. Dellenbaugh writes articles about Zion Canyon for the widely read Scribner’s Magazine. With a Southern Paiute guide, Nephi Johnson becomes the first Anglo to enter Zion Canyon. The Zion Tunnel took eleven months and twelve days of blasting, cutting, carving, and hauling to make a passageway through the cliﬀ. First, six galleries, or windows, were blasted out of the side of the cliﬀ. A pilot tunnel was then drilled and the debris dumped out of the galleries. Finally, a ring of holes were drilled into the pilot tunnel at regular intervals, the holes ﬁlled with dynamite, and the full 22-foot bore of the tunel was blasted out. It was the longest tunnel of its kind when it was completed. It also held the dubious distinction of being the most expensive mile of road ever built — costing $503,000. July 4th, 1930 was dedication day with dignitaries and hundreds of wellwishers. Zion This is the name originally given to Zion Canyon by Major John Wesley Powell. The name was believed to be a Paiute name meaning “straight canyon.” Zion settler John Winder begins building what is now the East Rim Trail to get cattle to the high country. A rock fall at The Grotto creates Great Red Arch and buries the Gifford farm in rubble. It was a Sunday and the family was in church. 1880 men worked round-the-clock on three crews: the switchbacks, the tunnel, and the east highway. Beautiful and inhospitable — two adjectives that describe travel from the ﬂoor of Zion Canyon, up precipitous ledges and through slot canyons, to reach Zion’s east side. Early Native Americans established a treacherous foot trail to hunt and gather food. Springdale resident, John Winder, decided to improve this trail in 1896 to move livestock. Winder’s knowledge laid the groundwork for the state and federal governments and several contractors to build a 24-mile road from Canyon Junction, up Pine Creek, through 1.1 miles of sandstone, to end at Mt. Carmel. Zion NP ZION 10188 What’s in a Name? History. Zion NP ZION 11922 National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior The price of gas is 12½¢ a gallon. 1914 The first automobile enters Zion Canyon. The first free travel map is given away at gas stations. November 19, 1918 1917 William Wylie establishes a tent camp as the first tourist accomodations in the park. A road is improved into Zion Canyon as far as Weeping Rock. Annual visitation reaches 1,000. NPS uniform, based on that of the U.S. Cavalry, is introduced. Yosemite NP YOSE RL-9429 A Century of Sanctuary 3 The Golden Age of the Loop Tour delicious dining, a barbershop, and a bar. Undisputedly, time spent in the great outdoors was the draw to these National Parks, but as it turned out, time spent indoors was incredibly posh! Once travelers arrived at their respective destinations, they could challenge both courage and curiosity on the Grand Canyon’s Bright Angel Trail or travel a narrow spine out to Angels Landing in Zion. If hiking alongside vertical cliﬀ walls didn’t sound enjoyable, one could allow a horse to take them instead. Horseback riding tours within the parks were exceedingly popular, and would take visitors along some amazing trails between narrow canyon walls and to the top of high plateaus. After a hard day, visitors were tempted by the luxurious swimming pool set within the quiet sanctuary of the canyon. As evening would draw near, a day’s entertainment had only just begun. Women waitresses, outﬁtted in crisp white, would serve up a delicious Construction begins on the ZionMt Carmel Highway, including the 1.1 mile long tunnel and 3 miles of switchbacks. Courtesy Eleanor Warriner 1921 Under the direction of Walter Ruesch construction begins on the West Rim Trail, including the 21 switchbacks know as “Walter’s Wiggles.” A second bridge is built and is also washed away by a flood. The park’s first visitor center and museum opens at The Grotto adjacent to North Campground. It is being restored in 2009. 1930 1928 1935 1934 1933 Bryce Canyon National Park is created. The beautifully crafted Pine Creek Bridge is built. Its stones include every type of rock found in Zion. Zion NP ZION 13004 1930 1929 An annual park permit costs 50¢. Visitation to Zion is 8,400 people. 4 A Century of Sanctuary Zion NP ZION 2393 1926 Daily bus service takes tourists from the train depot in Cedar City along the “Grand Circle Tour” of Zion, Bryce Canyon, and North Rim of the Grand Canyon. 1924 2nd day 3rd day 4th day All-expenses: including motor bus transportation and three meals and one lodging at Zion Lodge, six meals and two lodgings at Grand Canyon Lodge, two meals and one lodging at Bryce Canyon Lodge and one meal at Cedar Breaks $58.75 Employees singing farewell to a departing tour bus. The entrance fee is $2 per car and doesn’t change again until 1987, when it increases to $5. The Kolob Canyons and Kolob Terrace sections of the park are added. The Zion-Mt Carmel Highway, 1.1 mile-long tunnel, and the Pine Creek Bridge are opened to the public, allowing travelers to tour the “Grand Circle” of national parks. The cost of an annual park permit goes up to $1. 1927 1925 Lv. Cedar City Ar. Zion Natl. Pk. Lv. Zion Natl. Pk. Ar. Grand Canyon At Grand Canyon Lv. Grand Canyon Ar. Bryce Canyon Lv. Bryce Canyon Ar. Cedar Breaks Lv. Cedar Breaks Ar. Cedar City 389,000 people visit. A third bridge over the Virgin River is built and is still in use today. Gasoline is 29¢ per gallon. 1st day 5th day Stone entrance sign constructed. Angus Woodbury is hired as the first Ranger Naturalist. 16,817 people visit Zion. Zion Lodge maids (and friend) in their crisp uniforms. Tour No. 1A—Five Days Zion, North Rim Grand Canyon, Bryce Canyon, and Cedar Breaks. First woman ranger, Herma Albertson, works in Yellowstone National Park. The Zion Inn, later known as Camp Center and now the Zion Nature Center, is built as a cafeteria with adjoining cabins, to provide less expensive lodging. Lowest recorded temperature in Zion Canyon: 15°F below zero, January 21. Zion NP Zion Lodge opens, operated by the Utah Parks Co., a subsidary of the Union Pacific Railroad. A guided horse tour ascends Walter’s Wiggles. Courtesy Nellie H. Ballard A bridge is built over the Virgin River at Canyon Junction as part of the Floor of the Valley Road. It is washed away by a flash flood a few years later. Coach drivers were referred to as “gear jammers.” The all-expense rates included standard cabin accommodations. If “de luxe” cabins were desired, the additional charge per day was $4.25 for one person or $2 each for two people. As time marched on, travel to America’s National Parks was more popular than ever. In 1920 Zion received 3,692 visitors; by 1930 nearly 55,000 would witness the drama. Across the nation, word got out about the grandeur of America’s own National Parks and the unrivaled skyscrapers of the West. Men would gather their best travel suit and women their favorite dress and kerchief and would eagerly venture oﬀ on a grand, “loop tour.” High quality lodging, entertainment, and loop tours to some of the most impressive wonders of the West, allowed visitation to slowly grow throughout the 1920s. However, travel on many roads was still rough and arduous. It wasn’t until 1930, which saw the completion of a major road construction project, that visitation and tourism would truly take oﬀ. This was the completion of Courtesy Tiffany Taylor The road into Zion Canyon is extended all the way to the Temple of Sinawava. Coaches line up to meet the train in Cedar City. Utah Parks Company Motor Bus Tours 1948 1953 1937 1943–46 1946 Zion Lodge closes during World War II as gas rationing reduces travel. The park remains open with a small staff. Visitation drops 75%. Zion NP Zion Lodge, and the others on the Loop Tour, provided a comfortable and affordable way to visit the parks. the Zion-Mt Carmel Highway and tunnel. Said to be the most extensive road project in the nation, with 24-miles of roadway over incredibly rough terrain and two tunnels (the longer 1.1 miles in length) through thick sandstone cliﬀs . The construction of the Zion-Mt Carmel Highway opened up access to the east, providing a more direct loop between Bryce Canyon, Zion, and the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. dinner prepared by the men who ran the kitchen. However, soon after dinner was ﬁnished, staﬀ would quickly assume a new role as entertainers. Lodge staﬀ proved to be multi-talented. An evening in the desert would come alive with dancing, vaudeville and variety shows, including, musicians, singers, comics, and acrobats. National Park Service Ranger Naturalists also delivered slide programs in the evenings. Once the time arrived for a tour to depart toward a new destination, the staﬀ would gather in front of the respective lodge and bid adieu with a “sing-a-way.” Two Civilian Conservation Corps camps are established in Zion. Over 9 years, hundreds of enrollees build levees, trails, and buildings that are still used today. Cedar Breaks National Monument is proclaimed. Zion NP ZION 10340 Found within the states of Utah and Arizona and carved deep within the Colorado Plateau, one would ﬁnd some of the most awe-inspiring places in the West: the Grand Canyon, a canyon plummeting to one mile in depth from the rim down toward the By the mid-1920s, curiosity was peaked about the sublime beauty of the Southwest and the promotion of travel to America’s National Parks was in full swing. Union Paciﬁc Railroad travel brochures raved of a place “…where everything is on a gigantic scale and color has been splashed around so extravagantly that artists despair of ever catching the brilliance of such ﬂashing colors. No process yet devised by man can faithfully bring to you the beauty of these supreme achievements of Nature. You must see them for yourself!” They did. Travelers embarked via railway to Cedar City, Utah, from such far-reaching locations as Chicago, Salt Lake City, and Los Angeles. What awaited travelers was a vacation of a life time: a comprehensive “Loop Tour” of the American Southwest by motor coach, complete with luxury lodging, and highcaliber entertainment. Points of interest upon this journey included: Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks, Cedar Breaks National Monument, and the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. Along the way tours would sojourn and a comfortable stay was aﬀorded within the lodges at Zion (1925), Bryce Canyon (1925), and the North Rim of the Grand Canyon (circa 1928). These newly built, high-style accommodations were funded and run by the Utah Parks Company, a subsidiary of the Union Paciﬁc Railroad. Hired to design these three prominent lodges was architect Gilbert Stanley Underwood. Underwood brought to the parks a design style with a classic rustic appeal, which allowed the buildings to blend seamlessly with the grandeur of the skyline. Meanwhile, the design of the interiors was complete with a lavish lounge, Courtesy NPS Harpers Ferry Center Throughout the West, writers vividly described magical places of unfathomed beauty. Meanwhile artists coated canvases with rich colors—composing a myriad of stunning landscapes. Amongst these were images of striking red rocks, deep cliﬀs, canyon walls, spires, spines, and hoodoos. Each was an impressive “skyscraper,” providing a one-of-a-kind view. These were portraits of the American Southwest. mighty Colorado River; Bryce Canyon, a mystical maze of whimsically sculpted spires and hoodoos; and Zion Canyon, where a deceptively small river had uncompromisingly fashioned some of the world’s tallest sandstone cliﬀs and contributed to a landscape of remarkable diversity. Courtesy Sherratte Library, Southern Utah University United States. For longer travel, railroads sprawled like vines across the countryside. Rail travel reached its peak in the 1920s and became an integral part in the promotion of tourism, including visitation to America’s scenic wonders—its national parks. Courtesy Sherratte Library, Southern Utah University The decade was unmistakably the 1920s. The distinctive sound of jazz oozed through the radio and into the homes of millions of Americans. Emily Post deﬁned what was considered proper and polite within her book Manners. Meanwhile, in cities throughout the East, ﬂappers perfected their stylish moves and hairdos for the dance ﬂoor. This post-war period proved a prosperous, inventive time in the United States. Many congregated within cities and took interest in the stock exchange, while new inventions like penicillin and television would shape the country well into the future. This decade marked the ﬁrst time in the history of the nation that the number of people residing in urban areas surpassed those who called rural surroundings home. As cities grew, architecture evolved and skyscrapers—complete with high style furnishings, became the new fashion. Travel, too, became a luxury that more and more people could indulge in. By 1921, more than ten million automobiles existed in the An 880 ton boulder falls on a park truck, crushing it. A Century of Sanctuary 5 Growing Up In Zion J.L. Crawford By the early 1920s, visitors to national parks expected arduous travel conditions in order to reach sublime destinations. The Union Paciﬁc Railroad and its touring division— the Utah Parks Company—aimed to give guests more elegant accommodations. Gilbert Stanley Underwood, a Harvard educated architect, was tapped to design the now much admired lodges at Zion, Bryce Canyon, and other national parks. Underwood’s concept for Zion Lodge “borrowed from nature” in both its design and building materials. His creation of a main lodge with surrounding cabins characterized the NPS-Rustic architectural style he successfully reﬁned. It set the direction for park architecture for years to come. Drawing from the Arts and Crafts movement, Underwood gave voice to the natural materials in and around Zion by combining stone, timber, and time in a gracious arrangement beﬁtting a wondrous landscape. When all of Utah was rural and rugged, J.L. Crawford enjoyed modern marvels as they made their way to the family farm on the present site of the Human History Museum. He remembers the ﬁrst graded road into Zion Canyon (1924), when running water arrived (1926), and the day electricity was wired (1927). One of his favorite memories was trying, with his brother, to recognize the sound of diﬀerent makes of cars. When these autos drove by the farm, they would run to the road to see if they had guessed right. He led a colorful life that included working for Zion Lodge, the Civilian Conservation Corps, and the National Park Service. Now, at 95, J.L. continues to oﬀer the park his expertise as a historian providing priceless information, photographs, self-authored books, and personal recollections. When listening to his gentle reﬂections of an age long ago, time collapses and history is alive once more. Gilbert Stanely Underwood J.L. Crawford (right) on a family picnic, circa 1918. William Wylie and his wife, Mary Wilson. “Mission 66” begins, a program to improve facilities in national parks. Zion’s second visitor center and park headquarters is built in 1960. 60,000 tons of rock fall from above the tunnel; some goes into gallery #3. And the children lucky enough to spend a few formative years in a park might carry a sense of responsibility too. Just like their park ranger parents, they are learning everyday what it is about this place that makes it worth protecting. They will know what is at stake and why a place like Zion means so much, now that modern civilization seems to outnumber those wild places. Often children follow in their parent’s footsteps, but it seems that many park rangers chose their career because their earliest experiences were in America’s treasured places. Maybe they did not grow up in a park, but someone shared one with them. Though no one is keeping cougars as pets anymore, children living in the park today share many experiences with the young people who came before. They may meet wild turkeys at the school bus stop, stay up past their bedtime gazing at a sky swimming in stars, and spend lazy Saturdays counting lizards that run through the backyard. Certainly they will share the freedom experienced by other young people in Zion. Another prior resident remembers “the “It was a wonderful place to grow up.” Della Higley After heavy rain, a landslide dams the Virgin River at the Sentinel Slide and a section of the road is washed away. Your children or grandchildren can experience the same incredible moments that the kids who grew up in Zion had. Whether it’s swimming in the Virgin River on a hot day, watching condors soar over Angels Landing, sleeping under the stars on a warm night, or just spending time together in a beautiful place — the experiences we have in National Parks are memories that stay with us. In a way, everyone who visits Zion National Park experiences what the children living in Zion experienced, because here we can feel like we did as children. We rediscover those childlike senses of wonder, delight, and freedom. Perhaps we can have the same feeling that Della Higley, a Springdale resident for eight decades, shared: “We loved the land and we love the park and we felt that the land should be taken care of and not destroyed.” freedom to go up there in the hills.” She recalls, “I always felt so fortunate to have been born there. We slept outdoors in the summertime. That was a big thing, to have a bed outside. Oh, just out in the open air, you know, and the stars above and the good fresh smell of everything…” Ranger family in front of their “modern” house, 1968. Zion Canyon Visitor Center opens and the shuttle system begins. Historic houses are still homes for NPS families. The economic impact of the park to the surrounding communities is $396 million and creates 2,432 jobs. Roads are chipped-sealed in red cinders, now a park tradition. 1970 1958 1966 1968 Courtesy NPS Harpers Ferry Center HFC 70-253-96 The largest fire in the park’s history burns 10,516 acres. Zion NP Zion NP 1954 The chief ranger’s children build a snowman, 1934. Twenty desert bighorn sheep are released to replace those last reported in 1953. Today’s population is estimated at 188. Women Rangers get a new polyester uniform. 1956–1966 Living in a national park also means living with the mandate of a conservation agency. There are guidelines and rules to contend with. Lorna Jolley Kesterson, daughter of the park’s chief ranger in the 1920s, remembers they were not allowed to eat Sego lilies as other settlers did. “My dad was pretty strict about what we were doing.” He would not cut down even one branch of a tree while some Hollywood ﬁlmmakers were making a movie in the park. “That’s the way he was: very strict, strict with regulations.” Zion NP ZION 12409 Courtesy Flora A. Ruesch Sketch from the 1923 superintendents conference. The rules about pets were interpreted differently then. Since domesticated animals were disruptive to the natural environment, families inside the park could not keep them. But, as Lorna tells, “we had one mountain sheep that took over our whole house inside. The ewe would come in and slide the rug. My father ﬁnally decided the sheep was too rough for us.” The children also had two baby cougars as pets as well as a family of ring-tailed cats in the attic. After Zion was designated a national monument in 1909, life in the canyon remained a wilderness of sorts, while civilization and modern life changed outside its boundaries. For the families who made their home in Zion, nature still played a major role. For children brought up here, their ﬁrst recollections, and the landscape that is etched in their minds as home, is a wild, open and unchanged one. Dale Smith Gilbert Stanley Underwood William Wylie, founder of the “Wylie Way,” began