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Aleutian WWII

Attu: The Forgotten Battle

brochure Aleutian WWII - Attu: The Forgotten Battle
U.S. soldiers, Attu Island, May 14, 1943. (U.S. Navy, NARA 2, RG80G-345-77087) AT TU THE FORGOTTEN BATTLE John Haile Cloe As the nation’s principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural and cultural resources. This includes fostering the wisest use of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places, and providing for enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The Cultural Resource Programs of the National Park Service have responsibilities that include stewardship of historic buildings, museum collections, archeological sites, cultural landscapes, oral and written histories, and ethnographic resources. Our mission is to identify, evaluate and preserve the cultural resources of the park areas and to bring an understanding of these resources to the public. Congress has mandated that we preserve these resources because they are important components of our national and personal identity. Study prepared for and published by the United State Department of the Interior through the Government Printing Office. National Park Service Alaska Affiliated Areas Aleutian World War II National Historic Area Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior. Attu, the Forgotten Battle ISBN-10:0-9965837-3-4 ISBN-13:978-0-9965837-3-2 2017 ATT U THE FORGOTTEN BATTLE John Haile Cloe Bringing down the wounded, Attu Island, May 14, 1943. (UAA, Archives & Special Collections, Lyman and Betsy Woodman Collection) TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS.........................................................................................................iv LIST OF MAPS .......................................................................................................................... vii PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..............................................................................ix FOREWORD .................................................................................................................................x INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................xi Chapter One - the Setting..............................................................................................1 Terrain ............................................................................................................................................. 1 Weather ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Chapter twO - the iSland and itS hiStOry ........................................................ 13 Russian Period.............................................................................................................................13 American Purchase....................................................................................................................13 Attu Village, the Last Vestiges of the Aleuts in the Western Aleutians..........................................................................................................14 Strategic Interest........................................................................................................................15 Chapter three - war COmeS tO the aleutianS................................................. 21 The Midway-Aleutian Plan ......................................................................................................21 Occupied by the Enemy.............................................................................................................23 Forced to Leave, the Aleut Ordeal .........................................................................................28 Advance Down the Aleutians ..................................................................................................30 Captives in Japan ........................................................................................................................32 The Japanese Reoccupation of Attu......................................................................................33 Chapter FOur - deCiSiOn tO retake attu............................................................. 39 Planning ........................................................................................................................................39 Commitment.................................................................................................................................46 The Japanese Prepare...............................................................................................................50 Chapter Five - day OF Battle ...................................................................................... 65 May 11, Landings........................................................................................................................65 May 12-13, Stalemate in Massacre Valley, Success in Holtz Bay ................................76 May 14, Failure in Jarmin Pass ..............................................................................................81 May 15, Relief of General Brown ...........................................................................................88 May 16-17, Holtz Bay Taken, Jarmin Pass Secured.........................................................90 May 18, Transition to Mountain Warfare ..........................................................................93 May 19-20, Clevesy Pass Secured ..........................................................................................96 May 21-22, Sarana Nose and Prendergast Ridge Captured.........................................99 May 23-25, Attack to Take Holtz Bay-Chichagof Harbor Pass on Fish Hook Ridge......................................................................................................... 101 May 26, Joe Martinez, Medal of Honor.............................................................................. 104 May 27-28, Buffalo Ridge Taken......................................................................................... 106 May 29, Engineer Hill ............................................................................................................. 108 Chapter Six - aFtermath ........................................................................................... 113 The Costs..................................................................................................................................... 113 Burying the Dead..................................................................................................................... 114 The Impact on Japan .............................................................................................................. 114 U.S. Media Coverage................................................................................................................ 114 Lessons Learned....................................................................................................................... 114 Lessons from Tarawa, a Comparison................................................................................ 118 Chapter vii - miSSiOn tO the kurilS..................................................................... 121 Bridge to Victory...................................................................................................................... 121 Attu as a Major Base............................................................................................................... 123 Chapter vii - COld war and rememBranCe ...................................................... 127 Abandonment of the Island.................................................................................................. 127 You Can’t Go Home Again, Repatriation of the Attu Aleuts........................................ 127 Repatriation of Remains ....................................................................................................... 130 Cold War ..................................................................................................................................... 131 The Environmental Legacy................................................................................................... 134 Designation as a Historic Landmark and Valor in the Pacific Site Memorials .................................................................. 134 Memorials .................................................................................................................................. 135 APPENDICES a. geographical names, Battle of attu ......................................................................... 138 B. abbreviated Census, attu village, 1940.................................................................. 148 C. Order of Battle, Battle of attu, american Forces.................................................. 150 d: Order of Battle, Battle of attu, Japanese Forces .................................................. 160 by Ephriam D. Dickson III e. Order of Battle, Battle of attu, Japanese Forces ................................................... 166 by John Cloe F. Japanese weapons Captured on attu ....................................................................... 169 G. Memorials......................................................................................................................... 173 BiBliOgraphy.................................................................................................................... 178 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS I-1: Aerial, Massacre Bay, 1934, looking northeast I-2: Aerial, Entrance to Chichagof Harbor, 1934, looking southwest I-3: Aerial, Chichagof Harbor, August 6, 1942 I-4: Aerial, Chichagof Harbor, September 8, 1942 I-5: Aerial, Holtz Bay, August 8, 1942 I-6: Oblique of Holtz Bay I-7: Looking west beaches of West Arm, Holtz Bay I-8: Looking east across beaches of East Arm, Holtz Bay II-1: Mike Hodikoff II-2: Aerial, Attu Village, 1934 II-3: Attu Village, Naval Expedition, 1934 II-4: Partially underground barabaras II-5: Old church II-6: New church II-7: Interior, new church II-8: Attu Village school II-9: Aerial of Dutch Harbor, Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears II-10: Japanese vessel in Chichagof Harbor, 1934 II-11: Etta and Charles Foster Jones III-1: Bombing of Fort Mears III-2: Bombing of Dutch Harbor III-3: Japanese flag raising III-4: Nissan Maru burning in Kiska Harbor III-5: Generals DeWitt and Buckner III-6: Admiral Theobald III-7: Admiral Kinkaid III-8: Consolidated B-24 III-9: Consolidated PBY Catalina III-10: Atka Village III-11: Adak Naval Station III-12: General Talley III-13: Elizabeth Golodoff III-14: School house at Attu Village burns III-15: Uncompleted Japanese airfield on Attu IV-1: Major General Albert Brown IV-2: Major General William O. Butler IV-3: Japanese soldier on Attu dressed for winter warfare. IV-4: Colonel Yasuyo Yamasaki IV-5: Castner’s Cutthroats IV-6: Escort carrier Nassau (CVE-16) IV-7: Lockheed P-38 IV-8: Battleship Pennsylvania (BB-38) IV-9: Fort Mason IV-10: Plaster mockup of battle area IV-11: Aboard the attack transport J. Franklin Bell (APA-16) IV-12: Camouflage Japanese building IV-13: Japanese landing craft captured on Attu iv Attu, The Forgotten Battle IV-14: Japanese Type 88 75-millimeter dual purpose gun IV-15: Japanese Type 89 20-millimeter machine cannon IV-16: Japanese Type 41 75-millimeter mountain gun IV-17: Japanese Type 41 mountain gun on display Fort Lewis Army Museum IV-18: Japanese Type 92 70-millimeter howitzer IV-19: Japanese Type 94 37-millimeter antitank gun IV-20: Japanese Type 38 Arisaka rifle and Type 99 Nambu light machinegun IV-21: Japanese Arisaka heavy machinegun IV-22: Japanese 500-millimeter grenade launcher IV-23: Japanese M2A1 105-millimeter howitzer IV-24: Massacre Valley, June 2016 IV-25: Jarmin Pass as it narrows V-1: Attack transport Heywood (APA-6) V-2: Disembarking into Higgins boat V-3: Loading 105-millimeter howitzer V-4: Austin Beach V-5: Scout Force V-6: Private Pletnikoff V-7: Landing on Blue Beach V-8: Troops advancing on Jarmin Pass V-9: Red Beach V-10: Rucksacks on Red Beach V-11: Hill X V-12: Dr. Paul Tatsuguchi V-13: Colonel Zimmerman V-14: B-25s off Attu V-15: Cable tram on Red Beach V-16: Top of escarpment Red Beach V-17: Jeep and 37-millimeter gun V-18: American soldiers on Attu V-19: Wildcat going down V-20: Troops advancing towards Jarmin Pass V-21: Bringing down the wounded. V-22: Bulldozer stuck in mud V-23: Use of stream beds as roads V-24: Supplies piled up on beach V-25: Bulldozed road to Clevesy Pass V-26: African-Americans on beach V-27: General Landrum V-28: Abandoned Japanese ammunition, Holtz Bay V-29: Gunboat Charleston V-30: Troops traversing slopes of Fish Hook Ridge V-31: Passing supplies up V-32: Looking southwest from Holtz Bay-Sarana Pass V-33: Steep Valley leading down into Chichagof Harbor V-34: Looking east towards Chichagof Harbor V-35: Private Martinez V-36: Private Martinez Memorial Plaque V-37: General Buckner and others at Chichagof Harbor V-38: Japanese dead List of Photographs v VI-1: Little Falls Cemetery VI-2: Holtz Bay Cemetery VI-3: Japanese Cemetery VII-1: Base construction on Attu VII-2: Alexai Point Army Air Base construction VII-3: Casco Field VII-4: Eleventh Air Force display of aircraft, May 1945 VIII-1: U.S. Coast Guard building, Attu VIII-2: Looking northwest across destroyed Attu Village, June 1943 VIII-3: Atka villagers return, April 1945 VIII-4: Japanese burial site, Fort Richardson National Cemetery VIII-5: Foster Jones gravesite App-1: Veterans standing near Japanese Peace Memorial in 1993 App-2: Memorial to Medical Officer Ohmura App-3: Japanese memorial commemorating 1953 visit to recover remains of soldiers App-4: Vault on Engineer Hill, June 2013 App-5: Yamazaki plaque App-6: Attu Village plaque in August 1986 App-7: Alice Petrivelli, President, Aleut Corporation, with Aleut Village memorial, 1993 App-8: The Attu Village memorial placed in 2012 vi Attu, The Forgotten Battle LIST OF MAPS I-1: Aleutian Islands I-2: Attu Island I-3 East End of Attu Island I-4a: Geographical Features, Attu Island I-4b: Oblique view aerial, geographical features, Attu Island I-5: U.S. Intelligence map, April 1942, showing Attu trail system IV-1: Landing Beaches IV-2: Japanese defenses V-1: May 11, Landings V-2: Route of Scout Force V-3: Holtz Bay area V-4: May 12-14, Stalemate in Massacre Bay, Success in Holtz Bay V-5: May 15-16, Turning Point V-6: May 17-18, Holtz Bay Taken, Jarmin Pass Secured V-7: May 19-22, Clevesy Pass and Siddens Valley Secured V-8: May 23-28, The Struggle for Fish Hook V-9: May 29, Final Assault List of Maps vii viii Attu, The Forgotten Battle PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Rachel Mason, Alaska Region, National Park Service John Cloe, Colonel U.S. Army Reserves, Retired, and Department of Air Force Historian, Retired, was still working on the manuscript of Attu, the Forgotten Battle at the time of his passing in December 2016. As a military historian with expert knowledge of the Aleutian campaign of World War II, he supported and contributed to the Aleutian World War II National Historic Area, a program of the National Park Service, Alaska Region, for many years. After serving as an infantry officer in Vietnam, in 1970 he became the Alaska Air Command historian at Elmendorf Air Force Base. He organized and led tours to Attu Island by boat. In 2016 he completed Mission to the Kuriles, and then turned to finalizing Attu, the Forgotten Battle. Because the manuscript was a work in progress when Cloe died, it is not up to the high professional standards of his other books, which were meticulously referenced. He did not have time to provide detailed footnotes or to create an index. Several of the photographs lack a source, and we have provisionally credited them to the Alaska Air Force. None of this should detract from the enormous value of this long-awaited history of the Battle of Attu. After unraveling the factors that led up to the battle, Cloe offers a day-by-day account of the combat, followed by discussion of the lessons learned in the battle’s aftermath. Appendices C, D, and E provide an Order of Battle for both the American and Japanese forces. Ephriam Dickson has compiled a more complete and accurate version of the author’s Japanese Order of Battle. Cloe’s version has been retained, however, to show what conclusions were reached based on available U.S. military intelligence. Several people helped immensely in preparing this document for publication. Thank you to Ephriam Dickson, Debra Corbett, Michael Hawfield and Janet Clemens for reviewing and commenting on drafts. We are particularly grateful to Ephriam Dickson, with the U.S. Army Center of Military History, for providing corrections based on his knowledge of the literature Cloe drew upon. Thanks also to Dael Devenport for creating the maps, Ted Spencer for providing several key photographs, and Susan Cloe for editing the manuscript. A special thank you to Francis Broderick of Archgraphics for design and layout. Preface and Acknowledgments ix FOREWORD Major General Jake Lestenkof, U.S. Army, Retired In Attu: The Forgotten Battle, Colonel John Haile Cloe, U.S. Army Reserves, Retired, has brilliantly exposed an affecting and griping picture of this little remembered conflict, from the planning stages to the final days of bloody hand-to-hand combat and the desperate Banzai charge. Beginning with the official after action reports of the Battle of Attu during May of 1943, there have been several accounts of this World War II contest, fought on a freezing, fog-shrouded island at the farthest end of Alaska’s Aleutian Chain. But Cloe gives the reader a particularly stark understanding of how different and difficult it was to conduct military operations in the fierce, northern latitudes compared to the more notorious battles waged elsewhere in the Pacific Theater. Presenting a detailed account of this early amphibious campaign in the North Pacific, he lays bare the grave miscalculations and chaos—from the critical highest national levels, to the poor planning and execution of the battle. Aside from Iwo Jima, the Battle of Attu claimed the highest percentage of American casualties during World War II. Cloe’s close connection with and interest in the story of Attu provides an authentic foundation for this engrossing retelling. First, as long time official historian for the U.S. Air Force at the wing, numbered air force, command and joint level, Cloe possesses a fingertip knowledge of Eleventh Air Force operations in North Pacific and its substantial history of war and peace. Cloe describes with authority the Eleventh Air Force, established in December 1941 shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and offers insight into its combat operations during the Aleutian Campaign and bombing missions to Japan’s Kuril Islands. Second, as a former Army infantry officer with combat experience, Cloe’s ability to describe the comparative combat capabilities of opposing forces in this battle lends a feeling of reality that many writers fail to achieve. The description of the many small unit combat encounters is among the best I have read—and I have read many. Third, Cloe is unique among military writers in that he has, over more recent times, guided and lectured several tours to the Aleutian war x Attu, The Forgotten Battle sites including Attu. He knows more about the terrain and weather on this remote island than anyone I know. Fourth, as a devoted student of military history, Cloe deftly directs our attention to a number of World War II first experiences at Attu, thus allowing the reader an opportunity to reflect on the many lessons learned from this tenacious struggle by American and Allied forces to recapture U.S. territory from occupying Japanese. From my perspective, the hard lessons learned from Attu most certainly benefitted later amphibious operations in the Pacific and Europeans theaters. Cloe also helps us appreciate how the Attu reoccupation would later prove to be of great value, in part by making it possible to the use the Aleutian Islands as staging areas for an air and naval offense against the Imperial Japanese in the Kuril Islands, then considered part of their home islands. He also reminds us of the human cost of the forced evacuation and internment of the Aleut people from their ancestral homes in the Aleutians. While those on other Aleutian islands were taken to live in substandard accommodations in southeastern Alaska, the Aleuts from Attu were interned under stark conditions in Japan, where 16 of the original 41 villagers in captivity died. Finally, Cloe describes how after the war the U.S. government disallowed Aleuts, the first native inhabitants of Attu, from returning to their island homes. Instead, Attu became a crucial outpost of the Cold War, accommodating U.S. military until well after the official thawing of political and military relations. Students of military history and, in particular, Alaska-at-war devotees, will find Cloe’s book a well-presented story of one of World War II’s most dramatic but least remembered battles. Sadly, I must include this postscript: John Cloe, the author of this document, passed on December 26, 2016 at his Anchorage, Alaska home. I know he worried about finishing this project for the National Park Service, Alaska Region. He succeeded for this work is an admirable piece about the Aleutians and our state. I will miss this man, a military veteran, a husband and father, and a good friend. INTRODUCTION The closure of the U.S. Coast Guard LORAN C station on Attu in 2010 left the island uninhabited for the first time since around 500BC. Today, Attu remains isolated, difficult to visit. The remnants of World War II and the Cold War are still there, as are traces of the former Aleut village. Largely forgotten is the May 1943 battle to retake the island from the Japanese who occupied Attu June 1942 as part of their Midway-Aleutian operations. While the Battle of Midway is one of the most studied and documented battles of World War II in the Pacific, the Battle of Attu and the Aleutian Campaign are treated as a side show with paltry and often factually flawed accounts. Attu stands out as the scene of the only land battle fought on North American soil during World War II and the second most costly assault in the Pacific following Iwo Jima in terms of number of troops engaged. The Americans suffered 71 killed or wounded retaking Attu for every 100 Japanese who defended the island. Most people are unaware that the United States launched its first offensive operations in the Pacific with the Aleutian Campaign, June 1942-August 1943. It preceded landing on Guadalcanal by two months. It involved joint Army-Navy air, ground and sea combat operations for the first time. The recapture of Attu in May 1943 was the first time enemy-occupied American territory was retaken during the war. Also lost to general knowledge is the fact that Attu was also the first joint service amphibious assault of the war in the Pacific, and the first Army island amphibious operation of the war. Other notable war firsts were the first sustained air campaign in American history, the first employment of aircraft carrier-based aircraft in close air support of ground forces, the first landbased bombing of the Japanese Homeland, the first and last Japanese land and aircraft carrier based air attacks against North America and the last classic daylight naval surface battle in history and the longest one of World War II. Marine Corps General and amphibious expert, Holland “Howlin’ Mad” Smith, who trained five of the 28 Army divisions qualified in amphibious operations, including the 7th Infantry Division employed on Attu, remembered: “I have always considered the landing of the Seventh in the fog of Attu, on May 11, 1943, an amphibious landing without parallel in our military history.”1 Attu provided the first encounter with an all-out, last ditch Banzai charge by the Japanese in which they chose death over the dishonor of surrender. The concept of self-sacrifice “Gyokusai,” a glorious end, was part of the psychological makeup of the Japanese soldier. It left a deep impression on General Smith, who was on Adak Island, and flew over the battlefield. “That mad charge through the fog made a profound impression and alerted me to the ever-present danger of just such a final desperate attack during my operations in the Central Pacific. Before I left the Aleutians, I decided to amplify our training to include countermeasures against such an eventuality.” Finally, overlooked by most and known to only a few, the Aleutians and the Pribilof Islands to the north were the scene of a U.S. military forced evacuation and relocation of the entire Aleut population, now also referred to as Unangax (Seasiders or Coastal People). It also saw the loss of four Aleut villages (Attu, Biorka, Kashega and Makushin) and the only imprisonment of a North American community in Japan when the Attu village residents were taken to Hokkaido Island in 1942. The Aleutian Campaign served as the progenitor of what later became standard practice in the Pacific Theater, the bypassing of stronger held islands for weaker held ones and the turning of them into advance air and naval bases. It set the pattern. The campaign also established tactical concepts such as forward air control and low-level bomber attacks that would be used elsewhere in the Pacific. Today, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service administers Attu as part of the Alaska National Maritime Wildlife Refuge and for its historic significance as part of the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. The National Park Service provides historic preservation technical assistance through its partnership with the Aleutian World War II National Historic Area and Attu’s National Historic Landmark status. The two federal agencies collaborate in preserving and protecting the place. Introduction xi Chapter One SETTING Terrain Generally, military planners try to avoid fighting battles on difficult terrain and under harsh weather conditions. This is not always easy, especially in modern warfare. Attu provides a classic example. Forces trained and equipped for desert warfare had little time to retrain and equip for the brutal conditions on Attu where they faced cold weather and mountain warfare against an acclimated and better-clothed foe who understood the terrain and consistently occupied the high grounds. The United States Army’s official history covering the Battle of Attu, The Western Hemisphere, Guarding the United States and Its Outpost, noted: “To the soldiers who had to fight not only the Japanese but the weather and terrain of the island, it must have seemed that the Creator of the universe was an unskilled apprentice when He brought Attu into existence.” Attu, the farthest west island in the Aleutian Chain, occupies 344.7 square miles. It is covered by precipitous mountains, many over 2,500 feet tall with the highest being 2,945 feet. It has a rugged coastline, most of which rises directly from the sea. The low areas consist mostly of spongy muskeg with a thin layer of solid earth underlain by soggy unfrozen soil, making vehicular travel, even tracked, difficult if not impossible. Some authors describing Attu mistakenly refer to muskeg as tundra. The latter consists of permanently frozen ground under a layer of solid soil while muskeg consists of wet vegetation covered by soil. The sea approaches are hazardous due to submerged rocks and jagged coastlines. Air operations are hampered by fog and wind shears commonly referred to as williwaws. Nine bays and coves indent the island. Five of the sheltered areas, Holtz, Massacre, Sarana and Temnac Bays and Chichagof Harbor, are located on the east side of the island. The east side is divided by a series of five ridges: Gilbert, Henderson, Prendergast, Fish Hook and Moore. Four passes, Clevesy, Jarmin, Holtz Bay-Sarana, and Holtz Bay-Chichagof, and a trail system allowed access between the compartmentalized battle areas. The Japanese occupied the east side of the island.1 They enjoyed the interior line advantage of moving forces from one place to another over the trail system and by means of powered barges. They dominated the high grounds during the course of the battle. Additionally, the Japanese understood how to use the terrain to their advantage because of pre-battle familiarization with the terrain and trail systems. The Americans would pay a steep price to gain control of the passes and ridges which later bore the names of those killed leading the attacks. Following the battle, the Army named terrain features in the battle area after those who lost their lives there. While the rationale and purpose are understood, the source behind the decisions is missing except in one instance. Colonel James D. Bush, Jr., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Retired, in a 1983 oral history interview with the Alaskan Air Chapter One 1 Map I-1: Aleutian Islands (NPS Map) Command historian, recalled the naming decisions had been made shortly after the battle. Colonel Bush served as the deputy engineer on Attu and fought on Engineer Hill. He insisted that the place be named in honor of the engineers who stopped the final Japanese Banzai charge. Today, few understand the significance of the names. Douglas J. Orth’s Dictionary of Alaska Place Names, published in 1967 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), lists the names and a brief explanation, but provides only a 1948 Army Map Service map of Attu as the source. Twenty-nine geographical features (mountains and ridges, passes, rivers and streams, lakes, valleys, coves and beaches) in or near the battle area bear the names of men killed during the battle. Some figured prominently in the battle. The Army named Henderson Ridge overlooking the left 2 Attu, The Forgotten Battle side of Massacre Valley after Lieutenant Douglas Henderson, a Navy fighter pilot, who along with Ensign Earnest D. Jackson encountered extreme winds May 14 while flying up Massacre Valley in support of the assault on Jarmin Pass. Both spun out of control and crashed. The river and a bridge across it are also named for him. Lieutenant Harry Gilbert, a platoon leader in G Company, 2nd Battalion, 32nd Infantry Regiment, died May 19, while leading an assault to capture Nees Point, also referred to as Point Able. It occupies the high point on the northwest end of Gilbert Ridge overlooking the left side of Massacre Valley. Nees Point was named after Lieutenant Charles W. Nees, Company L, 32nd Infantry Regiment. Neither Nees Point nor Point Able are noted on maps or listed in Orth and the USGS web site although they appear in the Map I-2, Attu Island (NPS Map) Photo I-1: Aerial of Massacre Bay looking northeast taken during the 1934 Naval Expedition. The area would become the major scene of the Battle of Attu and later a major base with two airfields including one built on Alexai Point. (USN, Isaiah Davies Collection, AFHRA) Chapter One 3 Clockwise from above: Photo I-2: Aerial of entrance leading into Chichagof Harbor looking southwest taken during 1934 Naval Expedition. The narrow rocky entrance created dangerous conditions for amphibious operations. (USN, Isaiah Davies Collection, AFHRA) Photo I-3: Aerial, Chichagof Harbor, August 6, 1942. The village is located in the middle right below the bluff and northwest of the lake. Fish Hook Ridge is the high g

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