"Coastal view, Cabrillo National Monument, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Field Guides

Native Bird Field Guide

brochure Field Guides - Native Bird Field Guide

Native Bird Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Native Bird Field Guide C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Bird Field Guide About the Ecosystem Field Guide Our Role Cabrillo Guide 1 C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT About the Ecosystem San Diego is the most biodiverse area for birds in North America making Cabrillo National Monument well-known in the birding community as a premiere bird watching spot. Over 200 bird species have been spotted at Cabrillo National Monument alone. As a stop on the Pacific Flyway, migrant species use the peninsula as a resting place. Raptors use Point Loma as a landmark during the peak of their migrations, and some, like the Red-tailed Hawk, make their home here year-round. The rocky shoreline on Point Loma’s western side is the only place in San Diego where Black Oystercatchers are regulars. However, these birds cannot sustain the ecosystem alone. Each person can play a role in helping our feathered friends. As you learn more about birding, you will find that your actions play a direct part in the welfare of the birds that you see. Remember that birds, while breeding and raising their offspring, want to be left alone. The more silent you are as you move about, the more birds you will see. Sometimes the best way to spot birds is to just sit, wait, and listen. Give it a try. R E T U R N T O 2H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Field Guide WHAT ARE YOU LOOKING AT? Coastal Birds Songbirds • Birds that frequently visit the shore (estuaries, bay, etc.) • Birds with a musical song • Often small and seen perching Raptors Corvids • Predatory birds • Large talons or claws • Birds of the crow Family • Includes ravens and jays 3 FIELD GUIDE Coastal Birds *Please refrain from playing calls in the wild as it can be stressful to wildlife. It may be illegal in certain areas, always ask before use. Black-bellied Plover Black-necked Stilt Black Oystercatcher Brown Pelican Caspian Tern Double-crested Cormorant Forster’s Tern Great Blue Heron Great Egret Snowy Egret Snowy Plover Spotted Sandpiper Western Gull Whimbrel Willet R E T U R N T O 4F I E L D G U I D E COAS TAL BIRDS Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Small, mostly black and white bird with distinct black belly as adult; <1’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Often found foraging in the tidepools for worms or crustaceans. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 5 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Long neck and legs with black wings; black and white belly; <1.5’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Walks delicately on long red legs along the shoreline. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 6 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Black with long, straight, reddish-orange beak; found foraging on rocky shoreline; <2’ tall. Distribution: West Coast of North America Interesting Facts: Solely eats mollusks from rocks in the intertidal. Sometimes this species hybridized with the American Oystercatcher. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 7 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large, mostly brown with red and yellow on neck in breeding season (December - August) as an adult; mostly brown as juveniles; <5’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Dives into water to catch fish as primary food source. This species came back from the brink of extinction following the ban of DDT. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 8 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large bird; white with black tips on pointed wings; <2’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: The largest of the tern species. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 9 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus Season Seen in San Diego:Year Round Description: All black with orange-ish beak; two crests on top of head in breeding season (March - May); <3’ tall. Distribution: Oceans and bays within North America Interesting Facts: Dives for fish as food source. Dries its wings while on rocks. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 10 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Forster’s Tern Sterna forsteri Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: White, small bird with black cap in summer; <1’ tall. Distribution: Oceans and bays within North America Interesting Facts: Dives into water to catch small fish as food source. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 11 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large, gray and blue with long neck; <4.5’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Very large and walks slowly when hunting prey both aquatic and terrestrial. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 12 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Great Egret Ardea alba Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large bird; all white with long neck and yellow beak; <3’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Walks slowly and purposefully foraging for fish and other prey. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 13 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Snowy Egret Egretta thula Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Mid-size all white bird; <2’ tall with yellow legs and feet. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Hunts in tidepools for small fish and crabs during periods of low tides. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 14 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Snowy Plover Charadrius nivosus Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Very small, white-bellied bird; sandy colored back and wings for camouflage; <6” tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Western subspecies is a California state endangered species. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 15 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Spotted Sandpiper Actitus macularius Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Small bird; drab brown body with a white belly and yellow legs; spotted belly in breeding season (March-August); <7” tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Usually solitary birds that bounce their butt around as they walk. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 16 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Western Gull Larus occidentalis Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Adults are white with gray wings and yellow beak; juveniles are all gray with gray beak; <2’ tall. Distribution: West coast of North America Interesting Facts: One of the most common birds along the coastline of North America. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 17 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Whimbrel Numenius phaecopus Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Brown bird; <1.5’ tall with long curved beak. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Long down-curved bill for foraging in sand along the shoreline. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 18 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Willet Tringa semipalmata Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Drab brown/gray bird with black wing tips; <1.5’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Constantly walking around foraging for prey along the shoreline. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 19 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS FIELD GUIDE Perching birds *Please refrain from playing calls in the wild as it can be stressful to wildlife. It may be illegal in certain areas, always ask before use. Anna’s Hummingbird Audobon’s Warbler Black Phoebe Bushtit California Thrasher California Gnatcatcher California Towhee House Finch Mourning Dove Northern Mockingbird Orange-crowned Warbler Ruby-Crowned Kinglet Spotted Towhee White-crowned Sparrow Wrentit R E T U R N T O 20 FIELD GUIDE PERCHING BIRDS Anna’s Hummingbird Calypte anna Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Very small bird, mostly green; males have bright red throat when seen at a certain angle; <4” tall. Distribution: Western North America Interesting Facts: This species flies in a large vertical loop when courting a mate. Each species of Hummingbird does a unique shaped loop. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 21 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Audobon’s Warbler Setophaga auduboni Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Small bird; yellow, white, gray and black spots; <6” tall. Distribution: North America along waterways Interesting Facts: This is most likely the only warbler seen in the winter months at Cabrillo National Monument. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 22 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Small bird; black head and chest with gray/white on belly; <6” tall. Distribution: Southwest North America Interesting Facts: Often found foraging for flying insects in shrubs and cliff sides. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 23 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Bushtit Psaltriparus minimus Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Very small gray bird with high pitched chirp; <4” tall. Distribution: Western North America Interesting Facts: Common and very small bird that usually flocks in large groups. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 24 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS California Thrasher Toxostoma redivivum Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Medium sized, ground-dwelling bird with curved beak; <1’ tall. Distribution: California and Baja Mexico Interesting Facts: Long curved beak used to forage for insects on the ground. This species mimics the songs of other birds. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 25 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS California Gnatcatcher Polioptila californica Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Small gray bird with black cap in spring and summer; sounds like a mewing cat; <4” tall. Distribution: California and Baja Mexico Interesting Facts: Only Federally Endangered species of bird at Cabrillo National Monument. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 26 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS California Towhee Melozone crissalis Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: All brown, small bird with reddish butt; <9” tall. Distribution: California and Baja Mexico Interesting Facts: Very common at Cabrillo National Monument; often found foraging under shrubs digging for insects. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 27 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS House Finch Haemorphus mexicanus Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Drab brown bird, males have red throat and head; <6” tall. Distribution: North America Interesting Facts: Male coloration varies in intensity with the seasons and is caused by the fruits and insects in its diet. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 28 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Almost fully drab brown with spotting and very dark eye coloration; <1’ tall. Distribution: North America Interesting Facts: Named for their mournful coo sound. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 29 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: All gray and black with white wing stripes; <1’ tall. Distribution: North America Interesting Facts: The species name “polyglottos” is latin for “many languages” because mockingbirds are known to mimic other species. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 30 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Orange-crowned Warbler Oreothlypis celata Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Small green bird with hidden orange crown; <5” tall. Distribution: North American Chaparral Interesting Facts: Females and juveniles are usually duller in coloration than males. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 31 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Ruby-Crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: All gray bird with white wing stripes and red crown; <4” tall. Distribution: North America along waterways Interesting Facts: Often seen hovering around shrubs foraging for insects. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 32 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Spotted Towhee Pipilo maculatus Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Bird with black head, red and white belly, black and white spotted wings, and red eyes; <9” tall. Distribution: Western North America Interesting Facts: The Eastern Towhee species looks identical to the Spotted Towhee, but lacks the white spots. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 33 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Males have white and black stripes on head; female coloration is less distinct; juveniles have brown and white stripes; <7” tall. Distribution: North American Chaparral Interesting Facts: The oldest recorded White-crowned Sparrow was over 13 years old. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 34 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS PERCHING BIRDS Wrentit Chamaea fasciata Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Small bird; gray with long tail; <6” tall. Distribution: West Coast of North America Interesting Facts: Their call sounds like a ping pong ball bouncing on a table. Both males and females sing. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 35 RETURN TO SONGBIRDS FIELD GUIDE Raptors *Please refrain from playing calls in the wild as it can be stressful to wildlife. It may be illegal in certain areas, always ask before use. American Kestrel Cooper’s Hawk Osprey Peregrine Falcon Red-Tailed Hawk R E T U R N T O 36 FIELD GUIDE RAPTORS American Kestrel Falco sparverius Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Small brown and gray bird; with vertical black eye stripe; <1’ tall. Distribution: North American Grasslands Interesting Facts: This species is among the smallest raptors in the world. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 37 RETURN TO RAPTORS RAPTORS Cooper’s Hawk Accipiter cooperii Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Brown bird with striped tail; males have a gray cap; <1.5’ tall. Distribution: North American Woodlands Interesting Facts: This species only hunts and eats other small birds. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 38 RETURN TO RAPTORS RAPTORS Osprey Pandion halieatus Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large bird; mostly white and black with bold eye stripe; <2’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: This species solely eats fish. It hunts by diving into water and has long curved talons for grasping fish. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 39 RETURN TO RAPTORS RAPTORS Peregrine Falcon Falco paragrinus Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Mostly gray and white with vertical black stripe over eye; <1.5’ tall. Distribution: North America Interesting Facts: Peregrine Falcons have recovered from a massive die-off in 1970’s.They are the fastest animal in the world, and can dive at over 200 mph. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 40 RETURN TO RAPTORS RAPTORS Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large brown and white bird; <2’ tall with brown band on belly. Distribution: North American Grasslands Interesting Facts: Hunts for small mammals by riding warm wind currents. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 41 RETURN TO RAPTORS FIELD GUIDE Corvids *Please refrain from playing calls in the wild as it can be stressful to wildlife. It may be illegal in certain areas, always ask before use. American Crow California Scrub-Jay Common Raven R E T U R N T O 42 FIELD GUIDE CORVIDS American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: All black with straight edge on tail; <1.5’ tall almost half of which is tail. Distribution: North America Interesting Facts: This species is an omnivore, meaning it eats both plants and animals. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 43 RETURN TO CORVIDS CORVIDS California-scrub Jay Aphelocoma californica Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Blue back and wings, gray and white belly; <1’ tall including tail. Distribution: Western North America Interesting Facts: Many people refer to scrub-jays as blue jays but blue jays are a completely different species of Corvid and are not found in San Diego. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 44 RETURN TO CORVIDS CORVIDS Common Raven Corvus corax Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: All black with V-shaped tail; <1.5’ tall; slightly larger than crows. Distribution: North America Interesting Facts: Notably intelligent based on evidence of problem solving and sharing knowledge with other ravens. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 45 RETURN TO CORVIDS C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Our Role The core mission of the National Park Service is to protect and preserve natural resources, processes, systems, and values of America’s parks. Our philosophy is to protect, and restore when necessary, native ecosystems and let natural processes play out. Park Rangers and Volunteers document their observations of flora and fauna. Scientists conduct research to try to understand the status and trends of the species and systems they protect. This information is vital to advising park management and philosophy. Connect With Us To learn more about how you can help, visit: • NPS Website • Field Notes R E T U R N T O 46H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Cabrillo Guide Rules for Exploration: Activity: • Stay on the marked trails/sidewalks 1. Find a location in the park and listen/watch for birds for 5 minutes. • No picking or taking of any kind • Pack it in, pack it out - No littering 2. What bird behavior do you notice (cleaning itself, foraging, etc.)? R E T U R N T O 47H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT All Rights Reserved © 2017 Editor: Nicole Ornelas & Austin Parker Photos: P. Simpson, J. & W. Tam, S. Root Cabrillo National Monument 1800 Cabrillo Memorial Drive San Diego, Ca. 92106 WWW.NPS.GOV/CABR R E T U R N T O 48H O M E P A G E

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