Fort Necessity

Braddock Road Trace

brochure Fort Necessity - Braddock Road Trace
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield The Braddock Pathway Fort Necessity – Braddock’s Grave – Jumonville Glen – Rindfuss Museum at Jumonville As you hike along the traces of the Braddock Road, you are walking in historic footsteps. The road was originally called the Nemacolin Trail, after the Lenape Indian who helped to blaze it in 1752. In 1754, George Washington and his Virginia Regiment widened it before their defeat at Fort Necessity. In 1755, General Edward Braddock was buried in the road as the British retreated from the disastrous rout at the Battle of the Monongahela. Along with Braddock on this expedition were George Washington, Daniel Boone and Daniel Morgan. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis used this route to go to Pittsburgh to procure boats for his expedition to the Pacific. Runaway slaves used this trail to escape on the Underground Railroad. Farmers discouraged the use of the road and placed large rocks on it to force people to use the National Road, present-day Route 40. Today, we encourage visitors to walk along this historic trail and/or drive nearby on the National Road to visit area sites. Do not trespass on private land. Please respect the rights and privacy of the landowners. The majority of land along the Braddock Road trace is private property. The Braddock Pathway sites listed in this brochure are public areas where traces of the historic Braddock Road can be found. •The Great Meadows The historic Braddock Road trace at Fort Necessity National Battlefield crosses forests, meadows and streams. Hiking shoes are recommended. kBraddock Road Trace at Fort Necessity A year after Washington’s defeat at Fort Necessity, Major General Edward Braddock had road crews widen the trail to 12 feet so wagons could get through the wilderness forest. Setting out from present-day Cumberland, Maryland, Braddock had the largest army assembled in North America. With over 2400 soldiers, wagon drivers, Indian guides and camp followers, this army sometimes stretched 4 to 5 miles as it marched towards Fort Duquesne, the site of present-day Pittsburgh. As the Braddock expedition continued through the Great Meadows on June 25, 1755, an unknown British officer wrote, “We marched about two Mile the other side ye great Meadows. It was strongly imagined if we met with any opposition, ye Meadows would be ye place; but we marched through without any Molestation or alarm. There are about 150 Acres of Meadow-land entirely clear. In ye middle of this spot is Fort Necessity; built by Mr. Washin(g)ton last Year when he retreated from the French; …There are many human bones all round ye spott; but at present every thing is entirely pulled down.” On the same day, Capt. Orme wrote in his journal, “at daybreak, three men who went without centinels, were shot and scalped…We this day saw several Indians in the woods.” They continued for 2 more miles before encamping for the night. On June 24, 1755, as they hiked towards the Great Meadows, they found an abandoned Indian camp. British Captain Robert Orme, one of Braddock’s aides, wrote in his journal, “our Indians informed us that, by their hutts, their number was about one hundred and seventy. They had stripped and painted some trees, upon which they and the French had written many threats and bravados with all kinds of scurrilous language.” They encamped on the east side of the Great Meadows. The Braddock Road trace at Fort Necessity is approximately 1 ½ miles long. From here, the trail goes onto private property. After your visit at the park, turn left onto the historic National Road (US Route 40). The Braddock Road trace parallels on your left of the highway for about one mile then crosses over Route 40 to the right of Braddock’s grave. Braddock Trace at Braddock’s Grave ƒGeneral Braddock Gravesite Today, there is a monument marking Braddock’s grave, located one mile west of Fort Necessity. This is not the original location of Braddock’s grave. The original trace of the Braddock Road runs through the depression between the parking area and the monument. Walk a short distance down the trail and you will find the original gravesite. General Braddock was mortally wounded at the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9 near presentday Pittsburgh. Several days after the battle, Braddock died from his wounds. George Washington buried Braddock in the middle of the road and the remaining army marched across the gravesite to obliterate every trace. In 1804, road workmen disinterred the body and reburied him on the knoll where the monument now stands. To continue your journey, turn right onto the historic National Road. The Braddock Road „Jumonville Glen …Rindfuss Museum Jumonville The Braddock Road parallels the Jumonville Road on the right side as it enters onto National Park Service land. It was here on May 28, 1754, a 15minute skirmish between French, British and Indians marked the beginning of the French and Indian War. A little over a year later, June 27, 1755, the advance party of the Braddock army marched parallels this route on the right. Go west for about 4 miles to the top of Summit Mountain and turn right onto Jumonville Road. On June 25, Capt. Orme wrote in his journal, “obliged to let our carriages down a hill with tackles… French and Indians endeavoured to reconnoiter the camp… were discovered and fired upon by the advanced Centinels. …Every soldier or Indian shall receive five pounds for each Indian scalp.” Along the Jumonville Road, you will find a historic road marker about the Rock Fort Camp. On June 26, the army had marched 4 more miles and stopped at Rock Fort Camp. Here, they found another abandoned French and Indian encampment with the fires still burning. Orme wrote, “They had marked in triumph upon trees, the scalps they had taken two days before …and many insolent expressions.” through this area. The road today is difficult to see as it winds its way through the trees towards the Jumonville retreat center. Please watch your step and take small children by the hand as the trail into Jumonville Glen can be steep and slippery. General Braddock divided his army east of Grantsville, Md. and took a “flying column” towards Fort Duquesne. When Braddock engaged with the French on July 9, the rear detachment, commanded by Colonel Thomas Dunbar, was encamped atop Chestnut Ridge. Here, Col. Dunbar received the news of Braddock’s defeat and that Braddock himself was seriously wounded. On July 11, Capt. Orme had retreated back to Dunbar’s camp. He wrote, “It was found necessary to clear some waggons for the wounded, many of whom were in a desperate situation; and as it was impossible to remove the stores, the Howitzer shells, some twelve pound shot, powder, and provision, were destroyed or buried.” On July 13, he noted, “We marched from hence to the Camp, near the great Meadows, where the General died.” Today, the area of Dunbar’s Camp is part of Jumonville, a Christian camp and retreat center. It is well known for the sixty-foot white cross that stands high on Dunbar’s Knob, offering a breathtaking and inspiring view for visitors. The Rindfuss Museum at Jumonville, operated by the Braddock Road Presvervation Associaton, contains artifacts from the Dunbar’s Camp and the Braddock Road. Step back in time to explore the original Braddock Trail and Dunbar’s Camp where Braddock stored his supplies and ammunition. Tours and special programs about Dunbar’s Camp and the Braddock Trail are available by appointment. For more information, tour appointments, free retreat packet, summer camp schedule, or DVD, visit their website at www.jumonville.org, e-mail info@jumonville.org, or call the office at 724-439-4912. For more information about the Braddock Campaign read: “History of an Expedition” by Winthrop Sergeant, “Braddock at the Monongahela” by Paul Kopperman, “Guns at the Forks” by Walter O’Meara, or “The Braddock Road Chronicles” by Andrew J. Wahl. = Hiking opportunity on the Braddock Trace. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Jun-09 rev Jan-11

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