Petroglyph

Guide 2010

brochure Petroglyph - Guide 2010
Park News National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Earth & Sky The official newspaper of Petroglyph National Monument 2010 Volume Ten Inside... Page 14 Page 6 Page 2 20 Years of Earth and Sky By Dr. Joseph P. Sanchez Superintendent of Petroglyph National Monument Since its establishment on June 27, 1990, the creasingly evident. Changes in the last decade, in staff at Petroglyph National Monument has been particular, have been dramatic to a stretch of land dedicated to the preservation and protection of that was once vacant. Residential and commercial the invaluable cultural and natural resources with- development around the Monument has occurred on all of its sides makin its boundaries. As ing it an island within we approach the annithe city limits. Today, versary of Petroglyph two roads, Unser Blvd. National Monument’s and Paseo del Norte first twenty years, we have divided Petrotake time to ponder the glyph National Monuantiquity of the petroment into three parts. glyphs made by NaWhile the results have tive Peoples and their been positive in regard relationship to earth to the progression of and sky. The secrets the City of Albuquerof such knowledge que, the effects on are buried in timeless wildlife have been sigpetroglyphs and arnificant. For example, cheological sites along White House Photo many river valleys, ra- President George H. W. Bush signs the law creating disruption of animal patterns for hunting vines and escarpments Petroglyph National Monument on June 27, 1990. and migration through of the American Southa once unencumbered west and northern habitat has been affected. Visitor uses have been, Mexico. Notably, Petroglyph National Monument preserves over 20,000 petroglyphs many of which to an extent, fragmented as the two roads have segtell of equinoxes, solstices, and other features of mented visitor activities within the Monument to possible sun-moon-earth relationships. That many areas between the roads. Currently, Petroglyph National Monument Indian cultures had sophisticated knowledge about is developing a Visitor Use Plan to define activithe sun, moon and night sky is especially evident at Chaco Canyon, the many Mayan sites, and Az- ties and uses within the Monument. In that retec temples. There are other stories behind each gard, the staff has taken a pro-active approach to petroglyph, some of which were made by Spanish managing the Monument. Within the context of these changes, consultation with associated tribes, colonial settlers. Their legacy is our inheritance. In the last twenty years, the challenges to who consider the Monument to be a sacred place, Petroglyph National Monument’s mission to pre- is ongoing. Thus resource protection takes many serve and protect its resources have become in- forms. To that end, the staff at Petroglyph National 2 Monument is engaged in visitor services, law enforcement activities, natural and cultural resources monitoring programs, and facility management projects. These activities serve to preserve and protect the Monument’s resources for the enjoyment of future generations. As an urban park, Petroglyph National Monument is located within the fastest growing area of Albuquerque. Recent expansive plans for additional residential development near the south end of the Monument are underway. Additionally, three new elementary schools are within walking distance of the Monument. On the very edge of the city, residential lots adjacent to Petroglyph National Monument enjoy panoramic views that, by dint of their locations, are protected in perpetuity. Monument neighbors appreciate having a National Park in their own back yard. Today land acquisition is almost complete. When the monument was established in 1990, half of the 7239 acres were already in public ownership. The State of New Mexico transferred 640 acres to the Federal Govern- ment in 2001. In addition, the City owns several thousand acres of Major Public Open Space lands immediately adjacent to the monument. Those lands, while not within the monument boundary, are maintained in their natural state for recreational use and as an open space preserve. The lands are part of Albuquerque’s 20,000 acres of designated and highly celebrated Major Public Open Space. The City of Albuquerque and the National Park Service continue to manage the lands cooperatively within the monument boundaries consistent with a Memorandum of Understanding. While the National Park Service manages the Atrisco Unit, the federally-owned portion of the Monument, the City of Albuquerque manages both the Boca Negra Unit and Piedras Marcadas Units. The logos of both the city Open Space and National Park Service are displayed on Monument signs and printed materials as a manifestation of the long standing cooperative relationship to manage this complex, dynamic and evolving national treasure. As an urban park, Petroglyph National Monument is located in the fastest growing area of Albuquerque. NPS photo When Petroglyph National Monument was created by congress on June 27, 1990, congress stipulated that the monument would be jointly managed by the city of Albuquerque and the National Park Service. Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 3 Point of Reference By Luis Garcia Albuquerque Public School Teacher and former Park Ranger Nestled on the west side of Albuquerque is Petroglyph National Monument which is considered a sacred place to the Pueblo peoples of the Rio Grande valley of New Mexico. The rich concentration of petroglyphs in this place is considered to be a cultural and sacred landscape as they are associated with the volcanoes, marking the place of emergence to the Pueblo people of the area. This place is also significant to geologists as it is also known as the Rio Grande rift, one of three rift zones in the world. Many different cultural groups recognize this place as a special place from ancient times to today. As a Pueblo person residing in Albuquerque, the Petroglyphs have always been a point of reference throughout my life from my childhood into adulthood. I always knew I was home when I saw the Rio Grande and the black cliffs of what is now Petroglyph National Monument. As a science educator of five years in a local public middle school, it is this sense of place that I see lacking with many of my students. This is attributed to two main factors. One of these factors is the age of technology and video games. When I ask my students, if they have been to the Albuquerque volcanoes, some were unaware that there are volcanoes in New Mexico. The volcanoes, which appear as hills on the west side of Albuquerque, are pretty prominent on the horizon. Perhaps they are often dismissed as just hills on the horizon and never given a second thought. Unfortunately, with today’s technology, many young people would rather spend their time in doors playing video games. Another factor is loss of language and culture. Both indigenous and hispano people of the Rio Grande Valley have experienced loss of language and culture. As a child, I remember hearing stories told by my grandfather about this place. This was a place that was to be respected. During the period of Americanization of the 1920’s, the people of the Rio Grande Valley suffered greatly as they were forbidden to speak their languages in schools and public places. Children were punished in school if caught speaking any language other than English. This shift of language did away with many of the traditional stories associated with places like the petroglyphs. Today’s youth are faced with a lot of challenges. Many come from non-traditional families and must deal with many hardships throughout their education. It is my hope, that through an integrated curriculum, students are able to learn to appreciate such a rich cultural, historical, and scientific place as the Albuquerque Petroglyphs. Many different cultural groups recognize this place as a special place from ancient times to today. Petroglyphs in Rinconada Canyon 4 Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 5 The Pursuit of Knowledge Luke’s Article Purple aster in Rinconada Canyon By Luke Fields Interpreter Very often, the most common question as rangers, are asked whether or not we know the that we receive at Petroglyph National Monument meaning behind the petroglyphs, we must answer is in regards to the meaning of the petroglyphs. no. Sometimes that question is very basic, such as, “Hey Well, at least that is the answer most of the ranger, do we know what the petroglyphs mean?” time. While many of the images here at Petroglyph But in many instances the question isn’t based National Monument hold their secrets closely, upon whether or not we know the meaning of the there may be some that researchers can convince petroglyphs, but a request to have the meaning of to give up their meaning. Approximately 30 of the the petroglyphs revealed to them. We feel that a 28,000 images here at the monument are believed lot of visitors expect us, as rangers, to be able to to represent brands left by early Spanish settlers. lead them to a 4-inch Brands, unlike other thick, dusty, leatherimagery, are legally bound codex sitting registered images upon a stand in the that date back as corner of the visitor a tradition to the center and assist them middle ages. with deciphering Preliminar y the meaning behind research on some of any petroglyph that the brand images here they may have seen at the monument while in the park. has traced the use of Unfortunately, no brands back to the such codex exists, 1850s in the area of as the images carved the monument, but here upon the rocks at it may be possible NPS Photo by Luke Fields to trace these brand Petroglyph National Monument 400 to Petroglyphs of letters and Christian crosses, such as images back to the 17th 700 years ago are not these in Rinconada Canyon, represent images carved by and 18th centuries. hieroglyphics, or a Spanish colonial settlers and their descendents. Research is ongoing written language. to determine if the Rather, the images that were carved here early Spanish colonial records contain references into the rocks by Native Americans and by early to livestock brands similar to those that are carved Spanish colonial settlers, each hold their own upon the rocks in the monument. secrets and stories, that were certainly known by So what does this all mean? Does it mean the person creating the petroglyph and perhaps by that soon when a visitor asks what a petroglyph others at the time, but those secrets and stories are containing a brand means, that the ranger will be not readily accessible to those of us who live in the able to give a complete history of that image? Once 21st Century. Many different groups claim heritage again, unfortunately no. Tracing a brand petroglyph to these images today, and different groups have back to the ranch and land grant that registered it different meanings for different petroglyphs. One may let us know the origin of the image, but it still group may call an image of a bird a macaw, while won’t tell us which person at the ranch carved the another group may call it a morning dove. It is not image, or more importantly why. And that is really the crux of the whole matter. the place of park rangers to choose who is right and which animal the image represents. So when we, Knowing that a brand petroglyph is derived from 6 NPS Photo by Luke Fields These abstract images may represent brands inscribed by Spanish Colonial settlers. Unlike other petroglyph images, it may be possible to trace the history of brands through early Spanish records. say the Armijo family, or for that matter knowing whether that bird image is a macaw or a morning dove, doesn’t tell us what was going through the head of the person at the time that they carved it. It doesn’t tell us why that image was important, or what it meant to him or her at the time. Today at Petroglyph National Monument we do not protect these images because we know the answer to all the questions. We protect these images because they were important enough for someone Petroglyph National Monument 400-700 years ago to carve them, and because the descendents of the land see their heritage here among the rocks, and this place is important to them. Tracing the origin of these brand images will not tell us the ‘why’ of the matter, but it can remind us that these images were important to real people at the time that they were carved, that they are not abstract designs without meaning and despite not knowing that meaning they still remain important to all of us today. Albuquerque, NM 7 P Paseo del Volcan 8 eR d. our s Piedras Marcadas Canyon -Undeveloped trail system -1.5 miles round-trip on a sandy, dirt path -Takes approx. 1.5 hours to complete the out and back trail -Water is not available, carry plenty of water -No restroom facilities -See approx. 400 petroglyphs -Pets allowed but must be on leash at all times -Free trail guide available at the visitor center Volcanoes Day Use Area -Unpaved trail system with several scenic miles of hiking -Water is not available, carry plenty of water -Pit restroom facilities available at the trail head -Pets allowed but must be on leash at all times -Free trail guide available at the visitor center -There are no petroglyphs at the volcanoes -Hikes range from one to three miles round trip P P Go lf C Mesa Poinit Trail 30 minutes Rinconada Canyon -Undeveloped trail system -2.2 miles round-trip on a sandy, dirt path -Takes 1 1/2 to 2 hours to complete the loop -See approx. 500 to 700 petroglyphs -No water is available, carry plenty of water -Pit restroom facilities at the trail head -Lock vehicles; set alarms, do not leave valuables in your vehicle. -Pets allowed but must be on leash at all times -Parking lot gate locks at 5 pm. -Free trail guide available at the visitor center Petroglyph National Monument P vd . P P Bl P er Cliff Base Trail 15 minutes Boca Negra Canyon -Developed trail system -Restrooms and drinking fountain -3 short trails, partly paved -Trails are not wheelchair or stroller accessible -Pets are not allowed on the trails -Parking fee per vehicle: $1 weekdays/$2 weekends -America the Beautiful park passes available at the monument’s visitor center. Un s Macaw Trail 5 minutes Albuquerque, NM 9 Green is Gold By Diane Souder Chief of Interpretation Las Imágenes Visitor Center, once the home of Dr. Sophie Aberle and William Brophy, was purchased for use as the Petroglyph National Monument Visitor Center in 1991. This adaptive reuse of an adobe home created an instant place for visitors to learn about the monument’s resources. Shading of the patio and use of shade ramadas helps keep the visitor center cool in the heat of the summer while the massing of the adobe structure historically keeps the temperatures warmer in winter. Sustainable landscaping adds beauty and helps maintain a special sense of place. The native vegetation planted in front of Las Imágenes Visitor Center, together with the interpretive signage, not only helps to inform visitors about native plants, but also their traditional uses by Native Americans and early Spanish settlers. Additionally, the plants help conserve water and minimize weeding or mowing. The National Park Service seeks to maintain a natural landscape as much as possible, an effort which works to Greater Roadrunner geococcyx californianus 10 ensure a successful stewardship...taking care of the resources for present and future generations. Petroglyph National Monument staff does not use herbicides, pesticides or fertilizers because of their impact on the natural environment. A drip watering system has been installed to help some plants survive long periods of drought. Some plants, especially those that have been here a long time, may experience damage by small animals but that is part of the natural process. An energy audit was conducted a few years ago, and since then the staff has replaced existing lighting with energy efficient equivalent using natural lighting whenever possible (solar tubes were installed in roofs), installed motion detectors on entrance way lights and solar lights in the parking lots, and directed outdoor lighting downward to help reduce light pollution. Environmentally responsible green cleaning practices help protect park resources by reducing or eliminating the release of harmful chemical pollutants into the environment. Here, park managers use fewer and safer cleaners and more energy efficient maintenance equipment. You may smell the fresh scent of citrus; know that the center is cleaned entirely with “green” products! As might well be expected, Petroglyph National Monument staff reduces the unnecessary consumption of natural resources by reducing waste and purchasing environmentally preferable products, using paper products with post-consumer recycled content, and buying products with reduced packaging. Throughout the park, you will see recycling centers. We recycle plastic, aluminum, and glass. Recycling, along with proper disposal of food wastes and trash, can reduce litter and pest problems in the park. Using the easily identified recycling receptacles for waste will reduce the amount of garbage sent to the local landfills. So help us think green! These recycling centers along with a boardwalk at Boca Negra Canyon, benches at the visitor center, and garbage cans are all made from recycled plastic lumber. Western National Parks Association is a nonprofit cooperating association of the National Park Service. Headquartered in Tucson, Arizona, the association was founded in 1938 as the Southwest Monuments Association to support the interpretive activities of the National Park Service. Today we operate bookstores at sixty-five National Park Service sites throughout the western United States, plus an online store with more than 600 educational products. In addition to developing publications, Western National Parks Association supports park research and helps fund programs that make park visits more meaningful. One of our founding goals was to create and publish park-related information unavailable elsewhere. Currently we have more than 175 books in print with many new publications introduced yearly. Petroglyph National Monument Western National ParksAssociation supports parks by producing more than a half million pieces of free literature annually, including trail guides, newspapers, schedules, and brochures. Since our 1938 founding, we’ve contributed more than $25 million to national parks, generated through store sales to park visitors and the support of our members. Visit our online store, www.wnpa.org, and browse dozens of award-winning publications on national parks, military history, geology, American Indians, earth sciences, field guides to plants, animals and birds, cookbooks, children’s books, prehistoric cultures, archeology, natural history, maps, and much, much more. Albuquerque, NM 11 Why Earthscope? Because Shift Happens Ongoing Discovery Petroglyph National Monument is located are collecting data on how much the Rio Grande along the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift. Its Rift is moving by setting global positioning systems ancient volcanic flows are the direct result from (GPS) in a grid system that runs from the central the rift’s activity over the last 30 million years. Colorado Rockies into southern New Mexico. Continental rifts are created when Earth’s crust The team is using GPS instruments, which rely stretches and thins creating an elongated valley on satellites for their measurements, to measure on the surface. The Rio Grande Rift runs south the miniscule movements of the Rio Grande Rift. to north from Chihuahua, Mexico to Leadville, Results have confirmed that the movements of Colorado. Rifts like the Rio Grande form basins the rift are small and slow, only between 0.5 and 2 that fill with sediments over millions of years. In millimeters per year. Albuquerque, the basin sediments are three miles deep. Rift movements can be caused by relative tectonic plate shifting, gravity, and rising magma bodies. Here we have two of the three processes causing a little movement; the slight rotation of the micro tectonic plate called the Colorado Plateau, located just west of the Rio Grande Rift; and the rising of a large magma body that is under Socorro, New Mexico (50 miles south of Albuquerque). How much movement and shifting are we talking about? Is Albuquerque going to have a large-scale earthquake or a volcanic eruption? This is where EarthScope comes into the picture. EarthScope is a nationwide effort that applies the latest science and technology to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and understand processes that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The western United States is a prime target area for EarthScope to investigate processes that result in elevated Graphic by Larry Crumpler, Ph.D., topography, earthquakes, and volcanism NM Museum of Natural History and Science because it’s hot, literally. The crust under the western U.S. is young, hot, and restless. That’s why we have such diverse topography, from EarthScope is a collaborative project whose some of the highest mountain ranges to the lowest partners include the National Science Foundation, desert flats. the USGS, and NASA. For more information on How is EarthScope studying the Rio Grande EarthScope visit www.earthscope.org Rift? A team of scientists from the University of Colorado and the University of New Mexico, with funding from the National Science Foundation, Frequently we think of our local National wasn’t lost during a hunt but rather was left behind Parks or National Monuments as static, changeless in a camp or a site where the prehistoric First and little to nothing new happening. Yet nothing Americans were manufacturing stone implements. could be further from the truth. At What is known about sites of this period Petroglyph National Monument we is that they, “…are thought to be seasonal are always making new discoveries and occupations. Most are on cliff tops at canyon adding more to the rich and diverse head locations with others established at cultural history of the area. mainly basalt raw outcrops. The overall A case in point is when one of technology expressed in assemblages linked the Monument’s buildings was affected to the Jay phase requires future study…” by rainwater. It was decided that some as stated by Noel Justice in his 2002 alterations to the landscape may deflect Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the the rain water away from the building. Southwestern United States. Given the location of the building and its Fortunately for us, we have this modern use as a residence, it was thought projectile point to tell us how old the that the likelihood of discovering any site is, without it we would be clueless. historic or prehistoric cultural material This shows how important it is to leave would be nonexistent. artifacts in place or in-situ in their original However such was not the case. context so that they may provide all of us During the review or survey of the area Jay Projectile Point a complete narrative of our ancestors we discovered a basalt projectile point. Ca. 11-8,000 B.P. and the use of the landscape at that This point is classified as a Jay or Rio moment in time. The Monument staff has Grande and dates from around 11,000 B.P. to 8,000 subsequently registered this site with the State’s B.P. (years before the present). This projectile point Archaeological Records Management Section and dates back 8,000 years! It is not an arrowhead. This will avoid disturbing the site in the future. Who point was used on a spear-shaft and was thrown knows what other stories this site may provide to using a device called a spear-thrower or atlatl. us in the future regarding our past? Shortly thereafter, we discovered other chipped stone artifacts suggesting that this point By Susanna Villanueva Park Ranger 12 By Ronald C.D. Fields Archaeological Technician Petroglyph National Monument Pueblo IV pot sherd and cracked earth Albuquerque, NM 13 Kids Corner Are you interested in exploring? Do you like art, science, history or nature? How about plants and animals, sailing ships, dinosaurs or trains? Would you like to learn more about the National Parks that belong to you? Then becoming a Junior Ranger could be for you! Many National Parks offer visitors the opportunity to join the National Park Service family as Junior Rangers. Interested students complete a series of activities during their park visit, share their answers with a park ranger and receive an official Junior Ranger badge or patch and Junior Ranger certificate. Children grades K-6 can learn more about Petroglyph National Monument by participating in our Junior Ranger program. Ask at the visitor center desk for your Junior Ranger booklet so you can earn your badge, patch and certificate. New at Petroglyph National Monument is the Senior Ranger Program. Designed for anyone over the age of 12, the Senior Ranger Program explores the natural and cultural resources of the monument at a more challenging level. If you are interested in participating in this program, please ask at the information desk for a Senior Ranger booklet, a monument brochure and a geology brochure. Those completing the Senior Ranger Program will earn a patch, pin and postcard. Newspaper Information Remember kids, even bugs, like this stink bug, are under Ranger Protection inside National Parks and Monuments Editor Luke Fields Editorial Board Alice Montoya Marie Gore Diane Souder Darkling beetle tentyrrinae bothrotes Other Contributors Sarah Molleur Ed Dunn Dee Kerr Questions & Comments NPS photo by Diane Souder There are hundreds of parks that offer Jr. Ranger programs, how many can you earn? 14 505-899-0205 x.338 Luke_Fields@nps.gov Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 15 Regulations and Safety • All visitors must stay on existing trails to avoid damage to fragile desert vegetation. • Pets are allowed (except in Boca Negra) but must be on a leash 6 feet in length or less, must be under the control of the handler at all times, and have their waste removed to a trash receptacle. • Motorized vehicles (ATVs, motorcycles) are only permitted in parking lots. • State firearms laws apply. The discharge of any weapon is prohibited. Target practice, sport shooting, traps and hunting are prohibited. The carrying or shooting of BB/air soft/pellet guns, sling shots or paintball guns is prohibited. • All fireworks are prohibited. • Camping is not permitted anywhere within the park. • Please pack out any trash you may have with you during your hike. • All physical and cultural objects (plants, rocks, animals, petroglyphs, and other archaeological remains) are protected by law. • It is prohibited to excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface any archaeological resource. • Damaging or altering fences or signs is prohibited. FOR ALL EMERGENCIES DIAL 911 To Report Violations Call: National Park Service 505-899-0205 OR City of Albuquerque Open Space Dispatch 505-452-5206 Open 7am to 6 pm Swainson’s Hawk buteo swainsoni Park Hours: Visitor Center - 8 am to 5 pm Boca Negra Canyon - 8 am to 5 pm Rinconada Canyon - 8 am to 5 pm Volcanoes - 9 am to 5 pm Petroglyph National Monument is jointly managed by the National Park Service and the City of Albuquerque Don’t leave valuables unattended! Illustration courtasy of Lisa Horstman/GSMA

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