Petroglyph

Guide 2012

brochure Petroglyph - Guide 2012
Park News National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior The official newspaper of Petroglyph National Monument ECHOES from the EARTH 2012 Volume Eleven Inside... Page 16 Page 6 Page 2 A Midsummer Night’s Dream And Other Important Business By Dr. Joseph P. Sánchez Superintendent of Petroglyph National Monument Petroglyph National Monument is pleased open air environment under our New Mexico sky. to announce that the construction of the new amAside from the accessible seating area at the phitheater is nearing an end. By fall, Petroglyph top and bottom portion of the amphitheater, an acNational Monument cessible sidewalk will will offer programs to facilitate entrance and the public at the new exit from it. Interpretive structure. Without wayside exhibits will doubt, the amphithealso be developed. Two ater opens a new chapgeologic and cultural ter for Petroglyph Nawaysides, for example, tional Monument in its will be placed along services to the visiting the walkway leading to public and our neighthe amphitheater. The bors. The amphithewayside exhibits will ater offers an opportuexplain such features nity for visitors to enjoy of the land and people open air evening and that have historically day time lectures and NPS Photo surrounded the west presentations, cultural The new amphitheater, constructed with Federal mesa escarpment with demonstrations, and Lands Recreation Enhancement Act funds. its marvelous natural impromptu programs. and cultural resources. Special groups incluRestroom facilities and sive of students from neighboring schools within drinking water are available nearby. Albuquerque Public Schools and other school disThe use of new media technology marks a tricts around the state will be welcome at the new new approach to the presentations at Petroglyph facility. National Monument. The amphitheater, for examAdditionally, the amphitheater will allow ple, will feature large visual aids, visually interacfor tiered stadium-style seating. Truly, there is not tive programs, and large screen presentations. Fua bad seat in the place! The new structure adds ture plans will include live streaming of programs flexibility to our programs. With it, we can move that can be viewed by anyone across the country as our programs away from the visitor center patio, well as by students utilizing long distance learning. although the patio will be used for different pro- These technological amenities at the amphitheater grams that don’t require an amphitheater such as place Petroglyph National Monument more in the book signings. The location of the amphitheater, league with other National Parks that do have ammoreover, provides more isolation from the city’s phitheaters. ambient lights and sounds and allows for a more 2 Petroglyph National Monument’s Federal Fire Plan Natural and Cultural Resource Advisors damage assessment report will be completed and if arson or negligence on the part of an individual and or commercial entity is identified, the responsible parties will be held accountable according to law. One additional effort carried out by Petroglyph National Monument, within the Federal Jurisdiction of the Monument, has been to clear debris and undergrowth from the boundary line as much as possible. To that end, we continue to remind our neighbors that the cleared areas are not trails, but act more of a firebreak along the boundary. We also remind our neighbors whose back yards straddle the boundary not to throw cuttings, leaves, or other debris into that area. As a reminder, throwing cut brush and construction debris from residential and commercial property over walls and across fences into Petroglyph National Monument is strictly prohibited. Every year wildfire dangers increase with each successive drought. It looks like this year will be no different. It is important to know that Petroglyph National Monument has a Fire Plan that spells out the responsibilities of the Park Superintendent, the Chief Ranger, as our key fire management contact person, and other City of Albuquerque, Bernalillo County and State authorities. There are two fire control agencies with direct jurisdiction and responsibility within Petroglyph National Monument. They are the Albuquerque Fire Department and the Bernalillo County Fire Department. Effective in May of 2011, a Mutual Aid Agreement was signed between these two fire departments and the National Park Service’s Wildland Fire Four Winds Group, located in Grants, NM. This defines the responsibilities for general fire control and initial attack. The Albuquerque Fire Department has full suppression and control authority over all fires that occur within Albuquerque’s city limits. Should a wildland fire incident occur within Petroglyph National Monument, a Unified Command will be set up with the Albuquerque Fire Management Officer and the initial attack agency per jurisdiction. The NPS Fire Management Officer of the Four Winds Group will be notified and the federal Albuquerque Zone Dispatch will send personnel and equipment, if necessary, to assist. NPS Photo An After Action Review (AAR) of any wildfire Posted around the monument are fire danger signs will be completed to assess fire origin and cause designed to inform park visitors and local residents determination. Included with this AAR, an NPS about current fire conditions. To that end, we continue to remind our neighbors that the cleared areas are not trails, but act more of a firebreak along the boundary. Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 3 Point of Reference By Luis Garcia Albuquerque Public School Teacher and former Park Ranger Nestled on the west side of Albuquerque is Petroglyph National Monument which is considered a sacred place to the Pueblo peoples of the Rio Grande valley of New Mexico. The rich concentration of petroglyphs in this place is considered to be a cultural and sacred landscape as they are associated with the volcanoes, marking the place of emergence to the Pueblo people of the area. This place is also significant to geologists as it is also known as the Rio Grande rift, one of three rift zones in the world. Many different cultural groups recognize this place as a special place from ancient times to today. As a Pueblo person residing in Albuquerque, the Petroglyphs have always been a point of reference throughout my life from my childhood into adulthood. I always knew I was home when I saw the Rio Grande and the black cliffs of what is now Petroglyph National Monument. As a science educator of seven years in a local public middle school, it is this sense of place that I see lacking with many of my students. This is attributed to two main factors. One of these factors is the age of technology and video games. When I ask my students, if they have been to the Albuquerque volcanoes, some were unaware that there are volcanoes in New Mexico. The volcanoes, which appear as hills on the west side of Albuquerque, are pretty prominent on the horizon. Perhaps they are often dismissed as just hills on the horizon and never given a second thought. Unfortunately, with today’s technology, many young people would rather spend their time in doors playing video games. Another factor is loss of language and culture. Both indigenous and hispano people of the Rio Grande Valley have experienced loss of language and culture. As a child, I remember hearing stories told by my grandfather about this place. This was a place that was to be respected. During the period of Americanization of the 1920’s, the people of the Rio Grande Valley suffered greatly as they were forbidden to speak their languages in schools and public places. Children were punished in school if caught speaking any language other than English. This shift of language did away with many of the traditional stories associated with places like the petroglyphs. Today’s youth are faced with a lot of challenges. Many come from non-traditional families and must deal with many hardships throughout their education. It is my hope, that through an integrated curriculum, students are able to learn to appreciate such a rich cultural, historical, and scientific place as the Albuquerque Petroglyphs. Many different cultural groups recognize this place as a special place from ancient times to today. Petroglyphs in Rinconada Canyon 4 Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 5 The Pursuit of Knowledge Luke’s Article Purple aster in Rinconada Canyon By Luke Fields Interpreter Very often, the most common question we, as rangers, are asked whether or not we know that we receive at Petroglyph National Monument the meaning behind the petroglyphs, we must is in regards to the meaning of the petroglyphs. answer no. Sometimes that question is very basic, such as, “Hey Well, at least that is the answer most of the ranger, do we know what the petroglyphs mean?” time. While many of the images here at Petroglyph But in many instances the question isn’t based National Monument hold their secrets closely, upon whether or not we know the meaning of the there may be some that researchers can convince petroglyphs, but a request to have the meaning of to give up their meaning. Approximately 30 of the the petroglyphs revealed to them. We feel that a 28,000 images here at the monument are believed lot of visitors expect us, as rangers, to be able to to represent brands left by early Spanish settlers. lead them to a 4-inch Brands, unlike other thick, dusty, leatherimagery, are legally bound codex sitting registered images upon a stand in the that date back as corner of the visitor a tradition to the center and assist them middle ages. with deciphering Preliminar y the meaning behind research on some of any petroglyph that the brand images here they may have seen at the monument while in the park. has traced the use of Unfortunately, no brands back to the such codex exists, 1850s in the area of as the images carved the monument, but here upon the rocks at it may be possible NPS Photo by Luke Fields to trace these brand Petroglyph National Monument 400 to Petroglyphs of letters and Christian crosses, such as images back to the 17th 700 years ago are not these in Rinconada Canyon, represent images carved by and 18th centuries. hieroglyphics, or a Spanish colonial settlers and their descendents. Research is ongoing written language. to determine if the Rather, the images that were carved here early Spanish colonial records contain references into the rocks by Native Americans and by early to livestock brands similar to those that are carved Spanish colonial settlers, each hold their own upon the rocks in the monument. secrets and stories, that were certainly known by So what does this all mean? Does it mean the person creating the petroglyph and perhaps by that soon when a visitor asks what a petroglyph others at the time, but those secrets and stories are containing a brand means, that the ranger will be not readily accessible to those of us who live in the able to give a complete history of that image? Once 21st Century. Many different groups claim heritage again, unfortunately no. Tracing a brand petroglyph to these images today, and different groups have back to the ranch and land grant that registered it different meanings for different petroglyphs. One may let us know the origin of the image, but it still group may call an image of a bird a macaw, while won’t tell us which person at the ranch carved the another group may call it a mourning dove. It is image, or more importantly why. And that is really the crux of the whole matter. not the place of park rangers to choose who is right and which animal the image represents. So when Knowing that a brand petroglyph is derived from 6 NPS Photo by Luke Fields These abstract images may represent brands inscribed by Spanish Colonial settlers. Unlike other petroglyph images, it may be possible to trace the history of brands through early Spanish records. say the Armijo family, or for that matter knowing whether that bird image is a macaw or a morning dove, doesn’t tell us what was going through the head of the person at the time that they carved it. It doesn’t tell us why that image was important, or what it meant to him or her at the time. Today at Petroglyph National Monument we do not protect these images because we know the answer to all the questions. We protect these images because they were important enough for someone Petroglyph National Monument 400-700 years ago to carve them, and because the descendents of the land see their heritage here among the rocks, and this place is important to them. Tracing the origin of these brand images will not tell us the ‘why’ of the matter, but it can remind us that these images were important to real people at the time that they were carved, that they are not abstract designs without meaning and despite not knowing that meaning they still remain important to all of us today. Albuquerque, NM 7 Why Earthscope? Because Shift Happens Ongoing Discovery Petroglyph National Monument is located are collecting data on how much the Rio Grande along the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift. Its Rift is moving by setting global positioning systems ancient volcanic flows are the direct result from (GPS) in a grid system that runs from the central the rift’s activity over the last 30 million years. Colorado Rockies into southern New Mexico. Continental rifts are created when Earth’s crust The team is using GPS instruments, which rely stretches and thins creating an elongated valley on satellites for their measurements, to measure on the surface. The Rio Grande Rift runs south the miniscule movements of the Rio Grande Rift. to north from Chihuahua, Mexico to Leadville, Results have confirmed that the movements of Colorado. Rifts like the Rio Grande form basins the rift are small and slow, only between 0.5 and 2 that fill with sediments over millions of years. In millimeters per year. Albuquerque, the basin sediments are three miles deep. Rift movements can be caused by relative tectonic plate shifting, gravity, and rising magma bodies. Here we have two of the three processes causing a little movement; the slight rotation of the micro tectonic plate called the Colorado Plateau, located just west of the Rio Grande Rift; and the rising of a large magma body that is under Socorro, New Mexico (50 miles south of Albuquerque). How much movement and shifting are we talking about? Is Albuquerque going to have a large-scale earthquake or a volcanic eruption? This is where EarthScope comes into the picture. EarthScope is a nationwide effort that applies the latest science and technology to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and understand processes that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The western United States is a prime target area for EarthScope to investigate processes that result in elevated Graphic by Larry Crumpler, Ph.D., topography, earthquakes, and volcanism NM Museum of Natural History and Science because it’s hot, literally. The crust under the western U.S. is young, hot, and restless. That’s why we have such diverse topography, from EarthScope is a collaborative project whose some of the highest mountain ranges to the lowest partners include the National Science Foundation, desert flats. the USGS, and NASA. For more information on How is EarthScope studying the Rio Grande EarthScope visit www.earthscope.org Rift? A team of scientists from the University of Colorado and the University of New Mexico, with funding from the National Science Foundation, Frequently we think of our local National chipped stone artifacts suggesting that this point Parks or National Monuments as static, changeless wasn’t lost during a hunt but rather was left and little to nothing new happening. Yet nothing behind in a camp or a site where the prehistoric could be further from the truth. At First Americans were manufacturing Petroglyph National Monument we stone implements. What is known about are always making new discoveries and sites of this period is that they, “…are adding more to the rich and diverse thought to be seasonal occupations. Most cultural history of the area. are on cliff tops at canyon head locations A case in point is when one of with others established at mainly basalt the Monument’s buildings was affected raw outcrops. The overall technology by rainwater. It was decided that some expressed in assemblages linked to the Jay alterations to the landscape may deflect phase requires future study…” as stated by the rain water away from the building. Noel Justice in his 2002 Stone Age Spear Given the location of the building and its and Arrow Points of the Southwestern modern use as a residence, it was thought United States. that the likelihood of discovering any Fortunately for us, we have this historic or prehistoric cultural material projectile point to tell us how old the would be nonexistent. site is, without it we would be clueless. However, such was not the case. This shows how important it is to leave During the review or survey of the area Jay Projectile Point artifacts in place or in-situ in their we discovered a basalt projectile point. original context so that they may provide Ca. 11-8,000 B.P. This point is classified as a Jay or Rio all of us a complete narrative of our Grande and dates from around 11,000 ancestors and the use of the landscape B.P. to 8,000 B.P. (years before the present). This at that moment in time. The Monument staff has projectile point dates back 8,000 years! It is not an subsequently registered this site with the State’s arrowhead. This point was used on a spear-shaft Archaeological Records Management Section and and was thrown using a device called a spear- will avoid disturbing the site in the future. Who thrower or atlatl. knows what other stories this site may provide to Shortly thereafter, we discovered other us in the future regarding our past? By Susanna Villanueva Interpreter 8 By Ronald C.D. Fields Archaeological Technician Petroglyph National Monument Pueblo IV pot sherd and cracked earth Albuquerque, NM 9 P Mesa Poinit Trail 30 minutes P eR d. P P our s Cliff Base Trail 15 minutes Go lf C Macaw Trail 5 minutes Boca Negra Canyon -Developed trail system -Restrooms and drinking fountain -3 short trails, partly paved -Trails are not wheelchair or stroller accessible -Pets are not allowed on the trails -Parking fee per vehicle: $1 weekdays/$2 weekends -Interpretive trail guide available at the monument’s visitor center for $0.75. P Piedras Marcadas Canyon -Undeveloped trail system -1.5 miles round-trip on a sandy, dirt path -Takes approx. 1.5 hours to complete the out and back trail -Water is not available, carry plenty of water -No restroom facilities -See approx. 400 petroglyphs -Pets allowed but must be on leash at all times -Free trail guide available at the visitor center 10 Petroglyph National Monument Bl vd . P er P Rinconada Canyon -Undeveloped trail system -2.2 miles round-trip on a sandy, dirt path -Takes 1 1/2 to 2 hours to complete the loop -See approx. 500 to 700 petroglyphs -No water is available, carry plenty of water -Pit restroom facilities at the trail head -Lock vehicles; set alarms, do not leave valuables in your vehicle. -Pets allowed but must be on leash at all times -Parking lot gate locks at 5 pm. -Free trail guide available at the visitor center Un s Paseo del Volcan Volcanoes Day Use Area -Unpaved trail system with several scenic miles of hiking -Water is not available, carry plenty of water -Pit restroom facilities available at the trail head -Pets allowed but must be on leash at all times -Free trail guide available at the visitor center -There are no petroglyphs at the volcanoes -Hikes range from one to three miles round trip Albuquerque, NM 11 More Fun in the Sun! The Importance of Outdoor Education By Allison Martin Interpreter Today, children spend three hours a day watching television and playing video games. Not only is the lack of mobility detrimental to their overall health, but it is also limiting their vast minds to the endless knowledge that can be gained from being outdoors. Petroglyph National Monument offers numerous outdoor experiences to help children connect to the outdoor world. Educating our children about the importance of stewardship by being a part of our monument’s past, present and future is a great way to continue to pass down history, tradition, and culture. Stewardship is something we value here at Petroglyph National Monument. By gathering together and protecting the monument, children are not only getting a sense of personal pride and accomplishment, but they are also keeping our monument’s history alive for future generations to enjoy. By scheduling a tour at Petroglyph National Monument and using the monument as an outdoor classroom, young students and adults alike can gain an understanding of the history, culture and traditions of Ancestral Puebloan and Spanish 12 Colonial lifestyles; the use and purpose of native plants; an appreciation of climate change; and facts on mammals, reptiles and birds of the area. Students will also come into contact with breath taking views, understand our ecology and geography by hiking our fun and exciting trails, and gain a sense of community and personal responsibility for the protecting of this and other special places. And of course, exercise is a key component to our children’s overall health and well being! Stewardship will allow children to gain a sense of pride, competence, and importance in their role of protecting and preserving this park and other geologic formations around the world. So let’s work together and get children outside and educate them about the wondrous world around them! Here at Petroglyph, our ranger-guided education programs are offered all year long and are available to a wide range of different groups including all grade and age levels. Just call 505-8990205 ext. 332 and schedule your tour today! Oh, and don’t forget the sunscreen! Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 13 Green is Gold By Diane Souder Chief of Interpretation Las Imágenes Visitor Center, once the home of Dr. Sophie Aberle and William Brophy, was purchased for use as the Petroglyph National Monument Visitor Center in 1991. This adaptive reuse of an adobe home created an instant place for visitors to learn about the monument’s resources. Shading of the patio and use of shade ramadas helps keep the visitor center cool in the heat of the summer while the massing of the adobe structure historically keeps the temperatures warmer in winter. Sustainable landscaping adds beauty and helps maintain a special sense of place. The native vegetation planted in front of Las Imágenes Visitor Center, together with the interpretive signage, not only helps to inform visitors about native plants, but also their traditional uses by Native Americans and early Spanish settlers. Additionally, the plants help conserve water and minimize weeding or mowing. The National Park Service seeks to maintain a natural landscape as much as possible, an effort which works to ensure a successful stewardship...taking care of the resources for present and future generations. Petroglyph National Monument staff does not use herbicides, pesticides or fertilizers because of their impact on the natural environment. A drip watering system has been installed to help some plants survive long periods of drought. Some plants, especially those that have been here a long time, may experience damage by small animals but that is part of the natural process. An energy audit was conducted a few years ago, and since then the staff has replaced existing lighting with energy efficient equivalent using natural lighting whenever possible (solar tubes were installed in roofs), installed motion detectors on entrance way lights and solar lights in the parking lots, and directed outdoor lighting downward to help reduce light pollution. Environmentally responsible green cleaning practices help protect park resources by reducing or eliminating the release of harmful chemical pollutants into the environment. Here, park managers use fewer and safer cleaners and more energy efficient maintenance equipment. You may smell the fresh scent of citrus; know that the center is cleaned entirely with “green” products! As might well be expected, Petroglyph National Monument staff reduces the unnecessary consumption of natural resources by reducing waste and purchasing environmentally preferable products, using paper products with post-consumer recycled content, and buying products with reduced packaging. Throughout the park, you will see recycling centers. We recycle plastic, aluminum, and glass. Recycling, along with proper disposal of food wastes and trash, can reduce litter and pest problems in the park. Using the easily identified recycling receptacles for waste will reduce the amount of garbage sent to the local landfills. So help us think green! Western National Parks Association is a nonprofit cooperating association of the National Park Service. Headquartered in Tucson, Arizona, the association was founded in 1938 as the Southwest Monuments Association to support the interpretive activities of the National Park Service. Today we operate bookstores at sixty-five National Park Service sites throughout the western United States, plus an online store with more than 600 educational products. In addition to developing publications, Western National Parks Association supports park research and helps fund programs that make park visits more meaningful. One of our founding goals was to create and publish park-related information unavailable elsewhere. Currently we have more than 175 books in print with many new publications introduced yearly. Western National ParksAssociation supports parks by producing more than a half million pieces of free literature annually, including trail guides, newspapers, schedules, and brochures. Since our 1938 founding, we’ve contributed more than $25 million to national parks, generated through store sales to park visitors and the support of our members. Visit our online store, www.wnpa.org, and browse dozens of award-winning publications on national parks, military history, geology, American Indians, earth sciences, field guides to plants, animals and birds, cookbooks, children’s books, prehistoric cultures, archeology, natural history, maps, and much, much more. Greater Roadrunner geococcyx californianus 14 Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 15 Kids Corner Are you interested in exploring? Do you like art, science, history or nature? How about plants and animals, sailing ships, dinosaurs or trains? Would you like to learn more about the National Parks that belong to you? Then becoming a Junior Ranger could be for you! Many National Parks offer visitors the opportunity to join the National Park Service family as Junior Rangers. Interested students complete a series of activities during their park visit, share their answers with a park ranger and receive an official Junior Ranger badge or patch and Junior Ranger certificate. Children grades K-6 can learn more about Petroglyph National Monument by participating in our Junior Ranger program. Ask at the visitor center desk for your Junior Ranger booklet so you can earn your badge, patch and certificate. New at Petroglyph National Monument is the Senior Ranger Program. Designed for anyone over the age of 12, the Senior Ranger Program explores the natural and cultural resources of the monument at a more challenging level. If you are interested in participating in this program, please ask at the information desk for a Senior Ranger booklet, a monument brochure and a geology brochure. Those completing the Senior Ranger Program will earn a patch, pin and postcard. Newspaper Information Remember kids, even bugs, like this stink bug, are under Ranger Protection inside National Parks and Monuments Editor Luke Fields Editorial Board Diane Souder Susanna Villanueva Questions & Comments Darkling beetle tentyrrinae bothrotes 505-899-0205 x.338 Luke_Fields@nps.gov NPS photo by Diane Souder There are hundreds of parks that offer Jr. Ranger programs, how many can you earn? 16 THANK YOU! This newspaper was printed with donation box funds collected at the visitor center. Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 17 A National Park Southwest Guide There are over 50 parks within a single day’s drive of Albuquerque! NOTE: Driving times are approximate, zones not to scale. Mesa Verde National Park Approx. 5 Hour Drive 18 Petrified Forest National Park Approx. 4 Hour Drive Passes to Your Next Adventure! Annual and Lifetime Federal Lands Passes No matter who you are, there is a Federal Recreation Lands Pass available for you! For the general public, the Annual Pass is $80 and is good for 12 months. For those age 62 and over, the Senior Pass is $10 and is good for life! Disabled citizens are eligible for the free Access Pass which has no expiration date. And new to the pass program is the free Military Pass, available for active duty military members and their dependents and is good for 12 months as well! Petroglyph National Monument does not charge any federal fees for access or use, but a portion of funds collected from lands pass sales at the visitor center do stay in the monument for local improvements. Your recent pass sales, under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, have helped fund monument improvements such as the rehabilitation of the Rinconada trail head parking area (pictured below) and the new amphitheater located at the visitor center. Grand Canyon National Park Approx. 7 Hour Drive Petroglyph National Monument Albuquerque, NM 19 Regulations and Safety • All visitors must stay on existing trails to avoid damage to fragile desert vegetation. • Pets are allowed (except in Boca Negra) but must be on a leash 6 feet in length or less, must be under the control of the handler at all times, and have their waste removed to a trash receptacle. • Motorized vehicles (ATVs, motorcycles) are only permitted in parking lots. • State firearms laws apply. The discharge of any weapon is prohibited. Target practice, sport shooting, traps and hunting are prohibited. The carrying or shooting of BB/air soft/pellet guns, sling shots or paintball guns is prohibited. • All fireworks are prohibited. • Camping is not permitted anywhere within the park. • Please pack out any trash you may have with you during your hike. • All physical and cultural objects (plants, rocks, animals, petroglyphs, and other archaeological remains) are protected by law. • It is prohibited to excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface any archaeological resource. • Damaging or altering fences or signs is prohibited. FOR ALL EMERGENCIES DIAL 911 To Report Violations Call: National Park Service 505-899-0205 OR City of Albuquerque Open Space Dispatch 505-452-5206 Open 7am to 6 pm Swainson’s Hawk buteo swainsoni Park Hours: Visitor Center - 8 am to 5 pm Boca Negra Canyon - 8 am to 5 pm Rinconada Canyon - 8 am to 5 pm Volcanoes - 9 am to 5 pm Petroglyph National Monument is jointly managed by the National Park Service and the City of Albuquerque Don’t leave valuables unattended! Illustration courtesy of Lisa Horstman/GSMA

also available

National Parks
USFS NW