"Sunset over foggy mountains, Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain
Butterfly Field Guide
The Complete Butterfly Field Guide of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).
The Complete Butterfly Field Guide of the Santa Monica Mountains Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area 2 1 Table of COntents How To Use This Field Guide 2 Basic Lepidoptera Structures 5 Terms and Definitions 6 Family Common Name Family Scientific Name Swallowtails Whites and Sulphurs Coppers, Hairstreaks, and Blues Metalmarks Brushfoots Skippers Papilionidae 7 Pieridae 13 Lycaenidae 25 Riodinidae 49 Nymphalidae 53 Hesperiidae 75 Index 91 Acknowledgments 94 How To Use This Field Guide The chapters in this guide are divided into scientific families. The beginning of each chapter lists the different subfamilies those butterflies can be divided into, if any. Some of these names are self-explanatory - Blues, Whites, etc. - and others - Admirals, Fritillaries, etc. - are less intuitive. Each butterfly has the following information: common and scientific name, size, flight time, caterpillar food plant(s), identification information, and a photo. The flight time is a range when you will see the butterflies locally in their adult form. In this guide, butterflies are listed in each chapter from most to least common. Each subfamily should been read as a chapter within a chapter. For example, in Lycaenidae, Coppers will be listed most to least common, then Hairstreaks, then Blues. 4 3 The symbols below may be found at the upper, inside corner of each page. They indicate the rarity of the species, both in the Santa Monica Mountains and throughout its entire expanse. Uncommon in the Santa Monica Mountains Rare in the Santa Monica Mountains Threatened throughout its range Endangered throughout its range Although some butterflies in the Santa Monica Mountains are on the verge of extinction, none of them are currently protected by the Endangered Species Act. Butterflies are a vital indicator species due to their sensitivity to environmental changes. Because butterflies have been captured by enthusiasts for centuries, scientists are able to study long-term shifts in populations, ranges, and biodiversity. First, areas that are getting warmer have flowers blooming earlier than previous years. Butterflies in these areas are pressured to adjust to these changes in asynchronization and are, consequently, emerging earlier. Second, butterfly ranges are changing. Recent studies have shown that butterfly ranges are shifting over time - primarily North - due to changes in microclimates. Third, butterfly diversity is decreasing. This is contributed to a variety of factors, including: habitat destruction and/or fragmentation, pollution, and the spread of invasive species that do not support butterfly diversity. Although some species are growing at a rapid pace, other, more specialized ones are declining. Remember, the mission of the National Park Service is to preserve unimpaired the natural resources of the park system, so we ask that you please do not catch or hurt the butterflies. Thank you! 6 5 Basic Lepidoptera Structures Terms and Definitions Eyespot - a pattern on the wings that resembles an eye. May intimidate or distract predators. False Head - tails and eyespots that mimic the antennae and head of a butterfly. Patterns on wings often draw the eye to the false head. Lepidoptera - the order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. Means “scale wing.” Overscaling - a heavy patch of scales. Scale - butterfly wings are composed of microscopic scales. Stigma - a patch of scent scales found on males that are used during courtship. Common characteristic of hairstreaks and skippers. Diagram by Simon Coombes Tail - part of the wings that sticks out around the anal angle. 8 7 Swallowtails Papilionidae The Swallowtails are the largest butterflies in the Santa Monica Mountains. They are easily identifiable by their long tails which mimic antennae. There are only four species of Swallowtails found in the Santa Monica Mountains, and their bright colors and size allow for easy identification. Note: The Family Papilionidae also includes Parnassions; however, none have been found in the Santa Monica Mountains. 10 9 Western Tiger Swallowtail Papilio rutulus Size: 2 3/4 - 4 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: sycamore, cottonwood, willow, alder Yellow with four vertical, black stripes on upperside. Underside has two orange spots near the end of the inner margin. Anise Swallowtail Papilio zelicaon Size: 2 3/4 - 3 1/2 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: fennel or other carrot family Wings have yellow rectangles outlined by a wide, black border. Has an orange eyespot near the tail with a round, black center. 12 11 Pale Swallowtail Papilio eurymedon Giant Swallowtail Papilio cresphontes Size: 2 1/2 - 3 1/2 inches Flight Time: Feb-Oct Food Plants: Ceanothus, other buckhorn family Size: 4 - 6 1/4 inches Flight Time: Mar-Oct Food Plants: citrus Similar to Western Tiger Swallowtail, but cream colored instead of yellow. Narrow, pointed forewing. Photo by Randy Philips Black with yellow spots spanning wing to wing. Each tail has a yellow spot outlined in black. Photo by Robert Behrstock 14 13 Whites and Sulphurs Pieridae Subfamily Common Name Subfamily Scientific Name Whites Pierinae 15 Sulphurs/Yellows Coliadinae 19 The Whites and Sulphurs are medium to small in size. They are white, yellow, or orange in color and may have black or red markings. Most of the caterpillars feed on plants from the Mustard family. All adults from this family are nectar feeders. 16 15 Checkered White Pontia protodice Cabbage White Pieris rapae Size: 1 3/4 - 2 1/4 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: black mustard, wild radish, nasturtium Size: 1 1/2 - 2 1/2 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: native and non-native mustards White with brown or black checkered pattern on the front of the pointed wing tip. Upperside white with gray tips on forewings. Males have one dark, submarginal spot; females have two. Photo by Jeffrey Pippen 18 17 Sara Orangetip Anthocharis sara Becker’s White Pontia beckerii Size: 1 5/8 - 2 inches Flight Time: Feb-Aug Food Plants: bladderpod Size: 1 1/16 - 1 1/2 inches Flight Time: Feb-June Food Plants: native mustards Upperside white with black spots near forewing tip. Underside has green edging along hindwing veins. Upperside white with orange tips on the forewing. Underside has green marbling on the hindwing. Photo by Ron Wolf 20 19 Orange Sulphur (Alfalfa Sulphur) Colias eurytheme Harford’s Sulphur Colias harfordii Size: 1 3/4 - 2 inches Flight Time: Apr-Sept Food Plants: Astragalus (locoweed or rattleweed) Size: 1 3/8 - 2 3/4 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: pea family, lotus, clover, vetch, alfalfa Males are vibrant yellow with a black cell spot on the forewing. They have a dark forewing border and a thinner hindwing border of the same color. The borders on females are reduced or missing. Varies white to yellow to orange with black border on upperside. Underside has a silver spot on the hindwing. Photo by Crystal Anderson Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland 22 21 Sleepy Orange Abaeis nicippe Dainty Sulphur (Dwarf Yellow Sulphur) Nathalis iole Size: 1 3/8 - 2 1/4 inches Flight Time: Mar-Oct Food Plants: cassia Size: 3/4 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: Mar-Nov Food Plants: sunflower family Upperside orange with a small, black cell spot on the forewing. Underside can be a variety of colors, depending on what form it is. Summer forms are orangeyellow. WInter can be shades or red or brown. Photo by Jonathan Wright This butterfly has elongated forewings. Underside forewing has black spots on the edge of the outer wing and a yellow to orange patch near the wing base. Upperside has yellow and black markings. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland 24 23 Cloudless Sulphur Phoebis sennae California Dogface Zerene eurydice Size: 2 - 2 1/2 inches Flight Time: Mar-Sept Food Plants: Amorpha californica (false indigo) Size: 2 1/4 - 3 1/8 inches Flight Time: Mar-Oct Food Plants: cassia This is the California State Butterfly. Upper surface of males is yellow. Females have uneven black borders on the the edges of the wings. Underside of hindwing has two pink spots with silver centers. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland Photo by Jeffrey Pippen Vibrant yellow-orange with a purple iridescence. Pattern on male forewings resembles the face of a dog. Females are yellow with a black cell spot on the upper forewing. 26 25 Coppers, Hairstreaks, and Blues Lycaenidae Subfamily Common Name Subfamily Scientific Name Coppers Lycaeninae 27 Hairstreaks Coliadinae 29 Blues Polyommatinae 39 There are 21 species of Lycaenids in the Santa Monicas - more than any other family. These butterflies typically have vibrant, iridescent blues, reds, and oranges in their coloring. Adults are usually small to very small. Lycaenid caterpillars are commonly slug shaped and many species produce sugary secretions in exchange for protection by ants. 28 27 Gorgon Copper Lycaena gorgon Photo by Randy Wight Tailed Copper Lycaena arota Size: 1 1/4 - 1 1/2 inches Flight Time: Apr-July Food Plants: Eriogonum elongatum (wand buckwheat) Size: 1 1/8 - 1 3/8 inches Flight Time: May-July Food Plants: wild currant or Ribes (gooseberry) Upperside copper with purple tint on males and dark brown with beige and black spots on females. Both are gray with black spots on underside with a submarginal row of redorange spots. Small tail on hindwing. Upperside of males is copper with a purple tint. Females are orange with brown wing bases and wide, brown borders on the forewing. Underside gray with black spots and submarginal crescents on hindwing. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland 30 29 Gray Hairstreak Strymon melinus Sylvan Hairstreak Satyrium sylvinus Size: 1 - 1 3/8 inches Flight Time: May-July Food Plants: willow Size: 7/8 - 1 3/8 inches Flight Time: Feb-Nov Food Plants: mallow, buckwheat, coffeeberry, pea Thin tail on hindwing. Underside ranges from pale to dark gray. Irregular, white postmedian line bordered by orange. Upperside is slate with red-orange eyespots. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland Photo by Randy Emmitt Not all have tails. Upperside gray-brown or red-brown with an orange mark on the hindwing near the lower edge. Males have a blue tint; females have a yellow one. Underside ranges from gray to white with a postmarginal series of black dots. Red to yellow spot near the tail. 32 31 Hedgerow Hairstreak Satyrium saepium Bramble Hairstreak (Coastal Green/Perplexing Hairstreak) Callophrys dumetorum Size: 1 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: Feb-Apr Food Plants: buckwheat, Ceanothus, deerweed Size: 1 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: May-July Food Plants: Ceanothus (wild lilac) No tail. Underside turquoise, sometimes with noticable postmedian line of white spots on the hindwing. Upperside is gray and females have some yellow in the center of both wings. Upperside copper with metallic tint. Underside beige to brown with a slate to blue spot near the tail. Photo by Alan Wight Photo by Sally King 34 33 Brown Elfin (Western Elfin) Callophrys augustinus Great Purple Hairstreak Atlides halesus Size: 7/8 - 1 1/8 inches Flight Time: Feb-July Food Plants: Mostly dodder, but also Ceanothus Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland No tails, but hindwing is turned downward. Upperside ranges from gray-brown to redbrown. Underside is chesnut brown with iridescence and a dark, postmedian line. Hindwing is visibly darker at the wing base. Size: 1 1/4 - 2 inches Flight Time: Mar-Oct Food Plants: mistletoe in sycamores or cottonwood One short and one long tail on hindwing. Upperside is black with vibrant blue iridescence. Underside is black with metallic gold markings near the tail. Abdomen is blue on top and redorange underneath. Photo by Sally King 36 35 California Hairstreak Satyrium californica Photo by Christopher Christie Mountain Mahogany Hairstreak Satyrium tetra Size: 1 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: May-Aug Food Plants: Ceanothus and oak Size: 1 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: May-July Food Plants: mountain mahogany One long and one short tail on each hindwing. Upperside is brown with an orange spot on the hindwing near the tails. Underside is gray-brown with orange crescents and a blue patch near the tail. It also has a postmedian curve of black spots. Males have short tail; females have a long tail (although it may be missing). Upperside is gray-brown. Underside is a mossy gray color with an ash overtone. There is an irregular, postmedian white line and a slate colored spot near the tail. Photo by James Hogue 38 37 Gold-Hunter’s Hairstreak Satyrium auretorum auretorum Santa Monica Mountains Hairstreak Satyrium auretorum fumosum This species is endemic to the Santa Monica Mountains. It is highly localized and threatened by urbanization. Photo by Harmut Wisch Size: 1 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: May-July Food Plants: scrub oak Size: 1/2 - 5/8 inch Flight Time: Apr-June Food Plants: scrub oak Short tail on hindwing. Upperside is red-brown with a yellow tint on females. Underside has an orange spot near the tail with a black center. Looks nearly identical to the Gold-Hunter’s Hairstreak. The only noticeable difference is a darker ground color on both sides and a more prominent series of postmedian spots. Photo by Kim Davis, Mike Stangeland, and Andrew Warren 40 39 Western Pygmy Blue Brephidium exilis Photo by Sally King Marine Blue Leptotes marina Size: 1/2 - 3/4 inch Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: Atriplex (saltbush) and goosefoot Size: 7/8 - 1 1/8 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: Plumbago and various pea family Very small. Upperside copper with slate blue wing bases and white fringe. Underside copper with white wing bases and markings. Edge of hindwing has a row of black circles. Three small black dots are near the base of the hindwing. The underside of the forewing has rows of light brown bands that can be seen from the costa to the margin. Upperside is blue with a purple tint on males and no white on females. Photo by Sally King 42 41 “Bernardino” Dotted Blue Euphiltoes bernardino Size: 11/16 - 13/16 inch Flight Time: Apr-Aug Food Plants: California buckwheat (c) 2007 Ron Hemberger Males have blue upperside with a thin, black border on the outer margin. Females are brown and have an orange, submarginal band on the upper hindwing. Both are off-white on the underside and have black spots and an orange postmedian band on the hindwing. Acmon Blue Plebejus acmon Size: 3/4 - 1 1/8 inches Flight Time: Feb-Nov Food Plants: deerweed, buckwheat Upperside of males blue, females brown. Both sides have an orange-pink submarginal band. Underside white with black spots. 44 43 Silvery Blue Glaucopsyche lygdamus Size: 7/8 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: Feb-May Food Plants: Lotus scoparius (deerweed) Upperside of males is silvery blue with thin, black borders and white fringe. Female is darker blue with wide, black borders and white fringe. Underside is gray-brown and hindwing has a crooked row of black dots outlined in white. Western Tailed Blue Cupido amyntula Size: 7/8 - 1 1/8 inches Flight Time: Feb-Sept Food Plants: Astragalus (locoweed or rattleweed) Tiny, thin tail. Upperside blue to brown-blue. Upper wings have black edging. Underside white with black markings and an orange spot near the tail. 46 45 Spring Azure Celastrina ladon Ceraunus Blue Hemiargus ceraunus Size: 3/4 - 1 1/8 inches Flight Time: Mar-Oct Food Plants: pea family Size: 7/8 - 1 3/8 inches Flight Time: Feb-July Food Plants: Ceanothus (wild lilac) Underside is gray with a row of postmedian dashes on each wing. For Southwest species, the hindwing has two submarginal eyespots. Upperside of males is blue; females is dark brown, usually with blue wing bases. Upperside silvery blue with black outer edge on forewing of females. Underside varies from pale gray with faint dots to darker gray with larger, black spots. Photo by Edith Smith 48 47 Sonoran Blue Philotes sonorensis Size: 7/8 - 1 inch Flight Time: Mar-Apr Food Plants: lanceleaved dudleya The only Blue in North America with red spots on the forewing. Hindwing of female also has red spots. Upperside is silvery blue. Photo by Jonathan Wright 50 49 Metalmarks Riodinidae Metalmarks range from small to medium in size. Species have lots of variation of patterns, posture, and behavior. It is easy to identify sex on Metalmarks because females will have three pairs of walking legs, but males will only have two. Their front legs are reduced. Note: Unlike the other families, Metalmarks do not have subfamilies. Instead, the Metalmarks are divided into “Tribes.” Both of the Santa Monica Mountains species are from the Riodinini Tribe. 52 51 Fatal/Dusky Metalmark Calephelis nemesis Mormon Metalmark Apodemia mormo Size: 7/8 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: Mar-Nov Food Plants: California buckwheat Size: 3/4 - 1 inch Flight Time: Feb-Oct Food Plants: mule fat, bush sunflower Forewings on males are pointed. Upperside is brown with dark, irregular median bands on both wings. Photo by Stephen Holloway Photo by Alan Wight Upperside ranges in color from orangebrown to black and has white and black spots. There is a patch on the upperside and underside forewings that ranges from tan to red. Underside is gray and orange with white spots. 54 53 Brushfoots Nymphalidae Subfamily Common Name Subfamily Scientific Name Fritillaries and Heliconians Heliconiinae 55 Anglewings, Checkerspots, Crescents Nymphalinae 57 Admirals and Sisters Limenitidinae 68 Nymphs and Ringlets Satyrinae 70 Milkweed Butterflies Danainae 72 There are more species in the Nymphalidae family than any other family. Brushfoots have a lot of variation. Sizes can vary from small to large. All adults have reduced front legs which can not be used for walking. They are commonly orange, yellow, brown, or black. Some adults can live 6-11 months, the most of any butterfly. 56 55 Gulf Fritillary Agraulis vanillae “Comstock’s” Callippe Fritillary Speyeria callippe comstocki Size: 2 1/2 - 3 3/4 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: passionvine Size: 2 - 2 1/2 inches Flight Time: May-July Food Plants: violets Bright orange with black markings and elongated forewings. Three white spots outlined in black on the edge of the forewing. Underside brown with an orange forewing base and large, iridescent silver spots. Copyright Lynette Schimming Upperside orange to red-brown with evenly spaced, black markings. Underside has silver spots, including three triagular shaped submarginal ones edged in brown. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland 58 57 Variable/Chalcedon Checkerspot Euphydryas chalcedona Painted Lady Vanessa cardui Size: 2 - 2 7/8 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: thistle, mallow, lupine, fiddleneck, among others Size: 1 1/4 - 2 1/4 inches Flight Time: Apr-June Food Plants: bush monkeyflower and other figwort family Photo by Alan Wight Highly variable. Forewing is narrow. Upperside ranges from dark orange-brown to black and may have yellow, red, or white spots. There are yellow and orange bands underneath the wings. Photo by Sally King Upperside orange and brown with darker wing bases. Forewing tips have a black patch with a white bar on the leading edge of the wing. Hindwing on both sides have four submarginal black spots, sometimes with blue scaling. Underside is a gray, brown, and black pattern. 60 59 Common Buckeye Junonia coenia Mourning Cloak Nymphalis antiopa Size: 1 5/8 - 2 3/4 inches Flight Time: Feb-Nov Food Plants: plantain, snapdragon, monkeyflower Size: 2 1/4 - 4 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: willow, cottonwood Black with yellow border on wings. Row of bright blue spots above yellow border. Short projections on hindwings and forewings. Light brown with two orange bars on the front wings and four eyespots on each side. The larger hindwing eyespot is the upper one, and it contains a pink-purple crescent. Photo by Jonathan Wright Photo by Alan Wight 62 61 West Coast Lady Vanessa annabella Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta Size: 1 1/2 - 2 1/4 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: mallows, especially cheeseweed; nettle Upperside orange and brown with an orange bar on the front edge of the forewing. Three to four blue spots on the hindwing. Photo by Jonathan Wright Size: 1 3/4 - 3 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: nettles Black with white spots on the wing tips. Redorange median band on forewing and redorange marginal band on hindwing. Picture copyright 2006 J.K. Lindsey Note: Despite its name, the Red Admiral is actually considered to be a “True Brushfoot,” NOT an “Admiral.” 64 63 Mylitta/Thistle Crescent Phyciodes mylitta American Lady Vanessa virginiensis Size: 1 3/4 - 2 5/8 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: Gnaphalium (everlasting) Size: 1 1/8 - 1 1/2 inches Flight Time: Mar-Oct Food Plants: native and non-native thistles Upperside orange with a black apical patch on forewing tip. Below the patch is an orange marking with a white spot. Underside of hindwing has two large eyespots. Upperside is vibrant orange with narrow, dark brown markings. Underside is yelloworange with blurry redorange markings. Photo by Alan Wight Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland 66 65 Satyr Comma/Satyr Anglewing Polygonia satyrus Photo copyright Michelle Brodie California Tortoiseshell Nymphalis californica Size: 1 3/4 - 2 1/2 inches Flight Time: Feb-Sept Food Plants: stinging nettle Size: 1 1/4 - 2 3/4 inches Flight Time: Apr-Sept Food Plants: Ceanothus (wild lilac) Conspicuous wing edges. Golden-orange with black patches and a dark border on the forewing. Underside resembles a dead leaf when wings are closed. Jagged wing edges. Orange-brown with dark wing borders and large black patches on the edge of the front wing. Underside resembles a dead leaf and has dark wing bases. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland 68 67 Gabb’s Checkerspot Chlosyne gabbii California Sister Adelpha bredowii californica Size: 2 1/2 - 4 inches Flight Time: Mar-Oct Food Plants: oaks Size: 1 1/4 - 1 3/4 inches Flight Time: Mar-July Food Plants: wooly aster, telegraph weed, other asters Upperside has an orange-brown and black checkered pattern. The median band is slightly lighter in color. The underside of the hindwing has pearl-white spots. Used with permission of www.laspilitas.com Upperside is brownblack with large, orange patches near the brown-black wing tips. A white band of spots spans the forewing to the hindwing on either side. Underside has blue bands near the base and the hindwing margin. 70 69 Lorquin’s Admiral Limenitis lorquini Size: 2 - 2 5/8 inches Flight Time: Apr-Oct Food Plants: willows Upperside is blackbrown with white median bands on forewing and hindwing. The most distiguishable characteristic from the California Sister is the orange wing tips. Photo by Jonathan Wright “California” Common Ringlet Coenonympha tullia california Size: 1 1/3 - 1 1/2 inches Flight Time: Feb-Sept Food Plants: bunch grasses Cream and beige pattern with tiny black dots on the wings. Underside of hindwing is an ashy-moss coloring with a wavy, white median line. 72 71 Great Basin Wood Nymph Cercyonis sthenele silvestris Monarch Danaus plexippus Size: 1 3/8 - 1 3/4 inch Flight Time: May-Aug Food Plants: bunch grasses Brown upperside with two eyespots - they are small in males, larger in females. Eyespots are equidistant to the outer edge of the wing. On the underside of the hind wing, an irregular dark line separates the lighter, outer half from the darker, basal half. Size: 3 3/8 - 4 7/8 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: milkweed Photo by Sally King Upperside bright orange with black veins and wide, black borders. Upperside of female has blurred black veins and is more orange-brown. White spots are found on the borders and the apex. 74 73 Queen Danaus gilippus Size: 2 5/8 - 3 7/8 inches Flight Time: Mar-Nov Food Plants: milkweed Upperside is chesnut brown with black borders. There are two rows of white dots on the forewing borders. Underside of hindwing has black veins. Both wings have black borders with two rows of white dots. Photo by Sally King 76 75 Skippers Hesperiidae Subfamily Common Name Subfamily Scientific Name Spread-wing Skippers Pyrginae 77 Grass Skippers Hesperiinae 82 Unlike the other families who are all members of the Superfamily Papilionoidea, Skippers are members of the Superfamily Hesperoidea. Skippers are medium to small in size. Though a few have iridescent colors, most are orange, brown, black, white, or gray. Species from this family are easily identifiable by their large eyes, stout bodies, and short antennae that are often shaped like hooked clubs. 78 77 Northern White Skipper Heliopetes ericetorum Mournful Duskywing Erynnis tristis Size: 1 1/4 - 1 1/2 inches Flight Time: Feb-Oct Food Plants: mallows, especially bush mallow Size: 1 1/4 - 1 15/16 inches Flight Time: Feb-Sept Food Plants: oaks Upperside of males is white with black markings at outer margin. Females are dark at the wing base and have thicker, dark markings. Both have a white underside with beige markings. Photo by Alan Wight Upperside dark brown with a lighter brown pattern. Hindwing has white fringe. Underside is dark brown with a line of white spots near the margin. Photo by Alan Wight 80 79 Funereal Duskywing Erynnis funeralis Size: 1 5/16 - 1 3/4 inches Flight Time: Feb-Oct Food Plants: deerweed and other pea family Narrow, pointed forewing and triangular hindwing. Upperside is black and forewing has a dull brown patch at the cell. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland White Checkered Skipper Pyrgus albescens Size: 1 - 1 1/2 inches Flight Time: Mar-Oct Food Plants: mallows Upperside ranges from blue-gray to black with large, white spots forming a median band across both wings. Underside is dull white with charcoal bands. 82 81 Propertius Duskywing Erynnis propertius Fiery Skipper Hylephila phyleus Size: 1 1/4 - 1 1/2 inches Flight Time: year-round Food Plants: grasses, including crab grass Size: 1 3/8 - 1 3/4 inches Flight Time: Mar-June Food Plants: coast live oak Upperside brown with gray overscaling. Hindwing has light spots. Photo by Barry Breckling Photo by Alan Wight Very short antennae. Underside of males has small black spots; underside of females light brown with pale checks. Males have black stigma. Upperside of females is dark brown and orange. 84 83 Woodland Skipper Ochlodes sylvanoides Sandhill Skipper Polites sabuleti Size: 1 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: July-Oct Food Plants: grasses, including rye grass Photo by Alan Wight Upperside orange with reddish-brown markings. Males have a large black stigma; females have a black diagonal band. Underside ranges from red to yellow to brown, and hindwing may be completely unmarked or have a band of cream or yellow spots. Size: 7/8 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: Apr-Sept Food Plants: saltgrasses Yellow-orange to brown with dark, jagged borders on upperside. Hindwing underside has yellow veins in a cobweb pattern around dark chevrons. Dark spots at outer margin where veins end. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland 86 85 Rural Skipper Ochlodes agricola Umber Skipper Poanes melane Size: 7/8 - 1 1/8 inches Flight Time: Apr-July Food Plants: grasses Size: 1 1/4 - 1 3/8 inches Flight Time: Jan-Nov Food Plants: grasses Upperside is yelloworange with black borders and a translucent spot near the tip of the upper wing. Underside is rust colored. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland Upperside is brown with pale spots and a golden band on hindwing. Underside is brown with larger, lighter colored spots. Females are lighter in color. Photo by Alan Wight 88 87 Orange Skipperling Copaeodes aurantiaca Sachem Atalopedes campestris Size: 1 1/4 - 1 5/8 inches Flight Time: Apr-Nov Food Plants: grasses Size: 3/4 - 1 1/8 inches Flight Time: Apr-Sept Food Plants: grasses Both sides are orange. Males have a thin, black stigma on the forewing below the cell. Females may have black edging on the forewing. Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland Photo by Greg Lasley Males are yelloworange with a large black stigma and brown borders. Females are yellow-brown to dark brown with a squareshaped clear spot at the end of the forewing cell. Underside of females is brown with white spots. 90 89 Eufala Skipper Lerodea eufala Photo by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland Wandering Skipper Panoquina errans Size: 1 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: Jun-Nov Food Plants: grasses Size: 1 - 1 1/4 inches Flight Time: July-Sept Food Plants: Saltgrasses Upperside is gray brown with 3-5 small, clear spots on the forewing. Underside is brown, with heavy, gray overscaling on the hindwing. Upperside is mossybrown with a row of small, transparent spots on the forewing only. The underside of the hindwing is brown with a short curve of 3-5 light spots. Photo by Dennis Walker 92 91 Index Abaeis nicippe 21 Acmon Blue 42 Adelpha bredowii californica 68 Agraulis vanillae 55 Alfalfa Sulphur 19 American Lady 64 Anise Swallowtail 10 Anthocharis sara 17 Apodemia mormo 52 Atalopedes campestris 88 Atlides halesus 34 Becker’s White 18 Bramble Hairstreak 32 Bernardino Dotted Blue 41 Brephidium exilis 39 Brown Elfin 33 Cabbage White 15 Calephelis nemesis 51 “California” Common Ringlet 70 California Dogface 24 California Hairstreak 35 California Sister 68 California Tortoiseshell 66 Callophrys augustinus 33 Callophrys dumetorum 32 Celastrina ladon 45 Ceraunus Blue 46 Cercyonis sthenele silvestris 71 Chalcedon Checkerspot 57 Checkered White 16 Chlosyne gabii 67 Cloudless Sulphur 23 Coastal Green Hairstreak (see Bramble Hairstreak) Coenonympha tullia california 70 Colias eurytheme 19 Colias harfordii 20 Common Buckeye 59 “Comstock’s” Callippe Fritillary 56 Copaeodes aurantiaca 87 Cupido amyntula 44 Dainty Sulphur 22 Danaus gilippus 73 Danaus plexippus 72 Dusky Metalmark 51 Dwarf Yellow (see Dainty Sulphur) Erynnis funeralis 79 Erynnis propertius 81 Erynnis tristis 78 Eufala Skipper 89 Euphilotes benardino 41 Euphydryas chalcedona 57 Fatal Metalmark 51 Fiery Skipper 82 Funereal Duskywing 79 Gabb’s Checkerspot 67 Giant Swallowtail 12 Glaucopsyche lygdamus 43 Gold-Hunters Hairstreak 37 Gorgon Copper 27 Gray Hairstreak 29 Great Basin Wood Nymph 71 Great Purple Hairstreak 34 Gulf Fritillary 55 Harford’s Sulphur 20 Hedgerow Hairstreak 31 Heliopetes ericetorum 77 Hemiargus ceraunus 46 Hylephila phyleus 82 Junonia coenia 59 Leptotes marina 40 Lerodea eufala 89 Limenitis lorquini 69 Lorquin’s Admiral 69 Lycaena arota 28 Lycaena gorgon 27 Marine Blue 40 Monarch 72 Mormon Metalmark 52 Mountain Mahogany Hairstreak 36 Mournful Duskywing 78 Mourning Cloak 60 Mylitta Crescent 63 Nathalis iole 22 Northern White Skipper 77 Nymphalis antiopa 60 Nymphalis californica 66 Ochlodes agricola 85 Ochlodes sylvanoides 83 Orange Skipperling 87 Orange Sulphur 19 Painted Lady 58 Pale Swallowtail 11 Panoquina errans 90 Papilio cresphontes 12 Papilio eurymedon 11 Papilio rutulus 9 Papilio zelicaon 10 Perplexing Hairstreak (see Bramble Hairstreak) 94 93 Philotes sonorensis 47 Phoebis sennae 23 Phyciodes mylitta 63 Pieris rapae 15 Plebejus acmon 42 Poanes melane 86 Polites sabuleti 84 Polygonia satyrus 65 Pontia beckerii 18 Pontia protodice 16 Propertius Duskywing 81 Pyrgus albescens 80 Queen 73 Red Admiral 62 Rural Skipper 85 Sachem 88 Sandhill Skipper 84 Santa Monica Mountains Hairstreak 38 Sara Orangetip 17 Sa