Yellowstone Handbook 2019

Table of Contents

brochure Yellowstone Handbook 2019 - Table of Contents

Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Enemy at the Gates… Aquatic Invasive Species Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook 2019 U.S. Department of the Interior • National Park Service • Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone Park and Protection Act In 1872, the US Congress established Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone National Park Protection Act states, “the headwaters of the Yellowstone River…is hereby reserved and withdrawn from settlement, occupancy, or sale…and dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.” The Organic Act of the National Park Service On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed the act creating the National Park Service, a federal bureau in the Department of the Interior. The Organic Act of the National Park Service states “the Service thus established shall promote and regulate the use of Federal areas known as national parks, monuments and reservations…by such means and measures as conform to the fundamental purpose of the said parks, monuments and reservations, which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” ON THE COVER Madison River along the West Entrance Road. Photo taken June 17, 2014. NPS/Peaco. INSET PHOTOS clockwise from top right: Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). USFWS photo. Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum); photo courtesy of Alison Fox, University of Florida. Bugwood.org. New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum); ©Dr. Roy Anderson. http://www.habitas.org.uk/molluscireland Red-rimmed melania (Melanoides tuberculatus); ©2010 Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum. http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/waipio Rainbow Trout infected with whirling disease parasite (Myxobolus cerebralis); ©2005 Sascha Hallett, Oregon State University. https://fishpathogens.net Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook 2019 An annual compendium of information about Yellowstone National Park U.S. Department of the Interior • National Park Service • Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 82190 Yellowstone National Park thanks Yellowstone Forever for support of this publication. Yellowstone Resources and Issues is produced and reviewed annually by Yellowstone National Park staff. Janine Waller, editor and designer Tami Blackford, managing editor Linda Young, executive editor Copyrights All material is in the public domain unless copyright is owned by a listed person or organization. All graphics are by the National Park Service unless credited otherwise. Suggested citation Yellowstone National Park. 2019. Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook: 2019. Yellowstone National Park, WY. Available free online at www.nps.gov/yell or for purchase through Yellowstone Forever. www.yellowstone.org ii Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook, 2019 Contents Welcome ...................................................v Park Facts ..................................................1 Frequently Asked Questions ...................3 Canyon Village Area .............................. 5 Fishing Bridge, Lake, and Bridge Bay ... 6 Madison and West Yellowstone Area ... 7 Mammoth Hot Springs Area ................. 8 Norris Area.............................................. 9 Old Faithful Area.................................. 10 Tower–Roosevelt Area ......................... 11 West Thumb and Grant Village Area .. 12 History of the Park.................................13 The Earliest Humans in Yellowstone ........ 14 Increased Use ........................................ 14 The Little Ice Age ................................. 15 Historic Tribes ....................................... 16 The Tukudika: “Sheep Eaters” ............ 16 European Americans Arrive ...................... 16 Looking for Gold .................................. 18 Expeditions Explore Yellowstone ........ 18 Birth of a National Park ............................ 19 Formative Years .................................... 21 The Army Arrives .................................. 21 The National Park Service Begins ........ 23 Boundary Adjustments ........................ 23 World War II ......................................... 24 Mission 66 ............................................. 24 Modern Management ............................... 26 Involving Native Americans ................. 26 Complex Issues...................................... 27 A Living Legacy..................................... 27 Preserving Cultural Resources ..............29 Archeology ........................................... 29 Native American Affairs....................... 32 Historic Structures, Districts, and Cultural Landscapes ............................................ 34 Collections ............................................ 49 Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem ...........53 Heart of an Ecosystem ............................... 53 Influence of Geology ........................... 54 Air Quality ............................................ 55 Soundscapes ......................................... 55 Water .................................................... 56 Cycles and Processes .................................. 61 Winter Ecology ..................................... 66 Climate Change .................................... 69 Changes in Yellowstone Climate ......... 71 Examining the Evidence ...................... 76 Beyond Boundaries ................................... 82 Research in the Park ............................ 84 Land Use ............................................... 89 Wilderness ............................................ 90 Winter Use ........................................... 93 Sustainable and Greening Practices .. 100 Geology ................................................107 What Lies Beneath ............................. 107 At a Glance ......................................... 108 Geologic History of Yellowstone ....... 109 Hydrothermal Systems ....................... 115 Yellowstone Lake Geology ................ 119 Earthquakes ........................................ 122 Glaciers................................................ 124 Sedimentation and Erosion ............... 126 Fossils .................................................. 127 Life in Extreme Heat ............................131 About Microbes .................................. 132 Thermophilic Bacteria ........................ 134 Thermophilic Archaea ....................... 135 Thermophilic Eukarya ........................ 136 Thermophilic Viruses .......................... 138 Thermophilic Communities ............... 139 Thermophiles in Time and Space ...... 141 Vegetation ............................................143 Vegetation Communities ................... 143 Other Vegetation Communities ........ 151 Wildflowers ........................................ 152 Rare Plants .......................................... 153 Invasive Plants .................................... 157 Restoring Native Plants ...................... 159 Fire ........................................................161 Ignition ............................................... 162 Fire Behavior....................................... 163 Frequency of Fire................................ 164 Consequences of Fire ......................... 164 Managing a Natural Process.............. 167 History of Fire Management ............. 167 The 1988 Fires ..................................... 168 Wildlife .................................................175 Mammals .................................................. 176 Bears.................................................... 177 Bison.................................................... 189 Bighorn Sheep .................................... 201 Elk........................................................ 204 Moose ................................................. 209 Deer..................................................... 211 Pronghorn........................................... 213 Contents iii Wolves ................................................. 216 Coyotes ............................................... 224 Red Foxes ............................................ 226 Cougars ............................................... 228 Canada Lynx ....................................... 231 Bats...................................................... 233 Beavers ................................................ 235 White-tailed Jackrabbits .................... 238 Wolverines .......................................... 240 Other Small Mammals ....................... 242 iv Yellowstone Resources and Issues Handbook, 2019 Birds .......................................................... 248 Raptors ................................................ 250 Wetland Birds ..................................... 256 Songbirds and Woodpeckers ............. 261 Fish and Aquatic Species ......................... 265 Native Fish Species ............................. 268 Nonnative Fish Species ....................... 275 Aquatic Invasive Species .................... 281 Incoming Threats................................ 284 Amphibians .............................................. 286 Reptiles ..................................................... 291

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