"Antietam Visitor Center 3" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Antietam

National Battlefield - Maryland

Antietam National Battlefield is a protected area along Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Washington County, northwestern Maryland. It commemorates the American Civil War Battle of Antietam that occurred on September 17, 1862. The area, situated on fields among the Appalachian foothills near the Potomac River, features the battlefield site and visitor center, a national military cemetery, stone arch Burnside's Bridge, and a field hospital museum.

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Official visitor map of Antietam National Battlefield (NB) in Maryland. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Antietam - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Antietam National Battlefield (NB) in Maryland. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Chesapeake & Ohio Canal - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/anti/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antietam_National_Battlefield Antietam National Battlefield is a protected area along Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Washington County, northwestern Maryland. It commemorates the American Civil War Battle of Antietam that occurred on September 17, 1862. The area, situated on fields among the Appalachian foothills near the Potomac River, features the battlefield site and visitor center, a national military cemetery, stone arch Burnside's Bridge, and a field hospital museum. 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours of savage combat on September 17, 1862. The Battle of Antietam ended the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia's first invasion into the North and led Abraham Lincoln to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Ten miles south of I-70 on Maryland Route 65 Antietam National Battlefield Visitor Center This spring, Antietam National Battlefield will begin a $6.8 million project to rehabilitate and preserve the historic visitor center, which originally opened to the public in the winter of 1963. We expect to close the visitor center summer of 2021 and reopen it in late 2022. During the construction the park will install a temporary visitor center building. Currently the lobby, bookstore and restrooms are open. The visitor center is located ten miles south of I-70, on Maryland Route 65. Monument at Sunset a monument of a soldier at sunset 130th Pennsylvania Monument at Bloody Lane Burnside Bridge three arch stone bridge over Antietam Creek Burnside Bridge in the snow from the Union side of Antietam Creek. Cannon the Field artillery piece sitting on a rock break Artillery played a key role at Antietam. Over 500 cannon were involved in the fighting. Antietam National Cemetery a monument of a soldier in the background with graves in front of the monument Private Soldier Monument at the cemetery Dunker Church one room house covered in snow The Dunker Church covered in snow. Burnside Bridge stone bridge over antietam creek Burnside Bridge from the Confederate side of Antietam Creek. Fog Over the Battlefield fog filling in the low areas of the field at sunset View from the visitor center looking toward Bloody Lane at sunset Antietam National Cemetery Lodge Building stone building with black fence in foreground The National Cemetery Lodge Building sits just inside the gates of the cemetery. Dunker Church small white building with cannon in the foreground Spring at the Battlefield. Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program’s Rodney Flora A veteran of the U.S. Navy, Rodney Flora applied to the Historic Preservation Training Center’s Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program (TTAP) after graduating from Shepherd University. Find out how this veteran found his passion in manual labor, not unlike his military experience. Rodney Flora stands to the right of five other crew and staff members. Freedom At Antietam As a result of the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, Abraham Lincoln was able to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, making the Civil War a fight to end slavery as well as preserve the Union. Photo of Civil War surgical kit A Short Overview of the Battle of Antietam A brief overview of the Battle of Antietam Photograph of dead by Dunker Church after the Battle of Antietam September Suspense The Union and the Confederacy during September 1862 Photograph of President Lincoln meeting with General McClellan at Antietam Pawpaw: Small Tree, Big Impact Pawpaw are small trees that don't grow past 100 feet. Yet they have a big influence-- they're the most commonly observed sapling in our National Capital Region forests. Pawpaw trees are virtually immune to deer browse and also produce the largest edible fruit native to North America! A hand holds a lumpy green pawpaw fruit Women Amidst War The extreme demands of wartime industry and the loss of traditional family breadwinners to military service caused hardship, but also presented opportunities to women for employment, volunteerism, and activism that previously had been unavailable to them. While many of these gains would be temporary, the Civil War nonetheless represents an important step forward in American society's view of the role of women. Women were increasingly seen (and saw themselves) as the foundat Photo of women at a house on the Cedar Mountain battlefield National Parks and National Cemeteries Currently, the National Park Service manages 14 national cemeteries. These cemeteries represent a continuum of use dating to a period before the establishment of the historical parks of which they are an integral part and are administered to preserve the historic character, uniqueness, and solemn nature of both the cemeteries and the historical parks of which they are a part. Setting sun lights up graves and decorations An Innovative Technology of War Among the technical innovations to come out of the Civil War were advancements in the methods the armies had to communicate among themselves. Signal flags, torches and rockets were used to pass along messages and reconnaissance, while codes and ciphers ensured that the messages wouldn't be intercepted and read by the enemy. Union signal station on Antietam battlefield The Emancipation Proclamation Toward the end of the Civil War's second year, Abraham Lincoln made added the abolition of slavery to the restoration of the Union as the principal war aims of the North along by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation to free slaves in the South and strike a blow to the Confederate economy. A recruiting poster showing a Union soldier and a banner Death and Dying The somber aftermath of Civil War battles introduced Americans--North and South--to death on an unprecedented scale and of an unnatural kind, often ending in an unmarked grave far from home. Neither individuals, nor institutions, nor governments were prepared to deal with death on such a massive scale, for never before or since have we killed so many of our own. The Civil War revolutionized the American military's approach to caring for the dead, leading to our modern cult Photo of freshly buried marked and unmarked graves near Petersburg, Va. Emancipation and the Quest for Freedom Although the abolition of slavery emerged as a dominant objective of the Union war effort, most Northerners embraced abolition as a practical measure rather than a moral cause. The war resolved legally and constitutionally the single most important moral question that afflicted the nascent republic, an issue that prevented the country from coalescing around a shared vision of freedom, equality, morality, and nationhood. Slave family seated in front of their house Medicine and Medical Practices The story of Civil War medicine is a complex one. Through the dedication, innovation and devotion of surgeons and medical support staff, the foundation for today's modern military medicine was laid. Modern photograph of Civil War medicine bottles Forest Regeneration 2018 In 2018, tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot in Rock Creek Park showing some vegetation recovery. Irish Soldiers in the Union Army Although many Irishmen were found throughout the Union, and to a lesser degree, Confederate forces, numerous specifically "Irish" regiments and companies enabled new immigrants to join comrades with a similar background. Most famous was the Irish Brigade of the Army of the Potomac, particularly distinguished for hard fighting at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg. Recruiting Poster for the 69th New York, comprised entirely of Irish Americans American Eels in the Potomac Watershed American eels are found everywhere along the Atlantic Coast, but many aspects of these fish remain poorly understood. They are perhaps one of the most mysterious fish in the Potomac watershed. Hands hold a 2 to 3 foot long eel over a red container. Civil War Battlefields: A Haven for Grassland Birds Civil War battlefields have become a haven for declining grassland birds. As grassland habitat dwindles in the eastern U.S., grasslands, shrublands, and the pastures that make up battlefield parks are playing an ever more important role as habitat for a special group of birds. A grasshopper sparrow singing from atop a cable. National Capital Region Energy Savings Performance Contract The National Park Service is investing $29 million in 81 individual energy efficiency and water conservation projects at national parks throughout the greater Washington region. Cherry Blossoms at the National Mall The Border States The existence of divided populations in Border States had a profound impact on Union and Confederate strategy-both political and military. Each side undertook military and political measures--including brutal guerilla warfare-- in their attempts to control areas of divided loyalty and hostile moral and political views held by local civilians. Painting showing removal of Missouri civilians from their homes by Union troops The Military Experience The course of the war was the cumulative result of political, economic, and social policies that affected (and were affected by) military operations and battles waged across a front spanning 2,000 miles. The battles and campaigns of 1861-65 ultimately demonstrated that the simple application of massive military force, even with innovations in technologies and tactics, was insufficient to resolve a conflict between two sections mobilized against one another politically, socia Engraving of soldier warming himself by a fire Photo of U.S. Sanitary Commission office. The Legacy of the Maryland Campaign The Maryland Campaign had a major impact on the release of the Emancipation Declaration and how many of those newly freed men enlisted to save the Union. Photograph of the US Colored Infantry NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Antietam National Battlefield, Maryland Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] road and split-rail fence on parkland Forest Regeneration 2017 Tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot showing tree seedling and low-growing plant recovery. Go green for the National Park Service’s birthday! We're adding energy- and water-saving improvements to save money! How can you do the same in your home? National Mall and Memorial Parks Yearly Savings 50.9 M gallons of water, $1 M, 2.7M kwh. 2017 Recipients: George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service Meet the recipients of the 2017 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service. These award recipients are recognized for their exceptional dedication and service to parks and programs. Boy outside holding a tool onto a wooden post. Disability History: Military and Disability The United States has a long history of caring for its service men and women. Since the Civil War era, the Federal Government has provided doctors to support its veterans’ physical and emotional well-being. Battlefields and military hospitals help tell this story. All sites related to war and military action have disability history, since war inevitably means some soldiers will come home with short-term or long-lasting disabilities. Exterior view of a stone hotel in Yosemite Taking Care of Those in Need Taking care of the wounded and sick soldiers of the Civil War was taken on my civilians and military professionals. Civilians helped out with a variety of tasks in a hospital, while the doctors tried their best with the large numbers of casualties. Photograph staff at a field hospital Stream Restoration Dreams: Stage Zero Learn “stage zero” stream restoration basics and how they could be applied in Mid-Atlantic streams. Water spreads across the ground around standing and fallen trees Ash Tree Update 2017 The state of ash trees in 2017 in the National Capital Region after more than 10 years of harm from the invasive emerald ash borer. A white ash leaf Forest Regeneration 2019 In 2019 tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in National Capital Area parks. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A brown bird with a white breast and dark spots on its chest stands on the leaf-littered ground. Battlefield and Farmsteads The Locher/Poffenberger tenant farmstead, located on the western edge of the West Woods, contains a log cabin built during the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Today, the abandoned farm is a surviving reminder of the area's history -- the Civil War battle, its aftermath, and the perseverance of those who stayed to rebuild. URS Greiner archeologists excavating at the Locher/Poffenberger cabin. Roulette Farmstead Cultural Landscape The Roulette Farmstead is situated approximately one-half mile north of the town of Sharpsburg in Washington County, Maryland. The battlefield was established in 1890 and came under the administration of the War Department from 1894 until it was transferred to the National Park Service in 1933. Its primary significance in military history (1861-1865) results from its involvement with the Battle of Antietam during the Civil War. Historic photo of Roulette Farm taken after the Battle of Antietam (Alexander Gardner) Parks Farmstead Cultural Landscape Parks Farmstead is located approximately 2 miles north of the town of Sharpsburg in Washington County, Maryland. The cultural landscape is significant in two areas of history. Its foremost significance, in military history (1861-1865), results from its role in the Battle of Antietam during the American Civil War. The second, 1796-1861, is as a preserved agricultural landscape that has been continuously farmed since the late 18th century. Main house on Parks Farmstead (Parks Farmstead: Cultural Landscapes Inventory, NPS, 2011) Joseph Poffenberger Farmstead Cultural Landscape Joseph Poffenberger Farmstead foremost significance in military history (1861-1865) results from its role in the Battle of Antietam during the American Civil War. The agricultural landscape of the Sharpsburg area served as the stage for the bloodiest day in the Civil War. The property is also significant in the area of conservation for its involvement in early Civil War battlefield preservation efforts (1890-1910). Historic structures on the Joseph Poffenberger Farmstead (NPS) D.R. Miller Farmstead Cultural Landscape The D.R. Miller Farmstead is a component cultural landscape of Antietam National Battlefield. It is significant for its role in the Civil War Battle of Antietam, its association with battlefield preservation efforts, and agricultural history. Low, green soybean plants fill an open field with trees, a wooden fence, and building beyond. DOI Region 1, National Capital Area Utilizes Prescribed Fire as a Management Tool Resource and facility managers in the National Capital Area (NCA) are relying more frequently on prescribed burning as a tool to protect, restore, enhance and maintain historic Civil War sites. Fire in grasses burn near a Civil War cannon. Battle on an Agrarian Landscape: Introduction In the 1990s, the National Park Service and URS Greiner, Inc., conducted a survey to locate, identify, and inventory archeological sites within Antietam National Battlefield. This work focused on the archeological remains of the Battle of Antietam, its aftermath, and the farms and small plantations that made up the cultural landscape. Cannon at sunset, Antietam National Battlefield Battlefield Images, Computer Visualization, and the Study of Cultural Landscapes The Battle of Antietam was the first battlefield of the American Civil War to be extensively covered by cameramen soon after the fighting stopped. Painting by Captain James Hope. Battle in the North Woods The North Woods became a refuge for the surviving elements and wounded of the First and Second Corps returning from the devastation in the Cornfield and West Woods. Union soldier statue, Antietam National Battlefield. The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Oak Decline Learn more about oak decline where a host of stressors interact to weaken trees over time, leading to what becomes "death by a thousand cuts." Looking up into the canopy of a mature oak showing symptoms of oak decline. Spring Amphibian Timeline Learn how the progression of amphibian appearances unfurls every spring. A gray tree frog clings to a small tree branch. Mumma Farmstead Cultural Landscape The Mumma Farmstead consists of a cluster of domestic and agricultural outbuildings situated on a ninety-degree turn in Mumma Lane. The buildings include the main farm house and large bank barn, both of which were constructed less than a year after they were burned by Confederates during the Battle of Antietam. The farm has remained in agricultural use since the time of the Battle and retains much of its original historical appearance. Cannons in a lawn in front of the farmhouse at Mumma Farm (NPS) Revealing History: Preserving the Roulette Barn Carpentry and architecture crews from the Historic Preservation Training Center are preserving the history and structure of the Roulette Barn at Antietam National Battlefield. Interior of a historic barn, with wood floors and timber framed walls and ceilings. Amphibian Diversity & Habitat Connectivity Habitat fragmentation is a major threat to amphibian communities, especially in National Capital Region parks at risk due to the region's growing urbanization. A small frog crouches on a lichen-covered rock. Archeology at Antietam Today the Antietam National Battlefield is an idyllic rural landscape, dotted with lovely old farms and groves of stately trees. For one day in 1862, it was hell on earth. Statue of a soldier at Antietam Battlefield Park. Four men and women doing chores on the field. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years 1861-1865 No president up to that point in American history was called on to be commander-in-chief like Abraham Lincoln. From monitoring the War Department telegraph office to selecting of commanding generals and developing military strategy, Lincoln guided the nation through its darkest hour. Abraham Lincoln and General George McClellan following the Battle of Antietam Antietam: Lead Up to and After The preparations, battle and aftermath of the Battle of Antietam. Photograph of dead soldiers after the Battle of Antietam The Civil War in American Memory America's cultural memories of the Civil War are inseparably intertwined with that most "peculiar institution" of American history - racial slavery. But in the struggle over Civil War memory which began as soon as the war was over and continues to this day, rival cultural memories of reconciliation and white supremacy have often prevailed. Therein lies the challenge as the National Park Service - a public agency - seeks to "provide understanding" of the Civil War era's lasting impact upon the development of our nation. Elderly Union and Confederate veterans shake hands at the fiftieth anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg Through Their Eyes Children, who were not fighting on the front lines, were fighting their own battle at home. The unknown certainty of what war brings, especially in regards to loved ones off fighting but also how their daily lives changed. The war was affecting civilians, especially children, and not just the soldiers. Photograph of a young girl holding a picture of a family member that has gone to war The Special Orders are Written Writing and distributing Special Orders 191 Photograph of General Robert E. Lee What Comes Out of Antietam With a victory at Antietam, President Lincoln could make a major legislative move. Photograph of President Lincoln and General McClellan at Antietam Antietam National Cemetery Following the Battle of Antietam in 1862, there were few cemeteries to inter the dead. Shallow graves were dug to quickly bury the remains of the battle, yet a permanent solution was needed. The result was Antietam National Cemetery, the final resting place for United States troops that had fallen during the Maryland Campaign. Photo of Antietam National Cemetery in the fall The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops The Stonewall Regiment How one regiment made a difference, the 17th Michigan Volunteer Infantry, at the battle of South Mountain Print of the Battle of South Mountain Forest Soils Highlights from a 2007-2017 study of soils in National Capital Region Network I&M-monitored parks. Includes discussion of parent materials, heavy metal soil pollutants like lead, and how past land use effects O horizons. Collage of 6 color photos of soil profiles showing colors from orange-y reds to browns and grays. African Americans and Education During Reconstruction: The Tolson’s Chapel Schools During the Reconstruction Era, African Americans in the former slave-holding states saw education as an important step towards achieving equality, independence, and prosperity. As a result, they found ways to learn despite the many obstacles that poverty and white people placed in their path. African Americans’ commitment to education had lasting effects on the former slave-holding states. A small, white, wooden chapel amongst autumn-tinged trees. Stiltgrass and Tree Seedling Recovery Recent analysis at Maryland's Catoctin Mountain Park shows Japanese stiltgrass does not limit the growth of tree seedlings in a forest recovering from deer overpopulation. Invasive Japanese stiltgrass blankets the sides of a shady forest road. Falling Stars: James A. Garfield and the Military Reputations of Generals Irvin McDowell, George McClellan, and Fitz John Porter During the Civil War, James A. Garfield was elected into the House of Representatives but they did not begin session until the end of 1863. While waiting to begin his new position Garfield was part of one of the most celebrated military trials in American history: the court martial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter. Find out more about the trial and what part James A. Garfield played! nineteen men in suits sitting around a table Six Unusual Abraham Lincoln Facts and Rumors, Part II Facts 4-6 of Unusual and Unknown Lincoln Facts. President Abraham Lincoln Presidents and Politicians: The 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry Many future politicians and presidents were members of the 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry during the Civil War. Read more about the men who served and their stories. Spotted Lanternfly 101 What you need to know about spotted lanternfly: a new, invasive, insect pest approaching the National Parks of the Mid-Atlantic. A spotted lanternfly with wings spread showing namesake spots The Bravest of the Brave - The Medal of Honor The Medal of Honor, the nation's highest recognition for military gallantry over and above the call of duty, was one of the Civil War's many innovations, first awarded to sailors in 1861 and soldiers in 1862. Painting of the fighting around the Dunker Church, by Captain John Hope Hancock's War Major General Winfield S. Hancock came out to the Southern Plains in the Spring of 1867 to quell a suspected Indian uprising. He was a distinguished U.S. Army officer with an impressive record, especially for service during the Civil War. However, dealing with an enemy so culturally dissimilar to him proved a difficult challenge. Instead of pacifying the Indians, his burning of a local Indian village incited a summer of violence known to history as "Hancock's War." Black and white head photo of Winfield Scott Hancock Series: Disability History The Disability History series brings attention to some of the many disability stories interwoven across the National Park Service’s 400+ units and its programs. “Disability stories” refer to the array of experiences by, from, and about people with disabilities represented across our nation. People with disabilities are the largest minority in the United States, but their stories often remain untold. Statue of FDR in his wheelchair Series: A Most Horrid Picture When the war began, medical practitioners did not know the exact cause of many diseases or the mechanisms of infection, and were only beginning to understand the benefits of cleanliness and good sanitation in disease prevention and healing. As a result, two out of every three deaths in the Civil War were caused by disease rather than injury. Caregivers like Clara Barton, the "Angel of the Battlefield," brought food and supplies to the soldiers and inspired new hope and life to the injured. Modern photograph of a medicine kit from the Civil War Series: No Time for Games The Civil War affected more than the soldiers on the battlefield. An entire generation was shaped by their perception of events during this critical chapter of American history and the weight of war was borne on little shoulders as well as large. Whether they snuck into the army, served as drummer boys, helped tend the wounded, or faced every day as a struggle to stay alive, the perspectives of children offer unique insight into the effects of the Civil War. "The great objects in life were Photograph of a Union family at a military camp Series: Born of Earnest Struggle When the Civil War began in 1861, President Abraham Lincoln's primary concern was saving the Union and preventing the fracturing of the nation. After the failure of the Peninsula Campaign in the summer of 1862, Union morale was low. The northern economy was shaky, optimism for victory had faded, and Lincoln's Cabinet feared growing Confederate strength would encourage foreign intervention. Lincoln began to see freeing the slaves, not as a constitutional dilemma or a moral choice, but as a way of Photograph of unnamed Union African American troops Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Archeology at Antietam- The Effect of Battle on an Agrarian Landscape In the 1990s, the National Park Service and URS Greiner, Inc., conducted a survey to locate, identify, and inventory archeological sites within Antietam National Battlefield. This series is on research at three sites within the park — the Mary Locher/Alfred Poffenberger cabin, the North Woods, and the Mumma Farm — and presents a brief introduction to some of the archeological methods, techniques, and interpretations. Cannon on a field with sunset background Series: The Lost Orders As Lee invaded the north he hoped to rally the support of the people of Maryland, resupply his exhausted army, and draw the Union army far beyond its supply depots and fortifications, where they might be dealt a more decisive blow. On September 9 he ordered his Chief of Staff to write and distribute Special Orders 191, which laid out his plans for splitting the army and the movements for the next three days. A lost copy of the order was left behind in a field near Frederick, MD wrapped in an env Photograph of Robert E. Lee Series: A Savage Continual Thunder In September 1862 Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee changed the course of the Civil War. By crossing the Potomac River he moved from defending the south and its people to invading northern territory. He hoped that a major victory on Union soil would encourage European recognition of the Confederacy, crush northern morale, and force President Lincoln to sue for peace. As the Union Army of the Potomac scrambled to meet the Southern threat, President Lincoln hoped that Lee's invasion would lead to a U Lithograph of Battle of Antietam Spotted Lanternfly in Perspective While spotted lanternfly and emerald ash borer are both invasive insect pests, introduced from Asia, that feed on trees (primarily), they have few other similarities. Learn how they differ in host preferences, feeding mode, and life cycle. A spotted lanternfly with black wingspots on a tree branch Amphibian Disease Risk in the National Capital Area Looking for disease, including ranaviruses and chytrid fungi, is an important part of amphibian monitoring done by the National Capital Region Inventory & Monitoring Network. Learn more about the risks posed by these diseases and the biosecurity protocols field crews use to reduce the risk of accidental spread. Red-spotted newt on brown forest floor leaves. Black spots and eyes contrast with vivid orange skin. Prescribed fire in the national capital area Learn how the National Park Service uses prescribed fire in the National Capital Area. Brood X Periodical Cicadas FAQ Learn about the Brood X periodical cicadas that emerged in 2021 throughout the Mid-Atlantic U.S. A perched periodical cicada with red eyes and orange wings Forest Regeneration 2020 What is the future of our forests? A look at forest regeneration capacity in National Capital Area national parks based on 2020 monitoring data. hand holding a leaflet on a white ash seedling Series: African American History at Gettysburg Abraham Brian, Basil Biggs, James Warfield, and Mag Palm are just a few of the many individuals that were affected by the Civil War and the Battle of Gettysburg, and each has their own story to tell. We have collected their stories in one place so that you can learn more about their various trials during this tumultuous time in American history. A black and white photograph of a black family posing with a white man and his horse in a dirt road. Plants and Climate Change Changing climate increases stressors that weaken plant resilience, disrupting forest structure and ecosystem services. Rising temperatures lead to more frequent droughts, wildfires, and invasive pest outbreaks, leading to the loss of plant species. That causes a ripple of problems throughout their ecosystems. Monocacy tulip poplar tree Cultural Resources and Climate Change Cultural resources are sites, structures, objects, and even landscapes that show the history of human activity and/or hold significance to a group of people traditionally associated with it. Climate change, however, is making it harder to preserve these cultural resources for future generations. Changing weather patterns, increased pests, and pollution all amplify the deterioration of our cultural and historical resources. Jefferson Memorial view from above with visitors on the steps Flooding and Climate Change Climate change has had a profound effect on the weather. In areas like DC which have been historically wet, changes in atmospheric temperature can lead to more severe storms and greater precipitation. Combined, these factors fuel other extreme weather events like flooding or landslides. Loudoun Heights Split Rock View Causes of Deafness During the Civil War Civil War soldiers faced death on a daily basis. However, they also faced going home with various disabilities. One such disability was partial or complete deafness. Many soldiers were accustomed to temporary deafness from the constant artillery fire in the field. However, illness, the environment, and even the medicine the doctors used on patients could cause a much more permanent hearing loss. 102 Cases of Deafness.Prepared 4 Consideration of senate & house of reps. by Wallace E. Foster. Beech Trees in the National Capital Area American beech (Fagus grandifolia), the most common tree species in National Capital Area parks, is currently facing the emerging threat of Beech Leaf Disease (BLD). A forest with healthy green leafed beech trees Wounded at Antietam, Civil War Soldier buried at St. Paul's suffered for 40 years, but wrote history of his famed regiment Cover of the reprint of Matthew J. Graham's regimental history of the 9th New York Volunteer Infantry of the Union Army in the Civil War Cover of book, with printed title and subtitle, and image of soldiers crouching and firing weapons Overview of the Urban Forests The eight urban forests measured in the Urban Ecology i-Tree analyses are diverse. The following articles explore just a few of the common ecological benefits the urban trees in these parks provide to the parks and the surrounding areas. Overview of the Urban Forests icon of tree silhouettes. Icon put over photo of Prince William Forest Avoided Runoff and Urban Forests Surface runoff, particularly from storms, can be a cause for concern in many urban areas because the large amounts of paved surfaces will increase the amount of water that cannot soak into the ground. These large volumes of stormwater runoff can carry surface impurities into streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and oceans, contributing pollution, garbage, and excessive nutrients into aquatic ecosystems. Urban forests, however, are beneficial in reducing surface runoff. Avoided Runoff icon of rain over a tree branch. Icon put over raindrops on red fall leaves Carbon Storage by Urban Forests Climate change is an issue of global concern. Urban trees can help mitigate climate change by storing carbon in tree tissue and sequestering atmospheric carbon from the key greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon Storage & Sequestration icon of CO2 going into a tree. Icon put over photo tree trunk. Air Pollution Removal by Urban Forests Poor air quality is a common problem in many urban areas. It can lead to decreased human health, damage to landscape materials and ecosystem processes, and spoiled scenic views due to reduced visibility. The National Park Service monitors and assesses air quality in park units. The trees in NPS’s urban forests contribute to improved air quality. Air Pollution Removal Icon of green lungs. Icon put over photo of tree canopy gap. Structural Values of Urban Forests A tree’s structural value can be thought of as the cost of having to replace a tree with a similar tree. It can be calculated with factors like the tree trunk area and the tree’s health condition. Various insects and diseases can infest urban forests, potentially killing trees and reducing the health, structural value and sustainability of the urban forest. Structural Values of Trees icon of tree on field. Icon put over photo of snow covered trees. Other Benefits of Urban Forests Other benefits of urban forests include: Trees and Building Energy Use and Oxygen Production. Trees affect energy consumption by shading buildings, providing evaporative cooling, and blocking winter winds. Oxygen production is one of the most commonly cited benefits of urban trees. Other Tree Benefits icon of house with a tree besides it. Icon put over photo of cherry blossoms Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Incredible Untold Stories of Everyday Life In the Reconstruction period following the Civil War, newly freed African Americans faced monumental challenges to establish their own households, farm their own lands, establish community institutions and churches, and to pursue equal justice under the law in a period of racist violence. A new NPS report presents the story of the extraordinary accomplishments of rural African Americans in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Portrait of well dressed Black woman in round spectacles, short natural hair, and lacy white collar Historic Piper Farmhouse at Antietam National Battlefield receives $426,000 in GAOA funding for preservation work Carpenters from the National Park Service's Historic Preservation Training Center are saving a piece of history by rehabilitating the exterior of the historic Piper House in Antietam National Battlefield. In 1863, the house and 184-acre farm played a significant role in the bloodiest one-day battle of the Civil War. Although Henry Piper sided with the Union, Confederate Generals James Longstreet and Daniel H. Hill commandeered his house to serve as their headquarters. Two-story home with a covered front porch. Forest Regeneration 2021 The latest look at forest regeneration capacity in National Capital Area national parks based on monitoring data from 2021. Green forest showing healthy understory of oak seedlings. Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Deer Impacts A healthy forest needs to have enough tree seedlings and saplings to regenerate the forest canopy after a disturbance. Analysis of NPS I&M and other long-term datasets makes it clear that many eastern national parks lack adequate tree regeneration due to decades of over browsing by white-tailed deer. Deer impacts Managing Resilient Forests. A Regional Initiative Forests cover tens of thousands of acres in eastern national parks and these critical resources face a range of interacting stressors: over-abundant white-tailed deer populations, invasive plant dominance, novel pests and pathogens, among other threats. The Resilient Forests Initiative will help parks address these issue collectively. Forest health monitoring I&M Networks Support Resilient Forest Management NPS Inventory and Monitoring Networks have been tracking forest health in eastern national parks since 2006. This monitoring information can guide resilient forest management and support parks in adapting to changing conditions through the actions described below. Forest health monitoring Autumn Amphibians Frog antifreeze and red efts? Learn more about fall amphibian life in the National Capital Area, including marbled salamanders, spring peepers, and red-spotted newts! A red-orange juvenile red-spotted newt climbs a rock Series: Managing Resilient Forests Initiative for Eastern National Parks Forests in the northeastern U.S. are in peril. Over-abundant deer, invasive plants, and insect pests are impacting park forests, threatening to degrade the scenic vistas and forested landscapes that parks are renowned for. With regional collaboration, parks can manage these impacts and help forests be resilient. This article series explores tools available to park managers to achieve their goals. Healthy forests have many native seedlings and saplings. Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Invasive Plants & Pests Park forests are threatened by invasive plants and pests. Strategically tackling invasive plants to protect park’s highest priority natural resources and planning around forest pests and pathogens are important actions in managing resilient forests. Forest Regeneration Ash Tree Update 2021 Emerald ash borer (EAB) has killed most of the 300,000 ash trees in National Capital Region parks since 2014. Fewer than 80,000 living ash trees remain. Some ash-dominated swamps transformed into shrublands as ash root systems re-sprouted after EAB attack. In dry habitats, EAB proved more quickly fatal. A sunny swamp with dead tree trunks emerging from dense shrubs Series: Amphibian Monitoring in the National Capital Region Amphibians are a crucial part of both aquatic and land ecosystems and National Capital Region parks are home to at least 20 different amphibian species. Learn how amphibian populations are changing based on fifteen years of NPS monitoring. Northern red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) on a patch of moss Amphibian Monitoring Update 2021 Learn how amphibians in the National Capital Region are faring based on fifteen years of NPS monitoring. Explore population changes, threats and stressors, and data-informed tools for protecting amphibian populations in our parks. Eye level view of a red salamander creeping along bright green moss Antietam Amphibian Monitoring 2021 Learn how amphibian populations are doing at Antietam! American toad Vines on Trees at Forest Edges Learn how climbing vines affect tree growth and mortality in National Capital Region park forests. This material was originally presented in a 2016 resource brief. Vines climb on trees at the forest edge at Rock Creek's Barnard Hill Park. Re-Growing Southeastern Grasslands Native grasslands once covered vast swaths of the southeastern U.S. Learn how national parks in DC, Maryland, and Virginia are working on conserving, rehabilitating, and restoring these grassland communities. A sunny grassland with rolling hills in the distance

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