"Rolling Tundra" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain
Bering Land Bridge
National Preserve - Alaska
The Bering Land Bridge National Preserve is one of the most remote United States national park areas, located on the Seward Peninsula. The National Preserve protects a remnant of the Bering Land Bridge that connected Asia with North America more than 13,000 years ago during the Pleistocene ice age. The majority of this land bridge now lies beneath the waters of the Chukchi and Bering Seas. During the glacial epoch this bridge was a migration route for people, animals, and plants whenever ocean levels fell enough to expose the land bridge. Archeologists disagree whether it was across this Bering Land Bridge, also called Beringia, that humans first migrated from Asia to populate the Americas, or whether it was via a coastal route.
Bering Land Bridge - Visitor Map
Official visitor map of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve (NPRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).
https://www.nps.gov/bela/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bering_Land_Bridge_National_Preserve The Bering Land Bridge National Preserve is one of the most remote United States national park areas, located on the Seward Peninsula. The National Preserve protects a remnant of the Bering Land Bridge that connected Asia with North America more than 13,000 years ago during the Pleistocene ice age. The majority of this land bridge now lies beneath the waters of the Chukchi and Bering Seas. During the glacial epoch this bridge was a migration route for people, animals, and plants whenever ocean levels fell enough to expose the land bridge. Archeologists disagree whether it was across this Bering Land Bridge, also called Beringia, that humans first migrated from Asia to populate the Americas, or whether it was via a coastal route. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve lies at the continental crossroads that greatly influenced the distribution of life in the Western Hemisphere during the Pleistocene Epoch. It is a vital landscape for indigenous communities who depend on the land just as their ancestors did for many generations. It is a wild and ecologically healthy landscape unlike any other. The Bering Land Bridge Visitor Center is located in Nome, AK. Nome, AK is not on the road system and may be reached via a commercial flight. The Bering Land Bridge Visitor Center is located about a mile from Nome Airport. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve is located in the northern portion of the Seward Peninsula. There are no roads or trails into the parklands. Logistics on how to reach Bering Land Bridge is based on an individual’s resources and abilities. Bering Land Bridge Visitor Center Nome, AK is not on the road system and may be reached by commercial flights. From Nome, AK you may visit Bering Land Bridge visitor center which is about 1 mile away from the Nome airport. Keep in mind that Nome, AK is 100 miles (160 km) from the preserve's boundaries. You may reach the preserve by chartering a bush plane, by foot, boat or snowmobile. Commercial airlines fly to Nome, Ak. The visitor center is on Front St. in the Sitnausuak Building, about 1 mile away from the airport. Wet Muskox Three wet muskox stand in a line. Three wet muskox. Fall Colors A hiker is seen in the distance as autumn colors dominate the tundra landscape. Autumn hike at Bering Land Bridge Coastal Moon Rise Rolling sand dunes with sparse vegetation with full moon rising above. Coastal moon rise Aerial View of Serpentine Hot Springs in Summer A vast expanse of undulating hills with granite spire jutting from the top. A small aircraft descends on Serpentine Hot Springs. Flock of shore birds Flock of shore birds taking flight Flock of shore birds taking flight Home, home on your range? Read the abstract and get the link to a paper published in the Journal of Wildlife Management about the overlap across four Arctic caribou herds: Prichard, A. K., L. S. Parrett, E. A. Lenart, J. R. Caikoski, K. Joly, and B. T. Person. 2020. Interchange and overlap among four adjacent Arctic caribou herds. Journal of Wildlife Management 1-15. Caribou in brushy northern forest. Permafrost Resource Brief for the Arctic Network Permafrost underlies most of the Arctic Network and affects nearly everything in the arctic ecosystem. Thawing permafrost also changes the local hydrology and creates the second-greatest disturbance to boreal forests, after wildfires. Recent warm and wet conditions caused some thaw of ice masses and surface subsidence in Arctic parks that ultimately led to a record number of drained of shallow lakes. This brief provides an update on permafrost monitoring in the Arctic Network Polygonal shaped tundra due to underlying permafrost Geology of Serpentine Hot Springs Surrounded by gigantic tors, two geothermal areas are found alongside Hot Springs Creek: Serpentine Hot Springs and Arctic Hot Springs. Steam rises from a shallow pool near an enclosed bathouse. Arctic Cryosphere: snow, water, ice, and permafrost This article is a summary of findings from the Snow, Water, Ice, and Permafrost in the Arctic report by the Arctic Council Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. A person dwarfed in the expansive snow-covered tundra of the Arctic. Bering Strait Archaeology Camp, 2019 The annual Bering Strait Archaeology Camp provides students with hands-on activities that build confidence and curiosity while allowing students to experience a direct, tangible connection to the past. The camp teaches students to combine archaeological methods like surveying house pit sites, analyzing artifacts, and interviewing elders to create a picture of the past. kids stand around a beach campfire Summer movements of female Golden Eagle 1502 at the northwestern edge of North America. Wrangell St. Elias NPP to Bering Land Bridge NP: summer movements of Golden Eagle 1502. Satellite telemetry is expanding our understanding of Golden Ecology and revealing the stories of non-territorial Golden Eagles in Alaska during the breeding season. USFWS Biologist Stephen Lewis holds Golden Eagle 1502 while extending her right wing. Seasonal Sea Ice and Arctic Migrations of the Beluga Whale Sea ice break-up in the spring and freeze-up in the fall govern the accessibility of Alaska’s Arctic Ocean for several migratory marine species. Each year, beluga and bowhead whales navigate the Bering Strait and enter the southern Chukchi Sea, one of the most seasonally productive regions of the global oceans. Some belugas and most bowhead whales continue on their >1,500 mile migration north of Alaska to the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Alaska Park Science 17(1), 2018. Beluga whale pod migrating in the Arctic Sea. Subsistence The study of subsistence resources in parks has been a mix of long-term work and projects instigated by issues facing the Federal Subsistence Board. Winter hunting is an important subsistence activity in many Alaska communities and park areas. Alaska Native Place Names in Arctic Parks Indigenous place names are rich ethnographic and historical resources. Many of them refer to activities that regularly took place at the site; others tell of historical events that occurred there. These names have been replaced by English names on modern maps; this article discusses efforts to document these names into the future. a group of people near a canvas tent, alongside a large river Tracking the First Marine Mammal Hunters at Cape Espenberg, Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Life in the Arctic would be nearly impossible without knowledge of how to harvest resources from the sea. Preserved at Cape Espenberg is the oldest evidence for marine mammal hunting in northern Alaska that suggests people developed maritime adaptations before their arrival in Alaska or as they arrived, instead of after a prolonged period of adaptation. aerial view of a peninsula dotted with many ponds Science in Wilderness Marine Reserves ANILCA establishes the largest scientific laboratory...ever! A spawning salmon struggles to get back into the water. A Tribute: Dave Spirtes, 1948-2004 A tribute to a lost colleague and friend, Dave Spirtes. Dave Spirtes holds an award presented to him by Ron Arnberger, Alaska Regional Director (retired). ANILCA and the Western Arctic Caribou Herd Cooperative Management Plan The Western Arctic Caribou Herd at 450,000 animals is only one of about 32 herds in Alaska but is by far the largest, comprising about half of the caribou in the state (and about 10% of the world total of 5 million animals). Lush green tundra cut by thousands of caribou tracks. Understanding Arctic Sea Ice in a Period of Rapid Climatic Change Decreasing sea ice poses significant challenges to both wildlife and people of the Arctic. This article explores the impacts associated with decreasing sea ice and how we may adapt. woman in red parka kneeling by a small hole in ice Animal Icons as Peaceful Warriors: Beyond Science and Culture to Achieve Conservation Muskoxen are an iconic Arctic species, and the Arctic is a place for an international commitment to conservation. This article explores the history of muskoxen and international conservation with Russia. a circle of muskoxen In Celebration of ANILCA Former President, Jimmy Carter, offers a sentimental introduction to the 25th Anniversary Edition of Alaska Park Science and the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). Black and white photo of six white men standing in front of an old National Park Service Building. National Park Service Aviation Personnel Attend DOI National Pilot Ground School During the week of December 10, 2017, twenty-eight National Park Service (NPS) airplane and helicopter pilots, pilot trainees, national and regional aviation staff attended the 2017 DOI National Pilot Ground School (NPGS). The weeklong training brought together over 100 DOI pilots from the NPS, US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and DOI’s Office of Aviation Services (OAS). A group of 17 men stand in front of a room. Cleaning Up Alaska's Beaches Cleanup crews hit the beaches in 5 of Alaska's coastal national parks in 2015 to collect, assess and ultimately remove abandoned and washed up trash. The massive endeavor was part of a larger project aimed at understanding the sources of marine debris and keeping it out of the ocean and off of Alaska's beaches. NPS staff and volunteers with bags of trash collected off beach. A History of Science in Alaska's National Parks National park units in Alaska precede the establishment of the National Park Service in 1916. The first park unit, Sitka National Monument, was conceived in 1908, and by the mid-1920s four national monuments along with Alaska’s first national park were part of the growing park system. Discover how the early 1900s and observations of a few helped to establish the National Park Service in Alaska. Black and white photo of Arno Cammerer sitting at his desk looking through papers. Old is Getting Older In the last 25 years, persistent archaeological survey and improved scientific techniques have resulted in new data which confirms that Alaska sites are actually much earlier than we once believed. NPS archaeologist works at Amakomanak site in Noatak National Preserve. Long-term Monitoring of 1977 Tundra Fires in the Northwest Alaska Parks The frequency and size of lightning-caused tun-dra fires could increase with climate warming and may result in major ecosystem changes in vegetation, soils, and wildlife habitat over large areas of the arctic. A female fire ecologist stands waste high in green willows along the shore of Imuruk Lake. NPS Alaska Planning and Designs for the Future with Climate Change Alaska’s national parks face new and unexpected planning, design, and maintenance challenges as we enter a new era of climate change. It behooves the NPS to pay attention to these changes and plan and act accordingly cars driving on a road covered in water Download Alaska Park Science: Volume 16, Issue 1 Download a print-friendly copy of Volume 16, Issue 1 of Alaska Park Science. a group of muskox running across a field Why the National Park Service Cares about Shipping in the Arctic An increase of up to 500% of ship traffic in the Arctic was recently forecasted over the next decade with the largest increase coming from “destination” shipping, such as tourism and resource extraction. The NPS is actively engaged in efforts to document and forecast these changes because of the potential to impact park resources and values in the Arctic. A large cruise ship nears harbor seals hauled out on the ice near Glacier Bay National Park A Partnership to Remove Marine Debris from Alaskan Coastal Parks Marine debris can affect marine mammals and birds through entanglement, strangulation, and digestive blockage. In summer 2015, we conducted an extensive multi-partner project to remove over 11 tons of marine debris from remote beaches in five Alaska parks. park rangers putting trash into white plastic bags on a rocky beach The Vulnerabilities of Cultural and Paleontological Resources to Coastal Climate Change Processes in Northwest Alaska Bering Land Bridge National Preserve and Cape Krusenstern National Monument exhibit a wide variety of coastal landforms including barrier lagoons, tundra bluffs, accreting spits, and beach ridge complexes; all home to vulnerable fauna, flora, and avian communities; internationally significant archaeological, historic, and ethnographic resources; and unique paleoecological and fossil records. Coastal erosion and a changing climate pose a threat to these areas. people near two yellow tents in a tree-less expanse of tundra Promoting Spill Preparedness in Western Arctic Parks with the Community Integrated Coastal Response Project With continued sea ice extent reductions, the Bering Strait is poised to become a crucial marine transport waterway for the world. To help safeguard Arctic parks, the NPS conducted a study of resource risk and incident response preparation that includes shipping traffic modeling, community response training, and geographic response strategies. man in cold-weather gear standing in the back of a small boat loaded with scientific equipment Lost Arctic Lakes Read the abstract and get the link to an article published in a peer-reviewed journal: Swanson, D. K. 2019. Thermokarst and precipitation drive changes in the area of lakes and ponds in the national parks of northwestern Alaska, 1984-2018. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 51(1): 265-279. A large lake nearly dry. Loons without lakes Over a decade of loon population survey data combined with satellite imagery of lakes in Bering Land Bridge National Preserve dating back to the mid-1980s indicate remarkable changes in the nesting lakes of loons are underway. Lake drying in Bering Land Bridge National Preserve and consequences for loons. How will loons cope with the widespread draining of lakes? A Yellow-billed Loon sits low on its nest. What's in a Name?:Rekindling Traditional Inupiat Place Names Names are powerful. They tell a story, share histories or link a place to an event or a culture. They create an entryway into the identity of a person or a place. The Qamani Interactive Map attempts to expand on the manuscript Qamani: Up the Coast, In My Heart, In My Mind, a compilation of traditional placenames along the Seward Peninsula coast from Shishmaref to Cape Espenberg. Travels in Remote Alaska Lead to More Remote Travels How remote is remote? For SCA intern Lia Nydes working in Bering Land Bridge NP headquartered in Nome, AK was remote. It is the land of the midnight sun! It is off the road system! It is remote! Then the opportunity arose to travel to St. Lawrence Island, a small community in the middle of the Bering Sea. Boat sit on the gravel beach. Land Ownership in National Park System Units in Alaska and Possibilities for Mining and Other Developments There are over 54 million acres of National Park System units in Alaska, which is 65 percent of the entire National Park System. Although most of those lands are in federal ownership and are managed by the NPS, there are over two million acres of non-federally owned lands within those units. These non-federal lands are in private, state, borough, or municipal ownership. The existence of these lands creates the possibility of mining and other developments within the boundaries rustic buildings near a creek, hills and mountains in the distance Nome Archaeology Camp Nome Archaeology Camp provides a field experience for youth to learn about nature, culture, and traditions in Alaska. Supporting Community Archeology: The Golovin Heritage Field School The NPS Shared Beringian Heritage Program encourages local and international participation in the preservation and understanding of cultural resources on both sides of the Bering Straits. Between 1998 and 2000, the Shared Beringian Heritage Program funded the Golovin Native Corporation in northwestern Alaska to carry out archeological investigations at sites on corporation lands, giving high school students opportunities to document their region’s history. View of Golovin students. Studying Arctic Marine Mammals in the Shipping Age Pod of narwhals, one of the few mammals endemic to the Arctic Ocean. Photo used by permission from Kristin Laidre A pod of narwhals surfaces in the Arctic. Coastal Dynamics in Bering Land Bridge National Preserve and Cape Krusenstern National Monument Arctic coastlines are changing as a result of warming temperatures and decreasing sea ice extent and duration. An understanding of these changes can contribute to the effective management of coastal habitats and ecosystems, oil-spill response, marine debris collection, and the preservation of cultural artifacts. Alaska Park Science 18(1):2019. A researcher stands on the Arctic coastal tundra. Analyzing Early Driftwood Houses of Coastal Alaska Early indigenous semi-subterranean houses of coastal Alaska are traditionally made from a driftwood frame and whalebone, covered with sod and turf. Such houses are found on both sides of the Bering Strait and date back at least 3,000 years. Driftwood is scattered on a sandy beach. Fire Ecology Annual Report 2018 Fire Season Despite the relatively quiet fire season in Alaska in 2018, the National Park Service saw 24 wildfires spanning over 36,000 acres burning within and adjacent to park boundaries. Six of those fires were in Cape Krusenstern National Monument. An anvil-shaped smoke plume rises above the tree line on the Yukon River. Volcanoes and Permafrost in Bering Land Bridge National Preserve A famous early twentieth century geologist named William Morris Davis proclaimed that “volcanoes are accidents of nature.” Morris believed that volcanic eruptions were anomalous and random events that could not be scientifically classified. Today, scientists know that volcanic eruptions involve a bewildering range of behavior and eruptive styles, resulting in numerous very different landforms that are all called volcanoes. A grassy field transitions into a rocky lava field. Barbarians at the Gate: Biting Flies of Beringia For blood-sucking flies, the Far North is a paradise of food and breeding habitat, but for the animals and humans that reluctantly furnish the blood, the Far North is hell on Earth. The world’s largest populations of black flies and mosquitoes are found in northern regions of the globe. Micro image of a black fly Aurora Borealis: A Brief Overview A brief overview of how Northern Lights occur. two ribbons of greenish light in a dark blue sky, over a very dark forest Alaska's Northern Parks: The Wonder of the Arctic The Arctic is a region characterized by extremes and adaptation. It is rich in natural and cultural history. The articles in this edition of Alaska Park Science highlight the many facets of life in the Arctic. stone outcrop in the Arctic tundra Synthesis of Coastal Issues and Projects in the Western Arctic National Parklands The Arctic coastal parks are currently facing a new set of threats brought about primarily by climate change and associated economic trends. Remote parks, people, and cultures are finding themselves increasingly in the midst of complex and novel situations. seal along the coast National Park Service Participation in the Arctic Council The Arctic Council and its working groups provide a forum through which NPS scientists and managers can share information and learn from a wide array of colleagues and Arctic residents that are coping with similar challenges. Caribou skulls in an Arctic valley Small Mammals as Indicators of Climate, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Change This is a time of rapid environmental changes in Alaska. Species that have evolved within tundra habitats over multiple glacial cycles are not only best adapted to high-latitude and high-elevation environments, but may also respond more slowly to change. Studies of small mammal communities could provide valuable insights to larger ecosystem changes. two marmots perched atop a large boulder Muskox: An Iconic Arctic Species, Then and Now In response to changes in hunting regulations and low harvest rates, the most recent data show that between the 2012 and 2015 the muskoxen population across the Seward Peninsula appeared to stabilize. The number of animals within Bering Land Bridge National Preserve and adjacent areas, however, declined during the same time period. a person in a white parka looking at three muskoxen across a snowy landscape Collaborative Conservation of the Rare Alaskan Yellow-billed Loon Through collaborative research with our partners, we are addressing the data gaps outlined in the Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for the Yellow-billed Loon to inform prudent conservation efforts and science-based management of this rare and majestic species across Alaska. a bird spreading its wings while sitting in water 2013 Microgrant Recipients The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Microgrant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Microgrant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2013 Microgrant recipients and their outreach projects. A Ranger stands with two junior rangers 2019 Science Education Grants The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2019 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. a park ranger and kids standing in shallow lake water Let's Blitz at Bering Land Bridge Bering Land Bridge National Preserve is difficult to reach. There are no roads that bring you here. Therefore, the inaccessibility and remoteness of the preserve has set the stage for a multi-day science field trip at Serpentine Hot Springs, where a select number of participants are shuttled in to the preserve via bush plane. Once the aircraft leaves, BioBlitz participants and NPS staff are on their own. This is BioBlitz – Alaska Style. Bat Projects in Parks: Alaska Region Parks Bats in Alaska? Find out! A scenic view of Alaska, mountains in the distance and a grizzly in front of a lake in the front. Caribou: Did You Know? Did you know facts and life history about the Western Arctic Caribou Herd of northwest Alaska Bull caribou in the Brooks Range mountains of Alaska Connecting Youth to Coastal Resources in Western Arctic Parks We added youth-related initiatives to three science projects in western Arctic parks: Yellow-billed Loon monitoring, shorebird migration, and marine debris clean-up. In doing so, we provided opportunities for Alaska youth to participate in NPS science, promoted cultural and social exchanges between rural and urban youth who shared their story through digital media. a woman holding a disposable plastic bottle Fire in the Range of Western Arctic Caribou Herd Wildland fire may have a significant impact on lichen-dependent caribou within the tundra ecosystem. A caribou carrying heavy antlers walks slowly though green tundra on a hazy, grey day. Feathered Ambassadors of Arctic Coastal Parks Coastal areas in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are increasingly vulnerable to heightened industrial activity and a rapidly changing climate. Little is known regarding abundance, species composition, or distribution of shorebirds during fall migration in this region. Without such information, it will be impossible to prioritize effective oil spill response to the most critical areas if such a disaster does occur or to manage restoration activities after an incident. brownish bird in flight Understanding the Ecology of Arctic Coastal Lagoons through Fisheries Research and Monitoring Shallow, dynamic coastal lagoons represent a critically important ecosystem in the Arctic region, supporting avian, fish, and invertebrate populations, in addition to being used by both terrestrial and marine mammals. The lagoons are extremely vulnerable to both climate change and human impacts from increased activities in and around the region. a smiling woman holding a large fish in two hands Eurasian Metal Found in Ancient Alaska Excavations at Cape Espenberg have recovered thousands of wood, bone, ivory, antler, lithic, ceramic, and metal artifacts. The metal finds are significant because the presence of smelted alloys in a prehistoric Inuit context in northwest Alaska is demonstrated here for the first time, indicating the movement of Eurasian metal across the Bering Strait into North America before sustained contact with Europeans. Excavations at Cape Espenberg Fire Ecology 2018 Annual Report Summary, Monitoring & Inventory During the 2018 field season, the NPS Alaska fire ecology program conducted monitoring in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve. This article provides a brief summary about the Yukon-Charley Rivers results, research projects, and fire ecology program activities. Lichens growing toward the sun years after a wildfire. Pleistocene Megafauna and the Bering Land Bridge The Bering Land Bridge and how Pleistocene megafauna migrated across. A short-faced bear. Mastodon or Mammoth? Can you tell the difference between a mastodon and a mammoth? side-by-side mammoth and mastodon 2018 Science Education Grants The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2018 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. an instructor and a camper work on a carving Uniforms for the Caribbean Did you know that employees from across the National Park Service stepped up to help their fellow employees after hurricanes hit the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico? In September of 2017, Hurricane Irma, one of the strongest known hurricanes in the Atlantic, lashed the Caribbean and Florida. It was followed within days by Hurricane Maria, another devastating hurricane that also hit Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, among other places. Boxes line a hallway awaiting shipment to parks in the Caribbean. Photo by Kristine Brunsman The Fate of Permafrost At present, permafrost is continuous in Arctic parks and discontinuous in Denali and Wrangell St.-Elias national parks and preserves. We expect the distribution of permafrost will still be continuous in Arctic parks by the 2050s; however, it is very likely that the distribution of permafrost in Denali and Wrangell-St. Elias will become sporadic by then. a person standing next to an eroded hillside Caribou: Nomads of the North Caribou are an iconic Arctic species that are highly adaptable both physiologically and behaviorally. Yet, caribou populations face many challenges, such as climate change and industrial development, and are in decline in many portions of their range. two bull caribou swimming through a river Wolf Dispersal in Alaskan Parks Wildlife biologists have long known that wolves occasionally travel enormous distances in search of new mates and ranges. However, the advent of GPS-based wildlife tracking has allowed researchers to follow in the very footsteps of wolves as they travel across vast and wild landscapes. Alaska National Park scientists have witnessed some surprisingly intimate and breathtaking interconnections between wolves, parks and people by using this technology over the last few years. Close up of a wolf standing and facing the camera 2017 Science Education Grants The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2017 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. two girls sit in a kayak out on the water 2015 Microgrant Recipients The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Microgrant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Microgrant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2015 Microgrant recipients and their outreach projects. Students kneel in a wetland and examine a net Caribou Migration Linked to Climate Cycles and Insect Pests Read the abstract and get the link to an article published in Ecosphere on climate and insect drivers for caribou migration: : Gurarie, E., M. Hebblewhite, K. Joly, A. P. Kelly, J. Adamczewski, S. C. Davidson, T. Davison, A. Gunn, M. J. Suitor, W. F. Fagan, and N. Boelman. 2019. Tactical departures and strategic arrivals: Divergent effects of climate and weather on caribou spring migrations. Ecosphere 10(12):e02971. 10.1002/ecs2.2971 Caribou migrate across snow-covered tundra. Old Carbon Impacts on Arctic Stream Food Web Read the abstract and link to a peer-reviewed published paper on the impact of old carbon from thawing permafrost on Arctic stream food webs: O’Donnell, J.A., M.P. Carey, J.C. Koch, X. Xu, B.A. Poulin, J. Walker, and C.E. Zimmerman. 2019. Permafrost hydrology drives the assimilation of old carbon by stream food webs in the Arctic. Ecosystems. Arctic Grayling Caribou Resource Brief for the Arctic Network The Western Arctic Caribou Herd is one of the most critical subsistence resources in northwest Alaska. Monitoring the herd helps develop subsistence and sport hunting regulations that conserve the resource, protect critical habitat, and reduce conflicts among user groups. Since 2009, over 300 GPS collars have been deployed on caribou that have collected over 800,000 caribou locations. Caribou swim across the Kobuk River at Onion Portage in Kobuk Valley National Park Fall 2019 Weather Summary for Arctic Parks What was the weather like in Arctic Parks in 2019? Check out this weather summary for Fall 2019 for Bering Land Bridge NP, Gates of the Arctic NPP, and Western Arctic Parklands. Climate scientists repair climate station. Mountains in the backdrop. Magnetic Detection of Archaeological Hearths in Alaska Read the abstract and link to a recent article on archaeological research using magnetic detection of hearths: Urban, Thomas M., Jeffrey T. Rasic, Claire Alix, Douglas D. Anderson, Linda Chisholm, Robert W. Jacob, Sturt W. Manning, Owen K.Mason, Andrew H. Tremayne, Dale Vinson (2019). Magnetic detection of archaeological hearths in Alaska: A tool for investigating the full span of human presence at the gateway to North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 211: 73-92. An archaeologist searches for hearths using a magetometer Improving Muskox Survey Methods Read the abstract and link to an article that describes improved survey methods for muskox populations on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Schmidt, J. H. and H. L. Robison. 2019. Using distance sampling-based integrated population models to identify key demographic parameters. The Journal of WIldlife Management DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.21805 A group of muskox on the tundra. Discovery of Paleoclimate Proxies in Maar Lakes of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Read the abstract and get the link to an article on clues lake sediments can give us about the paleoclimate of the Bering Land Bridge: Wang, K. J., J. A. O’Donnell, W. M. Longo, L. Amaral-Zettler, L. Gaoyuan, Y. Yao, and Y. Huang. 2019. Group I alkenones and Isochrysidales in the World’s large maar lake complexes and their potential paleoclimatic applications. Organic Geochemistry. Three researchers in an inflatable boat collecting lake sediment cores. Harmful Algal Toxins in Alaska's Seabirds and Marine Mammals Seabirds and marine mammals along Alaska's coastline have been experiencing unusually large and consistent die-offs for the past several years, in conjunction with warming ocean temperatures. Researchers want to know if harmful algal blooms, typically associated with warmer climates, are playing a role in these deaths. A researcher examines a dead glaucus gull on a beach. A Paleontological Inventory of Arctic Parks Mammoth bones from the same skeleton are relatively uncommon in Alaska, making this one of the more complete mammoth skeletons known. Arctic parks also contain abundant marine fossils, including trilobites, ammonites, brachiopods, gastropods, and many more. several dark colored bones laid on the ground Predicting Seasonal Distributions and Migratory Routes of Western Arctic Herd Caribou Read the abstract and get the link for an article on caribou migration patterns published in Movement Ecology: Baltensperger, A. P., and K. Joly. 2019. Using seasonal landscape models to predict space use and migratory patterns of an arctic ungulate. Movement Ecology 7 (18). DOI: 10.1186/s40462-019-0162-8. The western arctic caribou herd along the Kobuk River. Permafrost Landforms as Indicators of Climate Change in Parks Across the Arctic Permafrost, ground so cold that it stays frozen for multiple years, develops certain landforms when it thaws, and thereby provides a way for scientists to recognize and monitor our changing climate. treeless hillside partially collapsed into a river at its base Beringia: Lost World of the Ice Age From little beetles to massive wooly mammoths, many clues remain for scientists to understand the ways that the Bering Land Bridge influenced all living organisms in the area we call Beringia - both past and present! map of alaska and western russia with an area labelled beringia between the two Tracking Mineral and Energy Development Projects near Alaska Parks through Web Mapping Visitors flock to places like Glacier Bay to experience a connection with the landscape. Early visitors to the state also discovered gold and other resources, development of these which helped shape modern Alaska. A careful balance between conservation and resource development continues today. Visual mapping allows land managers, visitors, and the public to more easily understand the type, scale, and scope of resource development adjacent to parks. aerial view of a dirt road and equpiment in a tree-less landscape Late Pleistocene Paleontology and Native Heritage in Northwest Alaska ossil remains are bountiful in northwest Alaska, with the Baldwin Peninsula, Kotzebue Sound, and Seward Peninsula being particularly fossil-rich areas. Recorded paleontological discoveries were made in the immediate area as early as 1816. However, the region has lacked the level of attention and scientific study of other northern areas such as the Klondike and the Yukon, and is therefore lesser known. woman standing to a waist-high leg bone Research Fellowship Recipients 2013 Read about 2013 fellowship recipients and the studies they chose to conduct throughout Interior and Arctic parks in Alaska. a woman sitting in a muddy field Bizarre Maars Magma and ice seem like an unlikely pair. Yet when mixed together they create amazing formations. Discover how the Espenberg Maars came to be largest maars in the world A winding river pours into a body of water. National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Alaska Aviation Safety In Alaska, small planes are often the best way to get around but flying has its risks. Aviation safety requires more than just a pilot’s skill–it takes all of us. Learn more about aviation to increase the safety of your next park flight. An NPS pilot in a plane cockpit flying over a turquoise lake Lichens of the Arctic Because certain lichen species are both abundant and sensitive to changes in the environment, they can serve as useful indicators of ecosystem health. When exposed to even low levels of certain pollutants, particularly sensitive species will decline or die, making lichen community composition a good indicator. closeup of green colored lichen Cruise Ship Standards of Care As part of the Arctic Waterways Safety Committee, the National Park Service is helping to develop best practices for the growing cruise ship industry in Arctic Alaska. The resource brief reviews what is at stake and efforts to protect both the wildlife and communities of of Alaska's Arctic region. The sun sets over the Arctic Ocean, casting an orange glow in the sky. The 19th Amendment, Elizabeth Peratrovich, and the Ongoing Fight for Equal Rights In Alaska, women's suffrage passed in 1913—seven years prior to the 19th Amendment—and antidiscrimination legislation passed nearly 20 years prior to the major national civil rights bills of the 1960s. In the 1940s, Elizabeth Peratrovich—a Tlingit woman who was Grand President of the Alaska Native Sisterhood—led the charge to end discrimination against Alaska Natives. gold coin of a raven, a woman's face, and words elizabeth peratrovich anti-discrimination law NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] rolling tundra Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 16 Issue: Science in Alaska's Arctic Parks The National Park Service manages five parks that fall partially or entirely within the Arctic tundra biome. These five parks encompass 19.3 million acres of land and constitute approximately 25% of the land area managed by the National Park Service nationwide. These are undeveloped places, with free-flowing rivers and wilderness at a massive scale. a group of muskox running across a field Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 12 Issue 2: Climate Change in Alaska's National Parks In this issue: * Status and Trends of Alaska National Park Glaciers * Tracking Glacial Landscapes: High School Science Gets Real * Climate Change Scenario Planning Lessons from Alaska a hillside overlooking a wide valley filled by a glacier, surrounded by steep mountains Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 13 Issue 2: Mineral and Energy Development There’s no denying that energy and mineral extraction have been and will continue to be important across the North for a long time. Mining and energy-related industries provide direct and indirect employment for thousands of people, taxes and other revenues. Our need is for science, engineering, and scholarly research; to develop safe, effective, and affordable technologies; to protect, preserve, and restore the natural and human environment; and to record and communicate our history. aerial view of buildings and a pier sticking out into the ocean Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 13 Issue 1: Wilderness in Alaska This issue includes: * Economics of Wilderness * Using Ethics Arguments to Preserve Naturalness * Busing Through the Wilderness: "Near-Wilderness" Experiences in Denali ... and more! mountains reflecting into a calm lake, the words 'alaska park science' Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 15 Issue 1: Coastal Research Science in Alaska's National Parks This issue focuses on studies occurring in coastal areas throughout national parks in Alaska. Articles include a variety of studies on arctic coastal lagoons, background on a large research project studying coastal brown bears, and more. a brown bear investigating a clam on a beach Series: The Legacy of ANILCA The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act impacts the National Park Service in many ways. ANILCA stipulates the designation of wilderness, subsistence management, transportation in and across parklands, use of cabins, mining, archaeological sites, scientific research studies and more. Two men drag a harvest seal from icy blue waters across frozen ice. Series: Copper River Basin Symposium - Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve February 2020: With a theme of Tradition, Science, and Stewardship, the two-day symposium included keynote speakers, 26 short presentations, and a poster session. A panel discussion delved into opportunities in working with indigenous communities. Ahtna elders provided wisdom in daily welcomes, and there was a presentation by Copper River Stewardship Youth. Topics ranged widely from fisheries to archaeology to geology. As well as sharing knowledge, participants shared meals, stories, and ideas. Copper River Basin Symposium logo by Lindsay and Elvie Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Alaska Park Science, Volume 18, Issue 1, Understanding and Preparing for Alaska's Geohazards Alaska is the most geologically active part of North America. Much of the awe-inspiring landscapes of Alaska's parks are created by geologic processes. But sometimes, these processes can be hazardous. This issue explores the state of the science to understand geohazards in Alaska national parks. Alaska Park Science 18(1): 2019. A man jumps down a dune of volcanic ash. Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 17, Issue 1. Migration: On the Move in Alaska Alaska is home to many amazing animal migrations. In this issue, you will read about caribou, salmon, Golden Eagles, Swainson's Thrushes, beluga whales, and more. Human migrations have also occurred here, from ancient Beringia to the Klondike Gold Rush. You can even read about now-extinct species from the Cretaceous and Pleistocene eras. Enjoy this issue of Alaska Park Science and read about migration. Alaska Park Science 17(1), 2018. Caribou swim across a river. Brown bear population size and harvest in Northwest Alaska Read a summary and get the link to a paper published in the Journal of Wildlife Management on brown bear population trends in northwest Alaska: Schmidt, J. H., H. L. Robison, L. S. Parrett, T. S. Gorn, and B. S. Shults. 2021. Brown bear density and estimated harvest rates in northwestern Alaska. The Journal of Wildlife Management 85(2): 202-214. Aerial view of brown bears crossing a snow field in the Brooks Range. Fire Extent and Frequency Resource Brief for the Arctic Network Fire affects all 5 parks within the Arctic Network. The first fires in the network were officially recorded in 1956, although the history of fire in these parks, based on charcoal records dates back to at least 6,000 years ago. Since 1956, 574 fires have occurred in Arctic Network parks, burning nearly 1.1 million acres, an area almost twice the size of Cape Krusenstern National Monument. The vast majority of these fires (97%) were started by lightning. Fire ecologist measures depth of soil consumption in tussocks 1 year after a recent fire in Noatak. NPS mentors Chinese-Tibetan community rangers The NPS Office of International Affairs mentors park colleagues across the world as they strive to manage the natural and cultural resources in their countries. One example is the partnership work at a new national park in China. Mapping and Monitoring Landscape Changes Using Structure from Motion from Aircraft Aerial SfM is an accessible tool for mapping and monitoring landscape changes for a wide range of applications and disciplines across parks in Alaska. The success of the Alaska Region aerial SfM system during the first four years of testing and deployment has demonstrated its value to park mangers to address rapidly changing park landscapes. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A split image showing two different kinds of remote sensing. An Introduction to Some of the High-flying Technology Used to Study the Movements of Alaska’s Migratory Birds There are many tools available to study the movements of birds and the technology is evolving rapidly. Explore how satellite telemetry, global system for mobile communications telemetry, archival light-level loggers, and GPS data loggers are used in migratory bird research and what we are learning as a result. Alaska Park Science (20)1, 2021 A gyrfalcon perched on a rocky cliff. New Approaches to Study Interactions Among Climate, Environment, and Humans in Arctic Alaska Lake sediments accumulate for thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, serving as a geological record or environmental archive of long-term climate change and ecological variability. Paleoclimatologists and paleoecologists are examining lake sediment cores to deduce environmental changes of the past. This understanding will allow us to make more informed predictions about future change. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 Scientists set up to collect a lake sediment core in the Arctic. Series: Alaska Park Science Volume 20 Issue 1 - Parks as Proving Grounds Parks in Alaska pose special challenges to researchers: they are large, remote, and less is known about them. This makes it all the more important that tools and techniques we use here are practical, effective, and impactful. While researchers often focus on sharing the findings from their work, here we shine a light on the devices and approaches used by researchers with attention to the innovation needed to work in Alaska. Alaska Park Science 20 (1), 2021 A scientist uses a probe on the top of a mountain. Shallow Lakes Resource Brief for the Arctic Network Currently, lakes in the parks of the Arctic Network are being negatively affected by climate warming—lake surface area has significantly declined since the 1980’s due to warming temperatures, and rapid change has happened over the last five years. Lakes and wetlands are often referred to as the “kidneys of the landscape” because they clean the water by trapping sediment, nutrients, and organic material like leaves. Every year we visit six continuous monitoring lakes. a biologist in a bug jacket walks a lake margin recording vegetation data. Brown Bear Resource Brief for the Arctic Network Alaska has more than 50% of the remaining North American brown bears and the second largest population worldwide. Parks in the Arctic Inventory and Monitoring Network may ultimately provide a refuge for brown bears in northwest Alaska that are adapted to life in the Arctic, but strong monitoring programs are needed to understand whether these bear populations can remain healthy in a rapidly changing Arctic. A brown bear sits in a tundra wetland. Bumble Bees of Alaska: A Field Guide This field guide to bumble bees will help you identify these abundant and conspicuous pollinators, which are found across most of Alaska. They are well-adapted to cold, harsh climates and live in every habitat where there are flowers offering up pollen and nectar, including forests, shrublands, tundra, wetlands, riparian areas, beaches, and gardens. a bumble bee perched on tiny pink flowers Top Ten Tips for Visiting Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Plan like a ranger. Follow these 10 tips when traveling to Bering Land Bridge. Portrait of a ranger in the vast and expansive tundra. What a mammoth's tusk can tell us about its life Where did woolly mammoths roam when they lived in Beringia? What can learning about their movements tell us about their lives and their extinction? Read more here: Wooller, M. J., C. Bataille, P. Druckenmiller, G. M. Erickson, P. Groves, N. Haubenstock, T. Howe, J. Irrgeher, D. Mann, K. Moon, B. A. Potter, T. Prohaska, J. Rasic, J. Reuther, B. Shapiro, K. J. Spaleta, and A. D. Willis. 2021. Lifetime mobility of an Arctic woolly mammoth. Science 373(6556): 806-808. Two woolly mammoths walk across Beringia.
Bering Land Bridge Offcial Visitor’s Guide National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Superintendent’s Welcome Dear Friends, A Bridge to the Past, Present & Future COMPRISED OF 2.7 MILLION acres on the Seward Peninsula in northwest Alaska, Bering Land Bridge (BELA) is one of the nation’s most remote national park units. Because of this, it ofers unparalleled opportunities to not only experience some of America’s most isolated wildlands, but also the rich heritage of Alaskan Native cultures, past and present. Visitors to the preserve will fnd themselves in the midst of natural hot springs, ancient lava fows, and the largest maar lakes in the world in a land still used by local residents in the same way their ancestors have used it for generations. Bering Land Bridge was established as a National Preserve on December 2, 1980. This designation enables the land to be federally protected, but also utilized for public hunting, gathering, trapping, fshing, and subsistence use. With a coastline just 55 miles from Siberia, it is the westernmost national park unit in the continental United States. 1 The preserve protects a signifcant expanse of land remaining from the prehistoric “land bridge,” also known as Beringia, which spanned from modern-day Asia to North America over 12,000 years ago. The bridge was up to 1,000 miles wide, and was a land mass that allowed for the exchange of human, fora, and fauna populations between continents. As the climate warmed at the end of the last ice age, sea levels rose and the land mass was closed of, separating the continents. Today, evidence of ice age species and prehistoric human settlements can be found in the preserve. There are no roads into Bering Land Bridge, so travel opportunities can be limited. The most common access is by snowmobile, small airplane, boat, or on foot. With a growing body of information about North American natural history and indigenous cultures, the preserve ofers valuable opportunities for visitors to understand and explore the vast wildlands of northwest Alaska. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA TM Welcome to the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, a little known park unit with a huge story! The preserve, which is just smaller than the state of Connecticut, lies at the heart of continental crossroads that profoundly infuenced the distribution of life in the Western Hemisphere. The park headquarters are in Nome, a rural community of 3,600 residents, which is known for its gold rush history, Alaska Native cultures, and as the end of the famous Iditarod sled dog race. The preserve is a place where the rich variety of wildlife, fsh, and plants have sustained the indigenous people of the region for thousands of years, and where subsistence is essential to the economic, cultural, and social existence of the region’s people. The villages of Shishmaref, Wales and Deering are located right outside the preserve boundary; residents consider the preserve part of their backyard. The story of Beringia and that of the park is near and dear to my heart, not only because my ancestors crossed this land bridge, but also because my grandmother was originally from Russia, and I have relatives who still live in the Chukotka region. I am honored to be the superintendent of a park that has played a unique role in the history of the Americas. I encourage you to browse our website, utilize this visitor guide, and to contact us for more information. Igamsiqanaghhalek- Thank you very much! Jeanette Koelsch Superintendent, Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 2 Navigate 3 Getting There Safety & 6 Backcountry Responsibilities 16 Subsistence 4 Prehistory 7 Bear Safety 18 Youth Perspectives 5 Plants and Wildlife 11 Reindeer Herding 19 More Information 13 Maar Lakes 17 Shishmaref 10 8 Chukchi Sea Coast Serpentine Hot Springs 16 14 Wales Imuruk Lake Imuruk 15 Lava Beds Lake 12Kuzitrin 19 Nome Park Headquarters Visitor Center Getting Around 3 A herd of reindeer crosses the beach in front of a bush plane The list below provides the contact information for commercial use operators, which offer aircraft transportation services into Bering Land Bridge National Preserve. Commercial Use Operators AIR TAXI Air Juneau, Inc. PO Box 1846 Kenai AK 99611 907-252-7888 email@example.com www.huntandfshalaska.net Fox Aircrafts, LLC 6049Hart Lake Loop Wasilla AK Golden Eagle Outftters, Inc. PO Box 692 Delta Junction AK Arctic Backcountry Flying, LLC Northwestern Aviation, Inc. PO Box 924 Kotzebue AK Arctic Wild PO Box 80562 Fairbanks 99654 907-301-2770 firstname.lastname@example.org www.foxaircraft.com 99737 907-388-2225 email@example.com www.alaskawildernessexpeditions.com 99752 907-442-3200 firstname.lastname@example.org www.fyera.com PO Box 1010 Kotzebue AK 99752 907-442-3525 Jimkincaid0@gmail.com www.alaskaonyourown.com AK 99708 907-479-8203 Sally@wildarctic.com www.wildarctic.
Bering Land Bridge National Park Service U.S .Department of the Interior Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Iyat Serpentine Hot Springs Inupiat call this place Iyat, meaning “cooking pot” or “a site for cooking.” During the Gold Rush era of the early 20th century, it was called Arctic Hot Springs, but today most people know this place as Serpentine Hot Springs. Located in Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, the hot springs offer opportunities for healing, recreation, and simple solitude. A Place of Tradition and Healing From Mining to Modern Day Archaeological evidence suggests the hot springs were discovered soon after the arrival of the first people to northwest Alaska 12,000 years ago. Since the time of the earliest visitors, a powerful energy has been recognized over Hot Springs Valley. and performance of shamans who cured and healed the sick through the control of supernatural forces. The surrounding granite spires, or “tors,” once had individual names and Inupiaq traditions say that the valley is home to powerful spirits. These spirits played important roles in the selection, training, Modern traditional uses include healing ceremonies, and soaking to relieve the pain of arthritis and other ailments. To the Inupiaq of the region, Serpentine Hot Springs still plays an important role in the gathering of tribal groups and individuals for rejuvenation and sharing of medical cures and subsistence practices. It is thought that the first non-Native to see the hot springs was Charles McLennan, who arrived in May 1900 by dog team. He named the nearby creek “Serpentine,” staked mining claims, and raised crops for miners who were working claims along the nearby Kougarok River. Soon after, a small resort called Arctic Hot Springs developed and became popular with the miners, but was abandoned by 1910. In the late 1930s, a landing strip was graded above Hot Springs Creek. A surplus military building was moved in 1953 from Nome to the springs and refurbished as a bunkhouse, which is still standing today. The original bathhouse was replaced by the people of Shishmaref in 1976, and in 2012 it was rebuilt, though the original tub remains intact. Dog team Preserving our Past Ancient artifacts give us a glimpse into the past, and have allowed us to piece together the history of Serpentine Hot Springs. Taking or disturbing artifacts from federal public lands is a felony. Please enjoy the hot springs responsibly, leave any artifacts you may find, and report them to the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve office in Nome. An Ever Changing Landscape The mountains south of Serpentine Hot Springs mark the northernmost reach of the continental divide. These peaks were created from plates colliding under the earth, causing an uplift of mountains on the land. In other areas of the preserve, shifting plates exposed explosions of magma from volcanos. At Serpentine Hot Springs however, the magma never reached the surface because internal pressures were not strong enough to push through the overlying rock. Trapped in chambers underground, the magma cooled slowly, forming a coarse, soft granite that was later shaped by the forces of erosion. Granite Tors As the rolling hills have been scoured away by wind, rain, and glaciers, the solid granite ridges have been revealed. Streams carry gravel and silt from higher elevations, carving valleys and exposing rock formations. As you hike, look for the geologic features that tell the dynamic story of Serpentine Hot Springs. Discover Life Surrounding Serpentine There are hundreds of species of plants at Serpentine, including several hundred mosses, liverworts, lichens, and fungi. Summer is colorful with wildflowers such as Kamchatka rhododendron and fireweed, while autumn brings the spectacular hues of blueberries, cloudberries and a bright red ground cover of bearberry leaves. Vivid orange Xanthoria lichen can be found on tors where falcons roost almost year round. Plant & Wildlife Precautions: • Though there are many edible berries and plants in the area, avoid Monk’s Hood, a poisonous purple flower. • Store food indoors or in bear resistent containers. • Occasionally muskox can be found at the hot springs; keep your distance and do not approach, as they are known to charge if threatened. • Make a lot of noise while hiking, especially in dense brush, to avoid startling large animals like moose or bears. Muskox Diverse habitats create a variety of areas to view wildlife. In lowland brush and rockstrewn hillsides, look for small mammals like voles, shrews, and arctic ground squirrels. You might see herds of muskox or caribou grazing on open tundra, and brown bears sauntering down the hillsides. Wolverines, wolves, and foxes may hide in the dense willows. Along streams, look for freshwater fish and waterfowl, while songbirds can be sighted darting through the surrounding vegetation. Near tors and ridgelines, keep an eye out for birds of prey like rough-legged hawks