"Big Hole National Battlefield" by NPS / Victoria Stauffenberg , public domain

Big Hole

National Battlefield - Montana

Big Hole National Battlefield preserves a Nez Perce War battlefield located in Montana, United States. The Nez Perce fought a delaying action against the 7th Infantry Regiment (United States) here on August 9 and 10, 1877, during their failed attempt to escape to Canada. This action, the Battle of the Big Hole, was the largest battle fought between the Nez Perce and U.S. Government forces in the five-month conflict known as the Nez Perce War. Big Hole National Battlefield is located 10 miles (16 km) west of Wisdom, Montana on Montana state highway 43. A year-round visitor center is located in the park.

maps

Official visitor map of Nez Perce National Historical Park (NHP) in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Nez Perce - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Nez Perce National Historical Park (NHP) in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official visitor map of Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail (NHT) in Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota and Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Lewis & Clark - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail (NHT) in Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota and Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Highway Map of Montana. Published by the Montana Department of Transportation.Montana State - Montana Highway Map

Highway Map of Montana. Published by the Montana Department of Transportation.

brochures

Brochure of Big Hole National Battlefield (NB) in Montana. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Big Hole - Brochure

Brochure of Big Hole National Battlefield (NB) in Montana. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of Big Hole National Battlefield (NB) in Montana. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Big Hole - Map

Map of Big Hole National Battlefield (NB) in Montana. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the Nez Perce War for Big Hole National Battlefield (NB) in Montana. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Big Hole - Nez Perce War

Map of the Nez Perce War for Big Hole National Battlefield (NB) in Montana. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/biho/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Hole_National_Battlefield Big Hole National Battlefield preserves a Nez Perce War battlefield located in Montana, United States. The Nez Perce fought a delaying action against the 7th Infantry Regiment (United States) here on August 9 and 10, 1877, during their failed attempt to escape to Canada. This action, the Battle of the Big Hole, was the largest battle fought between the Nez Perce and U.S. Government forces in the five-month conflict known as the Nez Perce War. Big Hole National Battlefield is located 10 miles (16 km) west of Wisdom, Montana on Montana state highway 43. A year-round visitor center is located in the park. On August 9, 1877 gun shots shattered a chilly dawn on a sleeping camp of Nez Perce. By the time the smoke cleared on August 10, almost 90 Nez Perce were dead along with 31 soldiers and volunteers. Big Hole National Battlefield was created to honor all who were there. Big Hole National Battlefield is located on Highway 43 ten miles west of the town of Wisdom in southwestern Montana. Bear Paw Battlefield is located on Route 240 sixteen miles south of the town of Chinook in north-central Montana. Visitor Center at the Big Hole National Battlefield The park's visitor center offers museum exhibits, a film, and a book sales area. The award winning film Weet'uciklitukt: There's No Turning Back, Battle at Big Hole provides an introduction to the Nez Perce Flight of 1877 and the battle that took place at this site. The film is shown throughout the day and is close-captioned. Audio and braille guides are available upon request. The Big Hole National Battlefield and its visitor center are located on Highway 43 ten miles west of the town of Wisdom in southwestern Montana. Battlefield at Dawn Multiple tepee poles and a river are silhouetted against a dawn sky. Today tepee poles stand sentinel at the site of August 9th, 1877 dawn attack at the Big Hole. Camas Blooms Near the Nez Perce Camp at the Big Hole Blue camas flowers dot a green field with tepee poles in the background. The Nez Perce chose their camp site in the Big Hole in part due to the Camas, whose roots they gathered prior to the August 9th attack. Mountain Howitzer at the Big Hole Battlefield a cannon overlooks a valley and distant mountains Nez Perce warriors captured and dismantled the Mountain Howitzer cannon before the US army could use it effectively at the Battle of the Big Hole. Monument to the US Soldiers and Volunteers at the Big Hole Battlefield cross country skis rest against a large granite monument on a snowy day. In 1883 the United States Government erected this monument in honor of the soldiers and volunteers that served and died at the 1877 Battle of the Big Hole. Chief Joseph Memorial at the Big Hole Battlefield Stone carving of a Nez Perce Warrior's head in full regalia. This monument, erected on the Big Hole Battlefield in 1928, reads; "To the everlasting memory of the brave warriors Chief Joseph's Band who fought on these grounds in the Nez Perce War of 1877." Bear Paw Battlefield Three large stone monuments and four interpretive signs overlook a series of low hills. Spotted Knapweed on the Decline in Big Hole National Battlefield The dedicated efforts of National Park Service staff and the Northern Rocky Mountain Exotic Plant Management Team (EPMT) at Big Hole National Battlefield has resulted in the decline of an invasive plant that threatens park natural and cultural resources: the spotted knapweed. Jason Lyon sprays knapweed in Big Hole NHP. Prescribed Fire Maintains Cultural Landscape, Sensitive Plant at Big Hole National Battlefield The goal of a September 2014 prescribed fire at Big Hole National Battlefield, Montana, was to mimic the historic role of fire on the mountain slope while improving the vigor of the native vegetation. The area contains one of the larger remaining populations of Lehmi penstemon. A cooperative effort set up research plots to observe fire effects on this rare wildflower. Parts of the area will be burned in successive years, with yearly monitoring. Smoke rising from area at the foot of a forested slope. Summer Speaker Series Shares Cultural Wisdom Gwen Carter shows visitors a tukes (digging stick) during her August 3, 2019 talk on Traditional Nez Perce Food Gathering. A Nez Perce elder holding a tukes (digging stick). NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Big Hole National Battlefield, Montana Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] tepee and mountains Prescribed Fire in Big Hole National Battlefield In 2014 the first of four planned small-acreage prescribed fires was completed on Big Hole National Battlefield’s Howitzer Hill. The site’s burn plan seeks to sequentially burn individual “blocks” of land on the Howitzer Hill and the adjacent Horse Pasture slope to maintain the open look and feel of the steppe vegetation similar to conditions at the time of the 1877 battle. Firefighter uses a “drip torch” to ignite dry vegetation on a hillside Catch and Release Fishing Sport fishing is a popular activity in national park sites throughout the country. Proper catch and release fishing methods increase the chances of survival for the fish you choose not to keep. Photo of a man fishing in a lake surrounded by forests and tall, rocky mountains. Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. Big Hole National Battlefield Site Cultural Landscape Big Hole National Battlefield was the site of a battle on August 9-10, 1877 between U.S. Army forces and the Nez Perce people. It was part of a five-month conflict as the army tried to force the Nez Perce onto an Idaho reservation. The Battle of the Big Hole was a critical event in the war. Although it was a tactical victory for the Nez Perce, the significant losses they suffered ultimately led to their defeat two months later. Sun-bleached wooden posts mark the site of an encampment along a willow-flanked river. Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Scientist Profile: Tom Rodhouse, Ecologist and Project Manager Meet Tom Rodhouse, ecologist for the Upper Columbia Basin Network. Tom studies the plants and animals of our National Parks, and believes we have an important role to play in protecting these special places. Read about his adventures as a field wildlife biologist, and how he got to be where he is today. Biologist smiles by sweeping view of green fields, conifer treetops, and snow-capped mountains. Wildland Fire in Lodgepole Pine The bark of lodgepoles is thin, which does not protect the trunks from scorching by fire. They die easily when a fire passes through. However, the serotinous cones give lodgepole pine a special advantage for spreading seeds for the next generation. Close-up of the needles of a lodgepole pine.
Big Hole Big Hole National Battlefield Montana National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior When xíst (Sharon Redthunder) brought her ˙ grandson here, she told him, Grandson, I want you to know that you’re an Indian person. Where you came from. . . . I want you to be aware of what our people suffered. THE PEOPLE CONFLICTS ARISE The Nez Perce, whose story is told at Big Hole National Battlefield, call themselves nımí.pu. As European Americans began encroaching up and denied liberty to go where he the reservation or be put there by force. on nımí.pu. homeland, conflicts began to pleases,” said hınmató.wyalahtqıt (Young The nımí.pu. began the arduous task of or The People. “We have been here since time ˛ immemorial,” says wé.yux tí.menın (Allen Slickpoo, occur. The US government proposed a Joseph), headman of one of these bands. gathering all of their belongings, including treaty in 1855: The nımí.pu. would give up “I have asked some of the great white livestock. They lost much during the jour- Jr.). “Our legends go back 9,000 years. . . . We didn’t start with Lewis and Clark.” The nımí.pu. over half their homeland for European- chiefs where they get their authority to ney. Before they could reach their destina- American settlement but keep the right to say to the Indian that he shall stay in one tion, fighting broke out. met these explorers in 1805. At that time, ˛ tustımasatalpá.ma (Vera Sonneck) explains, “We hunt, fish, and gather on those lands. place, while he sees white men going were one of the biggest tribes in the US. We had Five years later, gold was discovered on ˛ where they please. They cannot tell me.” 13 million acres of aboriginal lands. We were in what is now Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Canada.“ During the next 70 years, they would CHAOS AT DAWN (Above) As their families flee for their lives, nımí.pu. warriors fight back during the military‘s surprise attack. lose most of their homeland to European Americans. (See map on other side.) REMEMBERING THE DEAD (Left) hú.sus ? ewyí.n (Wounded Head) carved a dot in his drinking horn for each person he found dead at Big Hole, including his two-year-old daughter. ILLUSTRATION—NPS / NAKIA WILLIAMSON CLOUD BUFFALO HORN—NPS / WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY ?ıslá.mc (Horace Axtell) learned from his ancestors what happened next: “Settlers nımí.pu. land. This led to the 1863 treaty Descendants from his band reflect today: killed one of our young boy’s father. The that decreased nımí.pu. lands by another 90 percent. Five bands of nımí.pu., which “Treaties divided and scattered us, both boys took revenge and killed some set- physically and spiritually. They threatened tlers, and that started the whole thing. included their allies the pelú.cpu (Palouse) and the weyí.letpu. (Cayuse), refused the to sever our spiritual connection with It was OK for the settlers to kill us, but the land and fostered the division of our not the other way around.” second treaty. They would later become people into Christian and non-Christian, known as the non-treaty Nez Perce. treaty and non-treaty, and finally, tribe And so started a chain of events that led and non-tribe.” to numerous battles during a four-month “You might as well expect the rivers to run flight of over 1,000 miles. Some call this backwards as that any man who was born By 1877, the US government gave the a free man should be contented penned non-treaty nımí.pu. 30 days to move onto the “Nez Perce War.” August 9, 1877: The Battle of Big Hole My shaking heart tells me trouble and death will overtake us if we make no hurry through this land! I cannot smother, I cannot hide that which I see. I must speak what is revealed to me. Let us begone to the buffalo country! North Fork of the Big Hole River —pıyó.pıyo ?ıpcıwá.tx. (Lone Bird) By early August, over 800 nımí.pu. (consisting mostly of family groups and only about 200 warriors) and over 2000 horses were passing peacefully through the Bitterroot Valley of Montana. Their leaders believed the military would not pursue them even though many had premonitions warning otherwise. The group arrived at ?ıckumcılé.lıkpe (known today as Big Hole National Battlefield) on August 7. They did not know the military was close behind them. On August 8th, while the nımí.pu. were gathering supplies in the area, military scouts were observing their camp. 1 hímı.n maqsmáqs (Yellow Wolf) described that night: “The warriors paraded about camp, singing, all making a good time. It was the first since war started. Everyone with good feeling. Going to buffalo country! . . . War was quit. All Montana citizens our friends.” Meanwhile Colonel John Gibbon reported “All laid down to rest until eleven o’clock. At that hour the command . . . of 17 officers, 132 men and 34 citizens, started down the trail NPS / JOHN W. HAMMOND on foot, each man being provided with 90 rounds of ammunition. The howitzer [cannon] co
N A I N T U M O L E B A T T Twin trees nımí.pu. horses were pastured on this slope 5 4 National -Poo) Nez Perce (Nee-M e ail ric Tr Histo Warriors besiege soldiers Overlook Big ork N. F Warriors capture army howitzer Monument Siege Area Trail As the siege continues, surviving nımí·pu· families break camp and flee 2 er Riv US military attacks le o H Tipis 1 3 nımí·pu· Camp 6 Nez Pe rce (Nee -M Nation al Histo e-Poo) ric Trai l Warriors drive US military back across the river Nez Camp Trail Perce Trail Creek Visitor Center Creek Ruby To Chief Joseph Pass and 93 16mi / 26km Scale varies in this perspective. Road Parking Trailhead Trail Picnic area Restrooms 43 To Wisdom 10mi / 16km
Fort Walsh C A N A D A Wood Mountain To Umatilla Reservation Sitting Bull’s Camp To Nez Perce Reservation Frenchmans Creek cape White Bird’s Es M ilk Cree Crossing Battle of Bear Paw September 30–October 5 COLVILLE RESERVATION Cow Island Landing Fort Benton Tolo Lake June 2–14 Z W HO RG IS Tongue River Cantonment Sturgis departs August 12 Miles departs September 18 Battle of Canyon Creek September 13 Big ho RD WA HO RA STURGIS W Y O M I N G E Battle of Camas Meadows NG August 15 A D Birch Creek Little Bighorn Battlefield 1876 rn YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK I D A H O OK e AR Targhee Pass Clarks Fork Yellowstone AR W Bannack Pass BS ang in R Bannack H M AT E N E Z P E R C E HOMELAND A llat S al m on O APPROXI TU August 9–10 June 17 A P P R O X I M AT E 1 8 5 5 T R E AT Y B O U N DARY O R E G O N NE Battle of the Big Hole S ll lshe S e ton ws llo e Y Fort Ellis Ga Sna ke Battle of White Bird Canyon Judith Gap M O N T A N A Gibbon Pass LE P L A I N S UMATILLA RESERVATION MI RD se Mus Madison July 11–12 A rk Battle of the Clearwater S T N July 4–5 o t Va l l e y Cottonwood Skirmishes Camp Baker C la rk Fo M Fort Lapwai HO Fort Missoula Lolo Pass Bitterro NEZ PERCE RESERVATION 1863 ON PE Y C K July 26 D GIBB RC Gibbon departs July 28 Fort Fizzle R WA E RO UTE Fort Shaw To exile Misso uri E A T G R R O W A S H I N G T O N September 23 August 20 Sna ke Nez Perce route US military routes North 0 0 50 100 Kilometers 50 100 Miles

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