"Aerial of boats on the river" by T. Fondriest , public domain

Buffalo

National River - Arkansas

Buffalo River is located in Northern Arkansas and is 153 miles (246 km) long. The lower 135 miles (217 km) flow within the boundaries of an area managed by the National Park Service, where the stream is designated the Buffalo National River. The river flows through Newton, Searcy, Marion, and Baxter Counties, from west to east. The river originates in the highest part of Boston Mountains of the Ozarks, flows out onto the Springfield Plateau near the historic community of Erbie, and finally crosses a portion of the Salem Plateau just before joining the White River. The Park is home to the state's only elk herd. The upper section of the river in the Ozark National Forest is managed by the U.S. Forest Service and is designated as a National Scenic River and a National Wild River.

maps

Official visitor map of Buffalo National River (NR) in Arkansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Buffalo - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Buffalo National River (NR) in Arkansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official visitor map of Trail of Tears National Historic Trail (NHT) in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma and Tennessee. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Trail of Tears - Trail Map

Official visitor map of Trail of Tears National Historic Trail (NHT) in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma and Tennessee. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/buff/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_National_River Buffalo River is located in Northern Arkansas and is 153 miles (246 km) long. The lower 135 miles (217 km) flow within the boundaries of an area managed by the National Park Service, where the stream is designated the Buffalo National River. The river flows through Newton, Searcy, Marion, and Baxter Counties, from west to east. The river originates in the highest part of Boston Mountains of the Ozarks, flows out onto the Springfield Plateau near the historic community of Erbie, and finally crosses a portion of the Salem Plateau just before joining the White River. The Park is home to the state's only elk herd. The upper section of the river in the Ozark National Forest is managed by the U.S. Forest Service and is designated as a National Scenic River and a National Wild River. Established in 1972, Buffalo National River flows freely for 135 miles and is one of the few remaining undammed rivers in the lower 48 states. Once you arrive, prepare to journey from running rapids to quiet pools while surrounded by massive bluffs as you cruise through the Ozark Mountains down to the White River. Buffalo National River is a long, narrow park that is crossed by three main highways. Highways 7, 43, and 62/65 are the main roads out of Harrison, Arkansas that will take you to the Buffalo River, depending on which part of the park you wish to visit. GPS systems are not reliable in this area so please call ahead for directions or pick up a map of the area beforehand. Buffalo Point Visitor Contact Station The Buffalo Point Visitor Contact Station is located about 3 miles off of Highway 14, 14 miles south of Yellville. Signs on Highway 14 indicate the turn for Buffalo Point. Using Harrison, Arkansas as a starting point to reach the Buffalo Point Visitor Contact Station, visitors take Highway 65 south from Harrison for five miles, then take Highway 62/412 to the east to Yellville. Once in Yellville take Highway 14 south. Approximately 14 miles south of Yellville on Highway 14 there will be a left turn onto Highway 268 East. The Buffalo Point Visitor Contact Station is 3 miles down on Highway 268. Steel Creek Ranger Station Steel Creek Ranger Station is open on an intermittent basis as rangers are available. At the contact station visitors can get information on campgrounds, hiking trails, and river accesses. The Steel Creek Ranger Station is located in the Valley Y Ranch Historic Area of Steel Creek Campground. The station is staffed seasonally, and hours may vary depending on park events and interpretive programs. Please call before you visit to ensure that staff will be available to assist you: 870-861-2570. From Ponca, AR take Hwy. 74 E. for approximately 1.5 miles OR from Jasper, AR take Hwy. 74 W. approximately 12.6 miles until you see the entrance sign for Steel Creek Area. Turn onto the Steel Creek Road and follow it for approximately 1 mile into the valley. When the paved entrance road turns to gravel, take the first right and follow the road past the horse camping area until you reach the ranger station on the right side of the corner. Tyler Bend Visitor Center The Tyler Bend Visitor Center is located about 2 1/2 miles off of Highway 65 between St. Joe and Marshall, Arkansas. Here visitors can get park orientation information, see the park film, and shop at the park bookstore. Buffalo National River is a long, narrow park that is crossed by three main highways. Using Harrison, Arkansas as a starting point to reach Tyler Bend, visitors travel 31 miles south of Harrison on Highway 65. Signs on the highway direct you to the turn for the park road to Tyler Bend. The access road to the Tyler Bend Visitor Center is 3 miles long and also takes you to the Tyler Bend Campground and river access. Buffalo Point Campground Buffalo Point Campground is the park's largest and most developed campground. It offers water and electrical hookups for RVs. Some sites at Buffalo Point are available for reservation at www.recreation.gov (1-877-444-6777) and others are first come, first serve. Flush restrooms, dump station, showers, water, and electricity are available from March 15 - November 14 when fees are charged. Fees are not charged from November 15 to March 14 when only B Loop is open with no amenities, just a vault restroom. Buffalo Point Campground Fees - Drive in Sites 30.00 Loops A - E have water and electrical amenities and are suitable for RVs and tents although A and E Loops can only accommodate smaller RVs. Only B, C, and D Loops are reservable ahead of time. All sites in loops A - E are $30/night with a maximum of 6 people per site. Loops A and E are first come, first serve. Sites can be reserved 3 days to 6 months in advance. Please call Buffalo Point for specifics regarding the size of a specific site or visit www.recreation.gov (1-877-444-67777) to make a reservation. Buffalo Point Campground Fees - Walk in Sites 20.00 Walk in site A - E are reservable ahead of time, $20/night with a maximum of 6 people. Walk in sites F - U are first come, first serve. Water, flush restrooms, and showers are available. Each site comes with a fire grate, picnic table, and lantern hook. Sites can be reserved 3 days to 6 months in advance. Please call Buffalo Point for specific questions or visit www.recreation.gov (1-877-444-6777) to make a reservation. Buffalo Point Group Site Fees 50.00 There are 5 group sites available for reservation at Buffalo Point. There is access to flush restrooms and water located nearby, but shower facilities are about 1/2 mile away in the larger part of the campground. The group sites are not near the river, but on a ridge about 1/2 mile from river access. No electrical amenities are available, but Pavilion #1 has electricity, is close to the group sites and available for reservation. Sites are available for groups of 10 to 25 people, $50 per night. Buffalo Point Campground B Loop Site B Loop Site Buffalo Point Campground C Loop Site C Loop Site Buffalo Point Campground D Loop Site D Loop Site Buffalo Point Campground B Loop Site B Loop Site Buffalo Point Group Site Group Site 3 Group Site 3 Carver Campground Carver is a first come, first serve campground in the upper district of the park. It has 8 tent only sites with potable water, but no electrical amenities. A vault restroom is available. This is a pack in/pack out facility with no trash service. Caver Campground Fees 16.00 Sites at Carver are $16.00 per site, per night with a total of 6 people permitted on each site. Fees are charged when water is available (March 15 - November 14). No fees are charged during the winter when water systems are shut down. A vault restroom is available, no flush restrooms. Please pay with cash or check at the self-pay registration station located within the campground. All sites are first come, first serve. This is a pack in/pack out facility with no trash service. Tent Camping at Carver Campground Picnic table and tent at a campsite at Carver Campground. Tent camping opportunities are available at Carver Campground. Carver Campground Orange tent set up in a shaded campsite at Carver Campground. A tent camping site at Carver Campground. Erbie Campground Erbie Campground is a first come, first serve campground. Erbie has 14 drive in camp sites, 2 walk in tent only sites, and 5 group sites. There are no electrical amenities, flush restrooms, or water available. Erbie Camping Fee 0.00 There is no fee to camp at Erbie. Six people are permitted per site. The vault restrooms are open year round. The five group sites (10 - 25 people allowed per group site) are also free to camp at. If you would like to make a reservation for a group site please call the Tyler Bend Visitor Center at 870-439-2502. Erbie Campground Group Sites A large grassy field with two group sites for tent camping with picnic tables and shade trees. Erbie Campground has five group sites that can accommodate groups of 10-25 people in tents. Erbie Campground Primitive Tent and RV sites A picnic table and fire ring at an open camp site at Erbie Campground. Primitive tent and RV sites available at Erbie Campground. Erbie Campground Group Site Grassy group site at Erbie Campground with five picnic tables and two fire rings. Erbie Campground Group Sites offer a large space for multiple tents to be pitched. Erbie Campground Individual Sites Two camp sites with picnic tables and fire rings against a line of trees. Erbie allows tents and RVs in individual sites for a primitive camping experience. Kyles Landing Kyles Landing Campground is a first come, first serve campground located between Jasper, AR and Ponca, AR.. Kyles Landing has 33 tent only sites with no electrical amenities, but flush restrooms and water are available from March 15 through November 14. Kyles Landing Camping Fee 20.00 Sites at Kyles Landing are $20.00 per site, per night with a total of 6 people permitted on each site. Fees are charged when water is available and flush restrooms are open (March 15 - November 14). No fees are charged during the winter when water systems are shut down and only the vault restroom is open (November 15 - March 14). Please pay with cash or check at the self-pay registration station located within the campground. All sites are first come, first serve. Tent Camp Sites at Kyle's Landing Picnic tables and fire rings at designated tent sites at Kyle's Landing Wonderful tent camping opportunities exist at Kyle's Landing. Shady tent camp sites at Kyle's Landing Picnic table and fire rings nestled under a mix of shade trees at Kyle's Landing Campground. Several tent sites are available with ample shade for campers. The Kyle's Landing Campground a mix of sunny and shady camp sites shown at Kyle's Landing Campground Thirty-three camp sites are available on a first come, first served basis at Kyle's Landing. Non-shady Tent Sites at Kyle's Landing Five campsites at Kyle's Landing with very few shade trees Open field of tent camp sites at Kyle's Landing Campground. Kyle's Landing Campground and Bluffs Bluff and trees sit behind Kyle's Landing Campground Bluffs make a beautiful backdrop for camping at Kyle's Landing Campground. Maumee South Maumee South Campground is a large campground in the lower district of the Buffalo River. There are no amenities at Maumee South. There are no designated sites. A vault restroom is available. Fees are not charged at Maumee South. Maumee South Campground Fee 0.00 There is no fee to camp at Maumee South. Picnic Table and Fire Pit A picnic table and fire pit on a sandy grassy surface with forest surrounding. Each campsite has a picnic table, fire ring and lantern hook. South Maumee Campsite View Mowed grass with a picnic table and fire pit and view of a forested cliff behind. Campsite view. Gravel Bar at South Maumee River and gravel bar with a cliff face covered in trees with yellow leaves.. The gravel bar at South Maumee offers beautiful views of the river and cliffs. Drive-in camping is not permitted on the gravel bar. Ozark Campground Ozark Campground is a first come, first serve campground near Jasper, AR. Ozark has 31 drive in and tent sites with no electrical amenities, but flush restrooms and water are available from March 15 through November 14. Ozark Campground Camping Fee 20.00 Sites at Ozark are $20.00 per site, per night with a total of 6 people permitted on each site. Fees are charged when water is available and flush restrooms are open (March 15 - November 14). No fees are charged during the winter when water systems are shut down and only the vault restroom is open (November 15 - March 14). Ozark Campground Tent Sites Three campsites marked by picnic tables and fire rings with a mix of shade trees in the sites. A mix of sunny and shady sites are available for campers at Ozark Campground. Campsites at Ozark Campground Four campsites with picnic tables and shade trees at Ozark Campground. Tent camping sites available near the Buffalo River access point at Ozark Campground. Ozark Campground Trees shading four tent campsites with picnic tables and fire rings at Ozark Campground. Shaded sites are available for tent camping at Ozark Campground. Ozark Campground Open Space A large grassy field with restroom and pavilion in the background. A large grassy open area, great for star gazing exists at Ozark Campground. Camp sites near the Buffalo River at Ozark Campground Several campsites in the distance sit in a grassy field with a mix of sun and shade. A large open area available for tent campers at Ozark Campground. Rush Campground Rush Campground is a first come, first serve campground in the lower district of the park. Rush has 12 tent only sites with no electrical amenities and no flush restrooms. Drinking water is available when fees are collected March 15 - November 14. It is free to camp at Rush in the winter. All sites are limited to 6 people per site and each site is $16 per night. This is a pack in/pack out facility, trash collection is not available. Rush Campground Fee 16.00 Sites at Rush are $16.00 per site, per night with a total of 6 people permitted on each site. Fees are charged when water is available (March 15 - November 14). No fees are charged during the winter when water systems are shut down. A vault restroom is available, no flush restrooms. Please pay with cash or check at the self-pay registration station located within the campground. All sites are first come, first serve. This is a pack in/pack out facility, trash services are not available. Rush Creek Low Water Bridge Crossing into Rush Campground A sign warning visitors that Rush Creek can be impassable during high water. The low water bridge at the entrance/exit to Rush Campground can be impassable during heavy rain events. Tent Camping at Rush Campground A water hydrant and two campsites with picnic tables and fire rings at Rush Campground. Rush Campground offers primitive tent camp experiences. Rush Campground Parking Lot Area Rush Campground entrance sign and gravel parking lot. Rush Campground parking lot for walk-in tent sites. Rush Campground Tent Sites Four tent campsites in a row with shade trees surrounding them. Rush Campground offers a great place for groups to tent camp near one another. Rush Campground Primitive Facilities Vault restroom facility in Rush Campground with shade trees nearby. Rush Campground offers a vault toilet and a hydrant for drinking water. Spring Creek Campground Spring Creek Campground is a first come, first serve campground near Harriet, AR. Spring Creek has 12 tent only sites with no electrical amenities, no flush restrooms, and no water. Spring Creek Campground Fee 0.00 Sites at Spring Creek are free, with a total of 6 people permitted on each site. Spring Creek Campground view of open grass area with picnic table under tree in foreground and vault toilet in background Spring Creek Campground has twelve campsites each with a picnic table, lantern post and fire ring. No water is available. Campground has a vault toilet. Open year-round. Steel Creek Campground Steel Creek has 26 tent only sites and 14 sites for campers with horses/stock animals (six people and four stock animals allowed per site). Tent sites 1 -13 and horse sites 27 - 32 are available for reservation at www.recreation.gov or by calling 1-877-444-6777. Reservations can be made 5 days to six months in advance. There are no electrical amenities or water hookups, but flush restrooms and water spigots are available from March 15 through November 14. Steel Creek Camping Fee 20.00 Sites at Steel Creek are $20.00 per site, per night with a total of 6 people permitted on each site. Fees are charged when water is available and flush restrooms are open (March 15 - November 14). No fees are charged during the winter when water systems are shut down and only the vault restrooms are open (November 15 - March 14). If you do not have a reservation please pay with cash or check at the self-pay registration station located within the campground. Steel Creek Campground Tent camping at Steel Creek Tent camping at Steel Creek Campground. Horse Camping at Steel Creek Truck and horse trailer in a camp site at Steel Creek. There are several camp sites available for campers that want to bring their horses. Steel Creek Horse Camp Mowed lawn with several picnic tables and lantern posts marking each horse camp site. Several sites allow for camping with stock animals at Steel Creek. Steel Creek Campground A tent and a canopy set up in a grassy site at Steel Creek Campground. Thirteen sites in the Steel Creek tent campground are reservable up to six months in advance. Steel Creek Tent Campground Shade trees and picnic tables dot the grass at the Steel Creek Campground. Steel Creek Campground is one of the most popular campgrounds on the river, but at times visitors can have very solitude experiences in the campground. Tyler Bend Campground Tyler Bend Campground is a developed campground in the middle district of the park. It has 28 drive-in sites, 10 walk-in sites, 5 group sites and a pavilion. The campground has flush restrooms, showers, dump station, potable water, but no electrical amenities. Reservations are available at www.recreation.gov (1-877-444-6777) for some sites. Fees are charged March 15 through November 14. It is free to camp November 15 through March 14, but limited amenities are available during that time. Tyler Bend Campground Fees 20.00 All drive-in and walk-in sites are Tyler Bend are $20.00 per site, per night with a total of 6 people permitted on each site. Fees are charged when water is available and flush restrooms/showers are open (March 15 - November 14). Tyler Bend Campground Group Site Fees 50.00 There are 5 group sites available for reservation at Tyler Bend. There is access to flush restrooms, showers, and water located nearby. No electrical amenities are available, but the Tyler Bend Pavilion has electricity, is close to the group sites and also available for reservation. Sites are available for groups of 10 to 25 people, $50 per night. Please go to recreation.gov or call 1-877-444-6777 for reservations. Tyler Bend Group Site Tyler Bend Group Site Tyler Bend Group Site Tyler Bend Campground Tyler Bend Campground Tyler Bend Campground Tyler Bend Gravel Bar Bluff with the river, gravel bar, and a canoe trailer in foreground. Tyler Bend provides a great place to launch a canoe or kayak. Tyler Bend Camp Site A paved camp site surrounded by grass at Tyler Bend Campground. Tyler Bend has a number of great camping sites available. Tyler Bend Shower House Wooden bathhouse structure in the Tyler Bend Campground. The Tyler Bend Campground has shower and restroom facilities available. Woolum Woolum Campground is a large open field at the Woolum access to the Buffalo River near St. Joe AR. There are no amenities at Woolum. There are no designated sites. A vault toilet is available. Fees are not charged at Woolum. Woolum serves as overflow when Tyler Bend campground is full. Woolum Campground Fees 0.00 There is no fee charged at Woolum. Woolum Camping green field with campers in the distance Woolum Campground is an open field, no designated campsites, vault toilets available. Indian Rockhouse A large bluff shelter near Buffalo Point. Every year thousands of people hike to the Indian Rockhouse to admire this large bluff shelter. Skull Rock Kayakers floating towards Skull Rock near Buffalo Point. A peaceful day on the Buffalo River as kayakers approach Skull Rock and Buffalo Point. Steel Creek Campground Camping at Steel Creek Camping along the Buffalo River is a wonderful way to enjoy the park. Floating the Buffalo Floaters on the river. Canoeing and kayaking the river is a wonderful way to spend a day at the Buffalo. Sod Collier Homestead Historic homestead built by the Collier Family. Many historic structures are scattered along the Buffalo River reminding us of the hardworking settlers that once called this river valley home. Smallmouth Bass Fishing Fisherman with smallmouth bass. Fishing for smallmouth bass is a popular activity on the Buffalo River. Wildland Fire in Arkansas' National Parks Wildland fire impacts each of the national parks in Arkansas in one way or another. The National Park Service manages wildland fire to protect the public; park communities and infrastructure; conserve natural and cultural resources; and maintain and restore natural ecosystem processes. A prescribed fire is monitored by a firefighter on an all-terrain vehicle. Bat Projects in Parks: Buffalo National River What areas around Buffalo National River are home to bats? A view from the air of the river and surrounding forests Buffalo National River Conducts Prescribed Fire in Wilderness Buffalo National River staff conducted a prescribed fire in Lower Buffalo Wilderness in southeast Marion County. The prescribed burn was conducted to reduce hazardous fuel loads that could lead to catastrophic wildfires, promote restoration of post oak savannas and cedar glades, lower the risk potential for forest diseases, improve wildlife habitat, and help control invasive vegetation. The burn helped meet the NPS goal of maintaining and restoring resilient landscapes. Wildland Fire in Oak Woodlands and Savannas of the Midwestern United States Oak woodlands depend on disturbances like fire to survive. Frequent fire created and maintained the open structure and make-up of the woodlands. Today, there are fewer oak woodlands across the central United States. Oak woodlands are converting into forests due to a lack of fire. Oak trees with an understory of grasses and forbs. The Border States The existence of divided populations in Border States had a profound impact on Union and Confederate strategy-both political and military. Each side undertook military and political measures--including brutal guerilla warfare-- in their attempts to control areas of divided loyalty and hostile moral and political views held by local civilians. Painting showing removal of Missouri civilians from their homes by Union troops NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Buffalo National River, Arkansas Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] overview of river and bluff beyond Buffalo National River Conducts 2019 Wilderness Prescribed Fire In February and March 2019, crews from Buffalo National River and surrounding area conducted a prescribed fire in the Lower Buffalo Wilderness area. The park treated approximately 12,000 acres of forest, glades and woodlands with a low intensity broadcast burn to restore fire-dependent glade habitats, promote the growth of fire dependent species, and help reduce hazardous fuels. A firefighter holds a driptorch and a handtool while a small fire nearby consumes dried leaves. Uncovering the Fossil Record of Buffalo National River The bedrock of Buffalo National River includes outcrops of nearly twenty different formations, all from the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), and primarily deposited under shallow marine conditions. Remains of fossil nautiloids exposed along the Buffalo National River Cave Research Foundation Volunteers Continue to Document Cave and Karst Features A review of activities for winter, spring, and summer 2017 by CRF volunteers included documentation of numerous caves/karst features, a couple of river trips, and survey trips in Fitton Cave. caver rappelling into a cave Exploring the Fire and Archeology Interface The Midwest Archeological Center (MWAC) worked with Midwest Region Fire Program to design and carry out experiments to collect information about the effects of fire on various classes of archeological materials. The goals of this project were to assess the fire/archeology interface to provide managers of Midwestern parks with information that will aid in decision-making concerning the stewardship of archeological and natural resources. Rush Historic District Cultural Landscape Rush Historic District, located in the Arkansas Ozarks, has a period of significance of 1885 to 1931, corresponding to the founding and closing of Morning Star Mine. In addition to the mines, the district includes residences, a blacksmith shop, and general store associated with mining community life. Although deterioration of the structures and the overgrowth of vegetation somewhat diminish the integrity, the district conveys its association with the zinc mining industry. Row of raised single story wooden structures, surrounded by vegetation and fencing. Fish Communities at Buffalo National River The Buffalo River is one of the few remaining free-flowing rivers in the United States. The park only encompasses 11% of the watershed. This leaves much of the watershed susceptible to human activities such as logging, agriculture, and urbanization. Scientist measuring a fish at Buffalo National River. Dragonflies as Metal Detectors Spending years underwater eating insects and even small fish, dragonfly larvae (very young dragonflies) are high on the aquatic food chain. Each time a predator eats prey with mercury inside, that toxin builds up in the predator’s body. The build up of mercury in dragonfly larvae gives researchers an understanding of air and water quality. A small, clear bag holding a tiny dragonfly larva. Mussels: Flexing for Water Quality Continued water pollution and habitat changes have caused mussels to become one of the most rapidly declining animal groups in the United States. Healthy and diverse mussel populations indicate good water quality and ecosystem health. When mussel populations are in decline, this can indicate potential ecological concerns for other fish and wildlife, and even people. Arkansas brokenray (Lampsilis reeveiana) and Flutedshell (Lasmigonia costata) mussels Algae and Nutrient Sourcing Algae is a natural part of any aquatic environment. Though it often makes swimmers, anglers, and paddlers go, “Ick!,” algae performs important ecological services like oxygen production and nutrient cycling. It also provides food and habitat for a host of organisms. Factors like air/water temperature, sunlight, nutrients, foraging pressure, and rainfall amounts can lead to algal growth. Stringy, green algae underwater Smallmouth Bass Abundance and Climate Change Research suggests that climate change will likely affect the abundance of smallmouth bass in the Buffalo River. With the southern United States projected to warm by 5 to 7 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050, the suitable habitat range for smallmouth bass could shift and/or shrink as a result. A smallmouth bass stalls underwater. Series: Inside Earth – NPS Cave & Karst News – Summer 2017 This newsletter is produced as a forum for information and idea exchanges between National Park Service units that contain caves and karst landscapes. It also provides a historical overview and keeps partners and other interested folks aware of cave and karst management activities. 4 rangers walk through shoe cleaning station Series: Buffalo National River Science Spotlights Using Buffalo National River as a living laboratory, we can learn a lot about the natural world and its processes. These articles highlight the research and scientific endeavors that are happening now at Buffalo National River. Students and scientists smile at us from the banks of Calf Creek Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 10, No. 2, Fall 2018 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> NPS staff work to document a recently discovered slab of Navajo Sandstone Turquoise Waters Explained “A turquoise given by a loving hand carries with it happiness and good fortune." -Arabic Proverb If you've ever been lucky enough to see the Buffalo River in the right conditions, you've surely been enamored and perplexed by the color of the water. So, what exactly causes that turquoise/teal color? Overlooking a bend in a river from the top of a stone cliff. Both banks are densely forested. Oral History at Buffalo National River In celebration of Buffalo National River's upcoming 50th anniversary, we are gathering stories, memories, and experiences to create a collaborative, community-sourced oral history collection of the Buffalo River and its local communities. A black and white photo of a large family. The patriarch, James L. Villines, stands in the center. Mississippian Period—358.9 to 323.2 MYA The extensive caves of Mammoth Cave and Wind Cave national parks developed in limestone deposited during the Mississippian. Warm, shallow seas covered much of North America, which was close to the equator. fossil crinoid Ordovician Period—485.4 to 443.8 MYA Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains national parks, along with the Blue Ridge Parkway that connects them, pass through rocks from the core of the Appalachian Mountains. The mountains began forming during the Ordovician and eventually attained elevations similar to those of the Himalayas. rock with fossil brachiopod shells Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Boxley Valley Cultural Landscape In the early 1980s, Boxley Valley became a case study in NPS planning, resulting in the first cultural landscape report that supported the long-term management of a rural historic district in a national park. The influx of Euro-American settlers who arrived in the mid-1800s practiced subsistence farming. Structures and features were vernacular in style and created to support the needs of the community. The landscape retains much of this historic character and land use. Cows graze in the green grass of a pasture in Boxley Valley, with rolling hills in the distance. Volunteer Story: Arkansas Canoe Club The Arkansas Canoe Club (ACC) was the 2019 National Park Service Regions 3, 4 and 5 (Midwest) Hartzog Volunteer Group of the Year. The award recognizes the group's dedication in cleaning up Buffalo National River. In 2019, the ACC removed more than 15,000 pounds of debris, including 400 tires, from the Buffalo River. Four people paddle a floating dumpster down a river. Blanket Cave National Youth Park—Activity Enjoy a fun activity and learn about caves even when you can't get out to a park. In this activity you will build your own cave and learn how to make it like a "real" natural cave. Find out about cave formations and wildlife, and how to be safe and care for caves. New "Blanket Cave National Youth Parks" are springing up all across America! Join the fun! cartoon drawing of a childs and a park ranger exploring a cave Parker-Hickman Log Cabin & Farm Cultural Landscape The Parker-Hickman farmstead, located along the Buffalo River in the Ozark-Quachita Mountain region in Arkansas, was agriculturally productive for over 100 years, beginning in the 1840s and concluding in 1982. The structures in the landscape embody rural vernacular architecture and include the two-story log house, barns, shed, and a privy, among others. Together, the features constitute a well-preserved farm typical in the region during this period. A rough hewn log barn with steep metal roof Lepidodendron Fossil A lepidodendron was a tree that originated during the Pennsylvanian Age (about 318 million years ago). While these fossils originated during the time when Pangea (the last supercontinent) existed they are now spread out all over the globe, mostly in western Europe and eastern China. Lepidodendron, also called “Scale Trees”, are characterized by scale like bark and widespread root systems. They would grow to be about 100 feet tall and 7 feet wide. A lepidodendron fossil. Mineral-Stained Bluffs The vertical mineral stains along the bluffs of the Buffalo River vary among different rock types. Why? A limestone bluff protrudes into the Buffalo River. Karst The rocks that define our Ozark Mountains began as sand, silt, and the remains of marine invertebrates. Over the course of millions of years, sediment continued to be deposited and formed layers as the sea level and environment changed. A sandstone bluff towers over a long bend in the Buffalo River. Floodwaters During and after significant rain events, stormwater runs off overland, picking up sediments and other pollutants from the ground and depositing them in waterways like the Buffalo River. This explains why the river can appear murky at times. Murky floodwaters surge at the base of Painted Bluff Solution Caves Solution caves are formed when acidic water (water collecting carbonate from the limestone rocks) seeps into small cracks—dissolving the rock it touches. Continuous water flow expands the crack into a cave. A tunnel through limestone, dissolved by water Series: Phenomenal Science What causes the vertical streaks on the Buffalo River's bluffs? Why is the river so blue? Investigate these and other common questions in the Phenomenal Science series. A limestone bluff with solution cavities and mineral streaking along the Buffalo River. Cave Mapping for Conservation Over the past 3 decades, volunteers and partners have quadrupled the number of known caves at Buffalo National River. Through mapping and biological inventory surveys, members of the Cave Research Foundation have helped the National Park Service better understand the underground resources and how to manage them. Two cavers sit at the entrance of a cave. Just outside of the cave is a clear, blue creek. Cycling Wastewater Fecal contamination is a water quality concern that influences public use in rivers, lakes, and other waterways. Buffalo National River supports approximately 1.5 million visitors each year and has specific systems to mitigate waste risks and prevent visitors from contracting water-borne illnesses. The exterior of a restroom facility at Buffalo Point Campground. Plan Like A Park Ranger - 10 Tips for Responsible Recreation The top 10 list of things you need to know before you go to Buffalo National River, according to park rangers. A kayaker paddles downriver in front of us. A Day in the Life: Artifacts from Pipestone Indian Boarding School, Pipestone, Minnesota Learn how artifacts collected from the Pipestone Indian Boarding School, in combination with oral histories and school records, describe life at the school within the context of the larger political and economic climate of the day.

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