"Coastal view, Cabrillo National Monument, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Cabrillo

National Monument - California

Cabrillo National Monument is at the southern tip of the Point Loma Peninsula in San Diego, California. It commemorates the landing of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo at San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542. This event marked the first time a European expedition had set foot on what later became the West Coast of the United States.

maps

Area map of Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Cabrillo - Area Map

Area map of Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official visitor map of Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Cabrillo - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

brochures

Spring/Summer Visitor Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Cabrillo - Guide Spring/Summer 2016

Spring/Summer Visitor Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Life in the Intertidal Zone at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Site Bulletins - Life in the Intertidal Zone

Brochure about Life in the Intertidal Zone at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Reptiles and Amphibians at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Site Bulletins - Reptiles

Brochure about Reptiles and Amphibians at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Checklist for Birds at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Site Bulletins - Birds

Checklist for Birds at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Shorebirds at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Site Bulletins - Shorebirds

Brochure about Shorebirds at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Spring Wildflowers at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Site Bulletins - Spring Wildflowers

Brochure about Spring Wildflowers at Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Intertidal Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Field Guides - Intertidal Guide

Intertidal Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Native Bird Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Field Guides - Native Bird Field Guide

Native Bird Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Native Plant Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Field Guides - Native Plant Field Guide

Native Plant Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Native Herptiles Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Cabrillo - Native Herptiles Field Guide

Native Herptiles Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Terrestrial Mammals Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Cabrillo - Terrestrial Mammals Field Guide

Terrestrial Mammals Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Geology Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Cabrillo - Geology Field Guide

Geology Field Guide for Cabrillo National Monument (NM) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/cabr/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabrillo_National_Monument Cabrillo National Monument is at the southern tip of the Point Loma Peninsula in San Diego, California. It commemorates the landing of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo at San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542. This event marked the first time a European expedition had set foot on what later became the West Coast of the United States. Climbing out of his boat and onto shore in 1542, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo stepped into history as the first European to set foot on what is now the West Coast of the United States. In addition to telling the story of 16th century exploration, the park is home to a wealth of cultural and natural resources. Join us and embark on your own Voyage of Exploration. FROM DOWNTOWN SAN DIEGO Take Harbor Drive past the airport Turn left onto Rosecrans Street Turn right onto Canon Street Turn left onto Catalina Blvd. (also known as Cabrillo Memorial Drive) Follow Catalina Blvd. all the way to the end Visitor Center and View Building The Visitor Center at Cabrillo National Monument is the perfect place to get oriented to the park. Rangers and volunteers are always available to answer questions and provide suggestions on what to do. Here you can: • Find the day’s schedule of auditorium programs and ranger talks • Get your National Parks Passport book stamped • Chat with a ranger • Pick up a Junior Ranger activity for kids • Find out when low tide is • Visit the park store • Many other things! FROM DOWNTOWN SAN DIEGO Take Harbor Drive past the airport Turn left onto Rosecrans Street Turn right onto Canon Street Turn left onto Catalina Blvd. (also known as Cabrillo Memorial Drive) Follow Catalina Blvd. all the way to the end Rocky Intertidal Zone Tidepools at Cabrillo Low Tide at the Tidepools Sunset at Cabrillo Sun setting over the Pacific Sunset at Cabrillo Dusk at the Old Point Loma Lighthouse Dusk at the Old Point Loma Lighthouse Dusk over the Old Point Loma Lighthouse Old Point Loma Lighthouse Spring flowers in front of Old Point Loma Lighthouse Spring flowers in front of Old Point Loma Lighthouse View from Cabrillo Looking out on San Diego from Cabrillo View looking over to Coronado from Cabrillo Pelican Point View of Pelican Point at Cabrillo Pelican Point at Cabrillo National Monument 2013 Recipients: George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service More than 200,000 volunteers provide invaluable time and energy to the National Park Service. Meet the people and groups being honored with a 2013 Hartzog Award. Group of cleanup volunteers with full trash bags NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Cabrillo National Monument, California Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] waves breaking on coastal bluffs Cabrillo Peregrine Pair Raises Four Chicks Starting each February, Cabrillo National Monument volunteers and natural resources staff eagerly await low or minus tides, but not for the excellent tidepooling as you might expect. Rather, it is the opportunity to hike out on otherwise submerged rocks for a view of the cliffs above. There, they can record sightings of a pair of the world’s fastest animals, peregrine falcons, which have nested on the cliff since 2014. One juvenile peregrine falcon preparing to land near one of its siblings at the top of a cliff Investigating Ocean Acidification in the Rocky Intertidal <em>July 21, 2016</em> - Cabrillo National Monument and Channel Islands National Park are concerned about the impact that ocean acidification will have on their intertidal communities and the ability of their visitors to enjoy a seascape rich in marine life. They already monitor key rocky intertidal species, but to understand the dynamics of ocean acidification in the rocky intertidal and how the monitored species are responding, a new type of monitoring has become necessary. A freshly collected interidal seawater sample. Recording Echolocation Calls to Learn About Bats in Cabrillo National Monument <em>March 15, 2017</em> - Cabrillo National Monument boasts a surprisingly high number of bat species for its small size. National Park Service and San Diego Natural History Museum biologists recently teamed up to monitor and inventory the area’s bat populations. By recording bat echolocation calls, biologists identified ten species, including a new species for the area. They also discovered a distinct seasonal peak in the number of bat calls. Segment of a bat call sonogram Shaw’s Agave – A Species on the Edge <em>March 15, 2017</em> - Shaw’s agave is a species of concern that is literally and figuratively on the edge along the Southern California coast. One of its northernmost populations occurs in the rare coastal sage scrub community near the boundaries of Cabrillo National Monument. Recruitment of new individuals to in the local population has declined to zero. Cabrillo and San Diego Natural History Museum biologists are now trying to find out why. Researcher hand pollinating a Shaw's agave flower The Guns of San Diego at Cabrillo National Monument Constructed during World War II, this concrete and steel fire control station was most important in Harbor Defenses of San Diego in that the battery commander of 16-inch-gun Battery Ashburn operated from the top level (BC3) directing the fire of his guns. The lower level (B1/3 S1/3) served as one of five base end stations for Ashburn. 16 inch gun emplacement at Cabrillo National Monument Other Colors at Cabrillo National Monument Winter rains have brought color to Cabrillo National Monument in more ways than one. Most of all, monument staff have been noticing bright spots of orange and red moving among the amazing display of flowers. Some of the spots are covered in black and white fuzz and organized in a long series of rows. Other dark orange spots appear at either end of a smooth, black, orange-lined body. Upon closer inspection, these bursts of color belong to two different kinds of caterpillars. Close-up of the orange head of a white-lined sphinx moth caterpillar A New Species for Cabrillo National Monument Each month on a Monday, a team of Cabrillo National Monument biologists and volunteers head out to the field to begin a week of pitfall trapping. Most often, they find common lizards and a lot of small mammals. Sometimes, a bucket will contain a snake or a salamander. This season, diversity has been particularly high. The team also found a species that had never been recorded in more than 20 years of pitfall trapping. Botta's pocket gopher peeking out of a plastic cup This Shrub is Not Getting Enough Fire. Humans and Hot Water are Helping. The wart-stem ceanothus is an evergreen shrub native only to San Diego County and Northern Baja California. As a species that requires fire to germinate, it is also threatened in San Diego County by fire suppression, as well as by urbanization. As a result, Cabrillo National Monument is taking steps to help. A view of the flower clusters on the branches of the wart-stem ceanothus. City Nature Challenge at Cabrillo National Monument – A Celebration of Science for the Entire Community With the growing popularity of citizen science National Park Service scientists are employing the power of the people to help them solve the problems they face. Read on to learn about one such project that just concluded at Cabrillo National Monument. A mother uses iNaturalist to take a photo of a tidepool organism as her two children explore Wildland Fire in Chaparral: California and Southwestern United States Chaparral is a general term that applies to various types of brushland found in southern California and the southwestern U.S. This community contains the most flammable type of vegetation found in the United States. Chaparral on steep rocky slopes. What the Beeps Tell Us: Tracking Rattlesnakes at Cabrillo National Monument A Masters student in the Department of Biology at San Diego State University, Roman Nava works in the lab of Population Ecologist Dr. Rulon Clark. One of the main goals of this lab group is to understand how animal populations are connected and restructured as an effect of human habitat fragmentation. In Roman’s case he focuses on one of Cabrillo National Monument’ s top predators – the Southern Pacific rattlesnake. Researcher on a hillside holding a metal antenna Microplastics on National Park Beaches Every beachgoer has probably noticed plastic trash littering their favorite beaches, however remote. A new study of microplastic distribution on national park beaches indicates that whichever one you visit, there is probably also some amount of plastic that is harder to see, mixed in with the sand between your toes. Microplastic piece and organic matter Field Season Beginning for Mediterranean Coast Plant Monitoring Teams <em>March 15, 2017</em> - Even for drought tolerant southern California plant communities, four dry years in a row was a lot to handle. Annual vegetation monitoring at each of the three parks in the Mediterranean Coast Inventory and Monitoring Network recorded significant dieback in some places. This year, however, rainfall has been well above average throughout the region. Monitoring teams are excited to survey in a much more brightly colored landscape. Shooting stars decorated in water droplets Local Students Join Restoration Efforts at Cabrillo National Monument In an effort to preserve and protect vulnerable park resources, Cabrillo National Monument partnered with students from High Tech High Media Arts (HTHMA) in a large-scale native plant propagation and restoration effort. Night Sky Darkness in Coastal Southern California National Parks The velvet black of a dark night sky offers many values. People seek darkness for stargazing. Birds navigate by starlight. Prey hides from predator in the dark. But light pollution from human development—streetlights, buildings and other sources of artificial light—is spilling over into natural areas and taking an ecological toll. In Southern California, the National Park Service monitors the night sky of its parks and applies best practices to improve night sky darkness. Portion of the Milky Way visible over mountaintops in the Santa Monica Mountains. Cabrillo Hosts Cutting-Edge Genetics Research The rare Shaw's agave grows only in coastal southern California and northern Mexico. It has declined because of human activities and natural erosion. Managing this species—including a population in the park that was established in the 1970s with transplants from unknown sources—depends on knowing how genetically variable are the plants and soil microbes that provide nutrients, and how populations are related to each other. Rubber-gloved fingers drop a small, freshly clipped piece of agave into a plastic vial. Shaw's Agave: A Cross-border Botanical Gem Shaw’s agave is a rare and unique succulent plant endemic to a narrow, 200 mile, stretch along the southwestern California and northern Baja California coastline. South of the border, it is commonly found along the undeveloped portions of the western coast of Baja California. North of the border, however, the species has been reduced to just two small and isolated populations, one of which consists of a single genetic individual. Large Shaw's agave plants, in black and white. Cabrillo Intertidal Bioblitz 2016: The Maiden Voyage On March 6th, 2016, Cabrillo National Monument was proud to successfully host one of the first National Park Bioblitz events of the year in our rocky intertidal zone. This BioBlitz is part of a larger effort coordinated by the National Park Service (NPS) to celebrate the NPS Centennial. This event and others like it are great opportunities to learn more about the biodiversity of a park and contribute to our greater understanding of the biodiversity of the nation. Pollinators - Hummingbirds Hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) are amazingly adapted pollinators, and they play an important role in pollination. A flying hummingbird hovers next to a red flower 2016 Urban Island Bioblitz Results On May 21-22, 2016, Cabrillo National Monument and several other park units hosted a Centennial Bioblitz event. Utilizing the biodiversity observation application, iNaturalist, explorers of all ages made their way to Cabrillo to discover biodiversity in their National Park. Thanks to an incredible team of over 157 scientists, exhibitors, and volunteers, over 1706 observations spanning 427 species were documented throughout the 24-hour Bioblitz period landing us in 3rd place. MiniBlitz- Connecting Students to Science In preparation for the 2016 National Parks Centennial Bioblitzes occurring around the country this week (May 16-22nd, 2016), the science education staff at Cabrillo National Monument hosted a “MiniBlitz” in our local community. Staff members were excited to collaborate with four – 4th and 5th grade classrooms at the local elementary schools, High Tech Elementary and Explorer Elementary. iNaturalist: Become a Citizen Scientist at Cabrillo At Cabrillo National Monument, we created a “how-to” instructional video to guide students and visitors in creating and using their iNaturalist account. Available in both English and Spanish, these videos will help support explorers in creating observations and taking notes about local flora and fauna. National Parks Defend America's Coast During World War II Many national park sites joined the war effort in World War II by erecting Aircraft Warning, radio and radar stations. Some historic forts came to life with coastal defenses ready to defend the nation. color photo of explosion atop a fort wall, ocean beyond Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits Conserving pinnipeds in Pacific Ocean parks in response to climate change The evolutionary record from previous climate perturbations indicates that marine mammals are highly vulnerable but also remarkably adaptable to climatic change in coastal ecosystems. Consequently, national parks in the Pacific, from Alaska to Hawaii, are faced with potentially dramatic changes in their marine mammal fauna, especially pinnipeds (seals and sea lions). black harbor seal The Giant Owl Limpet: Keystone of the Intertidal A "keystone species" is defined as one so critical to an ecosystem that without it, the system would change dramatically. These are the species that hold a biome together. Their presence or absence has a disproportionate impact on the other organisms within the system and on the system at large. It is always tempting to imagine these incredibly important organisms as proportional in size to their huge role in the ecosystem; however, that is not always the case. Two large marine snails on a boulder as the sun sets on the tidepools beyond. National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Cabrillo National Monument Visitor Center Historic District Cultural Landscape The Cabrillo National Monument Visitor Center Historic District, constructed in 1963-1967, offers commanding views of the San Diego coast as well as interpretive exhibits and programs. NPS A paved trail leading to a building on a hill. Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Plan Like a Park Ranger - Top 10 Tips for Visiting Cabrillo National Monument Plan Like a Park Ranger at Cabrillo National Monument, the only National Park in San Diego, California. A white lighthouse on a bluff with a pine tree on the left and blue sky. West Coast National Parks Work with NOAA to Better Understand Ocean Acidification in the Rocky Intertidal and Beyond Ocean acidification (OA) is a huge threat to marine life. But it is hard to track remotely on a large scale. So this summer, seven West Coast national parks are teaming up with the 2021 NOAA West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise. They’ll collect water samples in-person to check several OA indicators. Their data will help paint the most detailed picture yet of OA conditions up and down the coast, from parks’ rocky intertidal zones to dozens of miles offshore. Collage of different rocky intertidal creatures photographed against a white background. Latino Conservation Week at Cabrillo National Monument A person’s cultural background and identity shapes the lens with which they view the world. This is particularly apparent at Cabrillo National Monument, as the history of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo illustrates the complexities of identity through history. Originally thought to be Portuguese, recent historical research has revealed that he said he was from Spain. An Ocean on the Edge Along the northwestern tip of the continental United States, large rocky stacks rise like sentinels from the mist. Shrouded in beauty and wonder, the expansive coastline of Olympic National Park sets a dramatic stage for the convergence of several unique ecosystems. Pristine, glacier-capped mountains painted in lush rainforests descend swiftly into the crashing waves where land meets sea. This is where our story begins. Black-and-white photo of impressive rocky stacks rising up above an expansive coastline. 2020 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service Each year nearly 300,000 volunteers across the National Park Service (NPS) donate more than 6.5 million hours of service, for a value of more than $185 million. Through their extraordinary work and dedication, these volunteers make an exceptional contribution to their parks and communities. We are pleased to congratulate the national recipients of the 2020 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service. Photo of Tom and Karen Hartley dressed in period clothing standing and smiling outdoors.
Cabrillo National Monument National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Visitor Guide Spring/Summer 2016 Photo By Bill Griswold Meet Cabrillo’s New Superintendent! Contact Us The National Park Service has selected Andrea Compton to be the next superintendent of Cabrillo National Monument in San Diego. Joshua Tree National Park’s chief of resources management, where she oversaw natural and cultural resources in Joshua Tree’s Mojave and Sonoran desert ecosystems. “Andrea’s proven leadership in park management and experience with the partners, communities, and cultural heritage of San Diego makes her the ideal leader to take Cabrillo National Monument into the National Park Service’s second century,” said Martha Lee, Pacific West Region Deputy regional director. “Cabrillo represents a beautiful blend of natural environments on land and in the water, which together with its rich stories and artifacts represent a part of San Diego’s amazing history,” said Compton. “I am delighted and honored to have been selected for this position. I look forward to rejoining the wonderful staff, volunteers, Cabrillo National Monument Conservancy and Cabrillo National Monument Foundation associates, and the many park partners to celebrate and enjoy San Diego’s national Compton is returning to Cabrillo National Monument, where she began her National Park Service career in 2002. She left the park in 2009 to assume the job of park.” Prior to joining the National Park Service, Compton worked at Mesa College where she taught general biology, and at San Diego State University where she worked with the Field Stations Program. Her business experience includes work with an environmental consulting firm in Portland, Oregon. She holds a master’s degree in fishery and wildlife biology from Colorado State University and a bachelor’s degree in animal ecology from Iowa State University. Welcome aboard, Superintendent Compton! What’s Inside? Mailing Address Support Your Park..........2 Cabrillo National Monument Visitor Information........3 Centennial.......................3 1800 Cabrillo Memorial Drive Calendar of Events........4 San Diego, CA 92106 News..................................4, 5 Phone 619-557-5450 Annual Passes................6 Park Website www.nps.gov/cabr Park Map..........................7 Junior Ranger.................8 Support Your Park Support Park Partners Volunteer Join us for a volunteer event! Support your local National Park and get involved for one day, one year or the rest of your life. More than 400 active volunteers help maintain the park’s natural and cultural resources. They participate in a variety of projects and represent Cabrillo National Monument throughout San Diego. In 2016, the VIP program will host Centennial Service Days to encourage everyone in the community to come out and volunteer at the park. To learn how you can help visit www.nps.gov, vipvoice.wordpress.com or email us at cabr_volunteers@nps.gov The Cabrillo National Monument Foundation (CNMF) is a private nonprofit organization which provides support for special projects at Cabrillo National Monument. Since 1956 CNMF has helped the National Park Service with numerous educational and scientific activities at Cabrillo National Monument. The Foundation has published several award winning books on historic and scientific topics relating to the Monument. Revenue for these projects comes through donations, memberships and sales of publications and other educational items. CNMF is one of many National Park Service Cooperating Associations in the U.S.A; these organizations work to enhance the visitor’s experience at the National Parks. www.cnmf.org The Cabrillo National Monument Conservancy (CNMC) is an organization initiated on the 4th of July, 2012 by a group of folks who believed it would be financially advantageous to Cabrillo National Monument Support Park Partners Trails & Rails is an innovative partnership program between the National Park Service and Amtrak. This program provides rail passengers with educational opportunities that foster an appreciation of a selected region’s natural and cultural heritage; it promotes National Park Service areas and provides a valueadded service to encourage train ridership. It also renews the long tradition of associating railroads with National Parks. www.nps.gov/trails&rails The San Diego Maritime Museum, in partnership with Cabrillo National Monument, built an historically accurate, fully sailable replica of the San Salvador. Construction of the galleon was The San Diego Natural History Museum traces its roots to an enthusiastic group of amateur naturalists, who formed the San Diego Society of Natural History in 1874. It’s mission is to interpret the natural world through research, education and exhibits; to promote understanding of the evolution and diversity of southern California and the peninsula of Baja California; and to inspire in all a respect for nature an
Cabrillo National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cabrillo National Monument Life in the Rocky Intertidal Zone Tidepools provide a home for many animals. Tidepools are created by the changing water level, or tides. The high energy waves make this a harsh habitat, but the animals living here have adapted over time. When the earth, sun and moon align during the full and new moon we have extreme high and low tides. Generally, there are two high tides and two low tides a day. An example of low and high tide is seen on the right. There are three zones within the tidepools: the high zone, the middle zone, and the low zone. Animals are distributed based on their adaptations to different living (competition and predation) and no living (wave action and water loss) factors. The tidepools at Cabrillo are protected and have been monitored by the National Park Service since 1990. You may notice bolts in the rocky intertidal, these are used to assist scientists in gathering data to monitor changes. Low Tide Tidepool Etiquette: Human impact can hurt the animals. As you explore the tidepools, you may touch the animals living here, but only as gently as you would touch your own eyeball. Some animals may die if moved even a few inches from where they are found. Federal law prohibits collection and removal of any shells, rocks and marine specimens. Also, be aware of the changing tides, slippery rocks and unstable cliffs. Have fun exploring! The high zone is covered by the highest tides. Often this area is only sprayed by the crashing waves. The animals who live here must endure a long time without water. Below are common examples of what you can find in the high zone. High Zone (Supralittoral or Spray Zone) Mussels and Barnacles High Tide Thatched Barnacles Periwinkles Gooseneck Barnacles Acorn Barnacles Owl Limpet Conspicuous Chiton Limpets Shore Crab Chiton *Photos are not to scale. Thank you to the Tams for most of these photos. The best time to visit the tidepools is during the new or full moon; a negative low tide is recommended for the best exploring. Isopod Hermit Crab If you are interested in learning more, visit the tidepool education table or volunteer to help protect this unique and beautiful place. For volunteer opportunities contact: Cabr_volunteers@nps.gov Middle Zone (Littoral Zone) The middle zone is covered by the highest tides and exposed by the lowest tides. The animals here have to be able to live both in and out of water. The anemones close up and cover themselves in bits of shell and other debris in order to retain moisture during low tide. Below are some examples of species in the middle zone. Solitary Anemone Brooding Anemones Closed Sea/Surf Grass Sea Bubble Low Zone (Sublittoral or Subtidal Zone) Scaly Tube Snail Aggregate Anemones Closed Open Black Tegula Snail Sea lettuce Kellet’s Whelk Feather Boa Kelp Coralline Red Algae Sponge Weed/ Dead Mans’ Fingers Sandcastle Worms Sargasso Weed Keyhole Limpet The low zone is only uncovered during the lowest tides. Animals here are submerged in water most of the time. Some of the animals in this zone like to hide under surfgrass because it provides shelter. Below are some animals found in the low zone. Knobby Sea Star Brittle Star Sea Urchin Bat Star Opalescent Nudibranch Brown-Ringed Nudibranch Rosy Nudibranch Yellow Umbrella Slug Opaleye Open Wooly Sculpin Garibaldi California Moray Eel California Sea Hare Chestnut Cowry This brochure was made possible through the work of Katie Eskridge, a Girl Scout who used the tidepools as the subject for her Gold Award Project . EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA ™ Kelp Crab Octopus
Cabrillo National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Lizards Cabrillo National Monument Reptiles and Amphibians Cold-blooded, not cold-hearted. The Coastal Sage Scrub environment at Cabrillo National Monument supports a diverse community of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles. This handout will serve to provide you with important and interesting information about the snakes, lizards and amphibians found within this ecosystem. Lizards have an amazing built in defense mechanism that allows them to drop their tail if they are threatened by a predator. If a lizard drops its tail it will grow back, but it requires a lot of energy to do so. The tail that regenerates will not look the same, it will be reconstructed only as cartlidge, the bone does not regenerate . The origin of reptiles on our earth began aproximatly 300 million years ago. Modern reptiles inhabit every continent and there are 8,000 species worldwide. The scientists that study reptiles and amphibians are called herpetologists. Herpetologists work all around the world. Snakes eat a variety of small mammals, lizards, insects, bird eggs, and kingsnakes will even eat rattlesnakes. Lizards also have a wide variety of meal preferences they like to dine on insects, bird eggs, spiders, the alligator lizard will even eat other lizards. Lizards and snakes are some of natures most amazing creatures. Snakes are mobile creatures that can travel far distances but they do not have legs. Contracting and expanding of muscles allows them to slither from place to place. Wherever you fall in the spectrum from fear to fascination when you encounter these creatures, learning about them and understanding their relationship to the environment is an important step toward appreciating these scaly living dinosaurs. Western Fence Lizard This is the most common of all lizards you will see at the park. How many have you already seen today? They like to hang out on rocks, fences and walls soaking up the sun during the day. Reptiles are cold-blooded,or ectothermic meaning they need the warmth of the sun to help them regulate their body temperature. If you see one doing pushups or bobbing his head around he is not exercising he is defending his territory or tyring to to attract a female lizard. Sceloporus occidentalis 5.7 – 8.9 cm 2.25 – 3.5 inches The large head, long pointed snout, powerful jaws and long bodies give this lizard its fierce name. Their tail can grow twice the length of their body if has never been dropped off. When a lizard drops its tail to escape from a predator, the tail will writh on the ground for a few seconds to distract the predator just long enough for the lizard to get away. This lizards tail is prehensile, they use it for support to hang on branches and manuver through brush. Alligator Lizard Elgaria multicarinata 7.3 – 17.8 cm 2.8 – 7 inches The vibrant orange color on this lizard’s throat and often on its chest, along with its stunningly long tail and horizontal stripes make this lizard a remarkable beauty. When defending their territory the male arches his back, twitches and whips the tip of his tail and points his snout at the ground. Once an abundant lizard, their populations are now scattered because much of the habitat they depend on has been destroyed by development. Belding’s OrangeThroated Whiptail Cnemidophorus hyperythrus 5.1 – 7 cm 2 – 2.75 inches Western Side-Blotched Lizard Uta stansburiana 3.8 – 6.3 cm 1.5 – 2.5 inches California Legless Lizard Anniella pulchra 11 – 17.8 cm 4.3 – 7 inches The abundance of this lizard, like the fence lizard makes it very likely you will see it in the park. In the animal kingdom competition for survival and reproduction tends to be more fierce for males than females. This is one of the reasons that males tend to be more colorful and vibrant than their female counterparts. Most lizards can see color and beautiful colors are more attractive and desireable to a prospective mate. Case in point made here for the male side-blotched lizard. Males of this species have blue speckles on their upper surface.This lizard has a relativly short-lived lifespan only lasting about one year. A lizard with no legs, WHAT? Well then it must be a snake. No no no, actually this slithery reptile is indeed a lizard. This lizard looks like a snake, and moves like a snake but it is classified by herpetologists as a lizard because it has eyelids. What does a legless lizard say about the evolution of snakes? It still has rudimentary legs, as do some snakes. These lizards do not lay eggs, they bear live young. Another difference with the legless lizard to other legged lizards is that you will not see them basking in direct sunlight. They live mostly underground and will forage in loose soil, sand, or under leaf debris. Photos courtesy of Cabrillo National Monument photo database, Emily Floyd, Jeff Nelson, Noel Adams, Chris Brown of USGS, Gary Nafis and californiaherps.com Southern Pacific Rattlesnak
Bird Checklist This list is prepared using a novel approach for describing the Seasonal Occurrence and Relative Abundance of birds that are observed in and around Cabrillo National Monument and Point Loma. Use the symbols below to become better acquainted with them and assist you in your birding efforts. Cabrillo National Monument AREA COVERED BY THIS LIST The area covered by this list extends as far north as Hill Street to the west of Catalina Boulevard (State Highway 209) and Cañon Street to the east. Important birding locations within this area include Sunset Cliffs Park, Point Loma Nazarene College, nearby residential areas, Shelter Island, Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, and Cabrillo National Monument. This list contains 377 bird species, 41 of which have been recorded nesting. SEASONAL OR TEMPORAL STATUS WHEN Are You Likely To Find Them? Y = Year Round Resident S = Summer Resident W = Winter Resident M = Seasonal Migrant V = Irregular Visitor # = Nests On Point Loma RELATIVE ABUNDANCE How likely are you to find them? a = Abundant – Very easily encountered in suitable habitat and season. c = Common – Expected in suitable habitat and season. u = Uncommon – Present but can be missed or overlooked. o = Occasional – Infrequently observed or encountered. r = Rare – Unusual, out of range or habitat. Contact others and call the San Diego Rare Bird Alert. x = Accidental – Very unusual. Far out of range or habitat. Contact others and call the San Diego Rare Bird Alert (619-688-2473) ADDITIONAL SPECIES The following sixteen species have been observed on Point Loma but their occurrence and status is unconfirmed, unpublished, or incompletely known: Buller’s Shearwater, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel, Blue-footed Booby, Purple Gallinule, Common Black-headed Gull, Blue-and-yellow Macaw, Mitred Parakeet, Blue-crowned Parakeet, Red-masked Parakeet, Red-crowned Parrot, Cordilleran Flycatcher, Brown-crested Flycatcher, Gray Vireo, Verdin, Gray Silky-Flycatcher, and Pyrrhuloxia SUPPORTERS Cabrillo National Monument The Cabrillo National Monument Foundation and the National Park Service are dedicated to improving bird habitats and revitalizing the health of the surrounding plant community. This ongoing work is made possible by community volunteers and the generous contributions from the Cabrillo National Monument Foundation. To find out how you can help, contact (619) 222-4747 or email CNMFKaren@aol.com. For more information, please visit www.cnmf.org ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Useful information and assistance was provided by Philip Unitt of the San Diego Natural History Museum, Department of Birds and Mammals. Also, Richard Webster, and Don and Marjorie Hasting reviewed the list and provided valuable comments. Thank You. Cabrillo National Monument 1800 Cabrillo Memorial Drive San Diego, CA 92106 619.557.5450 www.facebook.com/cabrillonm www.nps.gov/cabr Published by Cabrillo National Monument Foundation Cabrillo National Monument Bird Checklist Compiled By Volunteer-In-Park Claude G. Edwards – July 2002. According To The American Ornithologists’ Union, 7th Edition, 1999. GAVIIDAE (Loons) □ Red-throated Loon WMu □ Pacific Loon WMc □ Common Loon WMc PODICEPEDIDAE (Grebes) □ Pied-billed Grebe WMu □ Horned Grebe WMu □ Eared Grebe WMc □ Western Grebe WMc □ Clark’s Grebe WMu PROCELLARIIDAE (Shearwater) □ Northern Fulmar WMo □ Pink-footed Shearwater Mr □ Sooty Shearwater Mr □ Short-tailed Shearwater WMr □ Black-vented Shearwater WMu HYDROBATIDAE (Storm-Petrels) □ Ashy Storm-Petrel Mr □ Black Storm-Petrel Mr □ Least Storm-Petrel Mr SULIDAE (Boobies) □ Brown Booby Vx PELICANIDAE (Pelicans) □ Am. White Pelican Vx □ Brown Pelican Yc PHALACROCARIDAE (Cormorants) □ Brandt’s Cormorant Yu □ Double-cr. Cormorant Yc □ Pelagic Cormorant Wu FREGATIDAE (Frigatebirds) □ Magnificent Frigatebird Vr ARDEIDAE (Herons & Egrets) □ Great Blue Heron Yc # □ Great Egret Yu # □ Snowy Egret Yc □ Cattle Egret Vr □ Green Heron Vr □ Black-cr Night-Heron Yc # THRESKIORNITHIDAE (Storks & Ibises) □ White-faced Ibis Vx CATHARTIDAE (New World Vultures) □ Turkey Vulture Mr ANATIDAE (Geese & Ducks) □ Gr. White-fr. Goose Mx □ Snow Goose Mr □ Canada Goose Mr □ Brant Wu □ Gadwall Mx □ American Wigeon Mo □ Mallard Mu □ Blue-winged Teal Mx □ Cinnamon Teal Mr □ Northern Shoveler Mr □ Northern Pintail Mr □ Green-winged Teal Mr □ Canvasback Mx □ Redhead Mx □ Greater Scaup WMr □ Lesser Scaup WMc □ Surf Scoter WMc □ White-winged Scoter WMo □ Black Scoter WMr □ Long-tailed Duck WMr □ Bufflehead WMc □ Common Goldeneye WMr □ Common Merganser WMx □ Red-breasted Merganser WMu □ Ruddy Duck WMo ACCIPITRIDAE (Hawks) □ Osprey Yu □ White-tailed Kite Mr □ Mississippi Kite Mx □ Bald Eagle Mr □ Northern Harrier Mu □ Sharp-shinned Hawk WMc □ Cooper’s Hawk Yc # □ Red-shouldered Hawk Yu # □ Broad-winged Hawk Mx □ Swainson’s Hawk Mx □ Zone-tailed Hawk Mx □ Red-tailed Hawk Yu # □ Ferruginous Hawk Mx □ Rough-legged Hawk Mx □ Golden Eagle Mx FALCONIDAE (Falcons) □ American Kestrel Yu □ Merli
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cabrillo National Monument Shorebirds of Cabrillo National Monument NPS Photograph by Harry Engels Cabrillo’s Shorebirds As you explore the rocky intertidal zone, this brochure can serve as a helpful guide to identifying the many species of shorebirds that reside in and around the tide pools. PELICANS (FAMILY: PELICANIDAE) The most commonly seen pelican at Cabrillo’s tidepools is the California Brown Pelican. The pelicans nest on the Los Coronados Islands in Baja California, Mexico. These islands can be seen in the distance as you gaze out into the ocean at the tidepools. California Brown Pelicans have just recently been removed from the list of threatened and endangered species. Groups of this remarkable bird most notably can be seen flying low over the water’s surface in V-formations. (Below, Photograph by Will Elder, NPS) HERONS & EGRETS (FAMILY: ARDEIDAE) Different types of Herons and Egrets also can be observed hunting in the shallow waters of the tidepools. They can be identified by their long beaks, necks and legs. Cabrillo National Monument plays host to the Snowy Egret, Great Egret, and Great Blue Heron. The Snowy Egret’s black legs and yellow feet make it easy to identify (pictured below, left). The Great Egret is a large all white bird, and it’s stature is usually a bit larger than that of the Great Blue Heron. The Great Blue Heron (below, right) has blue-grey plumage with an orange toned beak and legs. (Photographs by Bill Ratcliff and Harry Engels, respectively. NPS) GULLS (FAMILY: LARIDAE) Gulls are a familiar bird species in San Diego, California and many of them are year-round residents to the tidepools at Cabrillo. The most commonly sighted gull is the Western Gull, which nests in the Point Loma area. Immature Western Gulls have brown toned plumage. Mature adults have white heads and bodies with gray wings. Other gulls that frequent the tidepools are Heermann’s Gull and the California Gull. Pictured below is a mature Western Gull. (Photograph by Bryan Harry, NPS) TERNS (FAMILY: STERNIDAE) Terns were once considered a sub-family of the gull family, Laridae. While they do bear a resemblance to gulls, they are considerably smaller. Often times, Terns can be seen flying slowly over the water and dipping down quickly to capture their prey—primarily fish. However, they also feed on small crustaceans and insects. While enjoying your visit to the tidepools, you are most likely to see a Royal Tern or a Forster’s Tern. Both are year-round residents of the park. Photographed below are three Forster’s Terns. (Photograph by Will Elder, NPS) OYSTERCATCHERS (FAMILY: HAEMATOPODIAE) Cabrillo National Monument hosts a year-round stock of Black Oystercatchers and a seasonal stock of American Oystercatchers. Black Oystercatchers have entirely black bodies with long and vibrantly colored bill and legs, while American Oystercatchers have black and brown bodies with white on their wings and underbellies. This species never strays far from the shore and can occasionally be spotted feeding on invertebrates at Cabrillo National Monument. These birds are very skiddish, so consider yourself very lucky if you do indeed see one! EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Shorebirds of Cabrillo National Monument Pamphlet by Naomi McPherson SANDPIPERS (FAMILY: SCOLOPACIDAE) The Wandering Tattler, Spotted Sandpiper, Ruddy Turnstone, Black Turnstone, Sanderling, Western Sandpiper, Marbled Godwit, Surfbird, and Whimbrel are a few of the migratory Sandpipers that occasionally reside at Cabrillo National Monument during the winter months. These birds can be seen frequenting the rocky shores and cliffs at the tidepools. Their sizes vary from small to large. Basic plumage includes shades of brown and gray with white speckled patterns on the body and wings, and white underbellies. There are many types of birds within this family, but what distinguishes them from one another are their habits and behavioral patterns. SPOTTED SANDPIPERS and WANDERING TATTLERS (both medium-sized shorebirds) can be identified by the constant up and down bobbing of their tails (or “teetering” ) as they walk. WESTERN SANDPIPERS are small birds with short necks and moderately large beaks. They have black legs, and their backs are normally grayish brown with hints of a reddish hue. RUDDY TURNSTONES and BLACK TURNSTONES are stocky and somewhat small shorebirds with short and slightly upturned beaks. Ruddy Turnstones have bright orange legs, brown backs and black-and-white facial markings. Black Turnstones have nearly all black bodies with white underbellies and black legs and feet. WHIMBRELS are medium-sized shorebirds that have noticably thin downturned beaks with striped heads and grayish-brown speckled bodies. MARBLED GODWITS are somewhat large shorebirds with long bills. Their slightly upturned bills are pinkish at the base but otherwise black. Their bodies are mostly brown with dark speckles on their back
Cabrillo National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cabrillo National Monument 1800 Cabrillo Memorial Drive San Diego, CA 92106 Spring Wildflowers of Cabrillo Cabrillo is home to an array of colorful flowers. Threatened flowers include the Sea Dahlia and Coast Desert Thorn. Please take photos, not flowers. Virgin’s Bower Clematis pauciflora Bayside Trail California Everlasting Gnaphalium californicum Bayside Trail/Cabrillo Road Wishbone Bush Mariposa Lily Calochortus weedii Kelp Forest & Whale Overlook Mirabilis californica Tidepools/ Bayside Trail Fishhook Cactus Mammillaria dioica Tidepools/ Bayside Trail Popcorn Flower Plagiobothrys collinus Kelp Forest & Whale Overlook Bayside Trail Milk Maids Cardamine californica Bayside Trail Blue Dicks Blue-Eyed Grass Sisyrinchium bellum Kelp Forest & Whale Overlook Coast Monkeyflower Dichelostemma capitatum Tidepools Diplacus aurantiacus (formerly Mimulus) Bayside Trail California Poppy Indian Paintbrush Coastal Deerweed Castilleja affinis Bayside Trail/Ocean View Lotus scoparius Tidepools/Bayside Trail Eschscholzia californica Tidepools Tarweed Deinandra fasciculate Tidepools Wild Cucumber Marah macrocarpus Widespread Black Sage Salvia mellifera Widespread Coast Desert-Thorn Lycium californicum Tidepools Bladderpod Locoweed Isomeris arborea Widespread Astralagus trichopodus Widespread Sea Dahlia Yellow Pincushion Parish’s Nightshade Solanum parishii Tidepools/Bayside Trail Coreopsis maritima West of Lighthouse Chaenactis glabriuscula Path to Statue Bajada Lupine Lupinus concinnus Tidepools Bush Sunflower Ground Pink Encelia californica Widespread Nuttall’s Snapdragon Antirrhinum nuttallianum Linanthus dianthiflorus Tidepools San Diego Sunflower Shaw’s Agave Goldfields Lasthenia californica Tidepools Agave shawii Widespread (All Year) Viguiera laciniata
Intertidal Field Guide C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Intertidal Field Guide About the Ecosystem Field Guide Our Role Cabrillo Guide 1 C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT About the Ecosystem Welcome to one of the world’s rarest ecosystems. This vast expanse, where land meets sea, supports a thriving body of marine organisms and plants all adapted to live under the harsh environmental pressures characteristic of this area. Dictated by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun, the tides predictably flow in and out cyclically creating a low, high, and middle tidal zone. Each of these zones supports a distinctive community waiting for you to explore. Use this guide to help you in your adventure and discover the organisms that call the intertidal home. Intertidal Safety Tips • Remember this area is federally protected; taking of any kind is against the law. • Only explore in designated areas. • Be respectful of the critters that live here; avoid disturbing their homes, and only touch gently with two fingers. • Waves and algae can make the area extremely slippery. Wear sturdy shoes and step with caution. • Be aware of the incoming tide. Do not turn your back to the waves and make sure you can always reach dry land. R E T U R N T O 2H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Field Guide WHAT ARE YOU LOOKING AT? Invertebrates Marine Plants • Lack a spinal column • May have exoskeleton • Gain nutrients from the sun • Provide food for ecosystem Fish Marine Mammals • Aquatic vertebrates • Use gills to breathe • Breathe air and have hair • Give birth to live young 3 FIELD GUIDE Invertebrates Invertebrates without Exoskeleton Invertebrates with Exoskeleton R E T U R N T O 4F I E L D G U I D E F I EFL IDE LGDU G I DUEI D E F I E LF D I DUEI D E I E LGDU G FIELD GUIDE Invertebrates without Invertebrates without Black Sea Hare E Invertebrates without Invertebrates without Invertebrates without Exoskeleto Invertebrates without Exoskeleton Dorid Hermissenda Invertebrates without Exoskeleton FIELD GUIDE Aggregating Anemone Exoskeleton ates without Exoskeleton Black Sea Hare Sea Hare Dorid Black Sea Hare atesNavanax withoutBrown Exoskeleton Black Sea Hare Black Sea Hare Anemone Solitary Anemone Brooding Anemone Black Sea Hare Black Sea Hare Brooding Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Aggregating Anemone Brown Sea Hare Brooding Anemone Brooding Anemone Hopkins Rose Brown Sea Black Sea Hare Brooding Anemone Brown Sea Hare Brown Sea Hare BlackSea Sea Hare Brown Hare Dorid Spanish Shawl Brown Sea Hare UIDE 5 Dorid Dorid Hermissenda Navanax Dorid Dorid Nudibranch Dorid Dorid Hermissenda RETURN TO INVERTEBRATES Hermissenda Nudibranch Dorid Hermissenda Dorid Hopkins Rose Hopkins Rose Hopkins Rose Nudibranch Hopkins Rose Hermissenda Hopkins Two-Spot Octopus Hermissenda Hopkins Rose Navanax Hopkins Rose Navanax Solitary Anemone RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE Two-Spot Octopus Solitary Anemone Navanax Two-Spot Octopus Two-Spot Solitary Anemone Navanax Solitary Anemone Two-Spot Two-Spot Octopus SpanishOctopus Shawl Two-Spot Octopus Spanish Shawl RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE Spanish Navanax Shawl Nudibranch Navanax Spanish Shawl Navanax Solitary Anemone Navanax RETURN 5 RETURN T Spanish Shawl Spanish Shawl Spanish Shawl Spanish Shawl TO INVERTEBRATES R E T U5R N T O F I E L D G U I D E RETURN 5 R E T U R N T O L D G U I D E R E T U R F I E L D G U I D E R NN 5 5 RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O I N V E R T E B R A T E S RE ET TUUR R 5 RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE RETURN T INVERTEBRATES Aggregating Anemone Anthopleura elegantissima Tidal Zone: High to Middle Description: 5-7cm in diameter when open. Closes during low tide and is covered with shells and sand. Distribution: Alaska to Baja California Interesting Facts: To reproduce, individual anemones divide and separate into two new anemones of the same sex. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O6 I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Solitary Anemone Anthopleura sola Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: A 7-10 cm disc rimmed with tentacles; usually light green with stripes extending from the center. Distribution: Alaska to Panama Interesting Facts: The stinging cells, or nematocysts, in their tentacles are used to capture food. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 7I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Brooding Anemone Eplactis Prolifera Tidal Zone: Low Description: Orange, red, or brown 2 cm disc. Distribution: Alaska to Southern California Interesting Facts: Eggs are fertilized within the body of the adult, then released out of its mouth. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE R E T U R N T O 8I N V E R T E B R A T E S W I T H O U T E X O S K E L E T O N INVERTEBRATES Black Sea Hare Aplysia vaccaria Tidal Zone: Low to Subtidal Description: Dark purple to black sea slug that g
Native Bird Field Guide C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Bird Field Guide About the Ecosystem Field Guide Our Role Cabrillo Guide 1 C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT About the Ecosystem San Diego is the most biodiverse area for birds in North America making Cabrillo National Monument well-known in the birding community as a premiere bird watching spot. Over 200 bird species have been spotted at Cabrillo National Monument alone. As a stop on the Pacific Flyway, migrant species use the peninsula as a resting place. Raptors use Point Loma as a landmark during the peak of their migrations, and some, like the Red-tailed Hawk, make their home here year-round. The rocky shoreline on Point Loma’s western side is the only place in San Diego where Black Oystercatchers are regulars. However, these birds cannot sustain the ecosystem alone. Each person can play a role in helping our feathered friends. As you learn more about birding, you will find that your actions play a direct part in the welfare of the birds that you see. Remember that birds, while breeding and raising their offspring, want to be left alone. The more silent you are as you move about, the more birds you will see. Sometimes the best way to spot birds is to just sit, wait, and listen. Give it a try. R E T U R N T O 2H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Field Guide WHAT ARE YOU LOOKING AT? Coastal Birds Songbirds • Birds that frequently visit the shore (estuaries, bay, etc.) • Birds with a musical song • Often small and seen perching Raptors Corvids • Predatory birds • Large talons or claws • Birds of the crow Family • Includes ravens and jays 3 FIELD GUIDE Coastal Birds *Please refrain from playing calls in the wild as it can be stressful to wildlife. It may be illegal in certain areas, always ask before use. Black-bellied Plover Black-necked Stilt Black Oystercatcher Brown Pelican Caspian Tern Double-crested Cormorant Forster’s Tern Great Blue Heron Great Egret Snowy Egret Snowy Plover Spotted Sandpiper Western Gull Whimbrel Willet R E T U R N T O 4F I E L D G U I D E COAS TAL BIRDS Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Small, mostly black and white bird with distinct black belly as adult; <1’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Often found foraging in the tidepools for worms or crustaceans. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 5 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Long neck and legs with black wings; black and white belly; <1.5’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Walks delicately on long red legs along the shoreline. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 6 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani Season Seen in San Diego: Winter Description: Black with long, straight, reddish-orange beak; found foraging on rocky shoreline; <2’ tall. Distribution: West Coast of North America Interesting Facts: Solely eats mollusks from rocks in the intertidal. Sometimes this species hybridized with the American Oystercatcher. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 7 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large, mostly brown with red and yellow on neck in breeding season (December - August) as an adult; mostly brown as juveniles; <5’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Dives into water to catch fish as primary food source. This species came back from the brink of extinction following the ban of DDT. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 8 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large bird; white with black tips on pointed wings; <2’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: The largest of the tern species. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 9 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus Season Seen in San Diego:Year Round Description: All black with orange-ish beak; two crests on top of head in breeding season (March - May); <3’ tall. Distribution: Oceans and bays within North America Interesting Facts: Dives for fish as food source. Dries its wings while on rocks. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 10 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Forster’s Tern Sterna forsteri Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: White, small bird with black cap in summer; <1’ tall. Distribution: Oceans and bays within North America Interesting Facts: Dives into water to catch small fish as food source. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 11 RETURN TO SHOREBIRDS COAS TAL BIRDS Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias Season Seen in San Diego: Year Round Description: Large, gray and blue with long neck; <4.5’ tall. Distribution: Coastal North America Interesting Facts: Very large and walks slowly when hunting pr
Native Plant Field Guide C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Native Plant Field Guide About the Ecosystem Field Guide Our Role Cabrillo Guide 1 C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT About the Ecosystem The Mediterranean Ecosystem is made up of plants that have adapted to warm, dry summers and cool winters with a few storms lasting a few days at a time. To survive through the dry season, some plants found in these habitats have large roots, or bodies, where they store water to use when needed. Other plants have leaf adaptations that prevent the loss of water. These adaptations include leaves that fall off during dry seasons, leaves with a waxy coating that protects them from evaporation, or leaves with hairs that reflect light penetrating the plant. Plant Communities Coastal Sage Scrub Chaparral • Small Plants (less than 3 feet) • Woody Shrubs (up to 8 feet) • Spread out and dirt is often seen • Plants often grow close together • Typically direct sunlight all day • Usually shaded for part of the day R E T U R N T O 2H O M E P A G E SHRUBS Aromatic Plants Black Sage Bladderpod Everlasting Sagebrush RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 3 RETURN TO SHRUBS SHRUBS Bicolor Everlasting Pseudognaphalium bioletti Flowering Season: January -May Description: Clasping, distinctly two colored leaves with white crowded flowers and sweet scent (lemon-like); <3’ Distribution: California and Baja California Interesting Facts: This species of Pseudognaphalium may feel slightly sticky to the touch. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 4 RETURN TO AROMATIC PL ANTS SHRUBS Black Sage Salvia mellifera Flowering Season: May - July Description: Branched woody shrub <6’; small dark green leaves with several whirls around the upright stalks, flower color varies from white, pale blue, and lavender Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: The word ‘mellifera’ means foul odor. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 5 RETURN TO AROMATIC PL ANTS SHRUBS Bladderpod Peritoma arborea Flowering Season: All year with rain Description: Spreading shrub <6’, 3 gray-green leaflets, yellow tubular 4 petal flowers, bladder shaped seed pods Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Often, you will find the Harlequin bug using this plant for survival. Some Harlequin bugs can spend their whole life on a single Bladder Pod RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 6 RETURN TO AROMATIC PL ANTS SHRUBS California Sagebrush Artemisia califonica Flowering Season: August - December Description: Erect or spreading branches <4’, soft green-gray linear leaves, small yellow-green flowers Distribution: Central to Southern California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: This plant is not a true sage, but utilizes the same chemicals to smell like a sage. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 7 RETURN TO AROMATIC PL ANTS SHRUBS Common Wildflowers Black Sage Bladderpod Bladder Pod CA Buckwheat Bushmallow Bush Sunflower Deer Weed Goldenbush SD Sunflower Sea Dahlia Tansy Mustard White Fiesta Flower Yellow Pincushion RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 8 RETURN TO SHRUBS SHRUBS Black Sage Salvia mellifera Flowering Season: May - July Description: Branched woody shrub <6’; small dark green leaves with several whirls around the upright stalks, flower color varies from white, pale blue, and lavender Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: The word ‘mellifera’ means foul odor. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 9 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Bladderpod Peritoma arborea Flowering Season: All year with rain Description: Spreading shrub <6’, 3 gray-green leaflets, yellow tubular 4 petal flowers, bladder shaped seed pods Distribution: California and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Often, you will find the Harlequin bug using this plant for survival. Some Harlequin bugs can spend their whole life on a single Bladder Pod. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 10 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS California Flattop Buckwheat Eriogonum fasciculatum Flowering Season: All year with rain Description: Woody brittle shrub <5’, small slender bundled leaves, white pom-pom like flowers with pink anthers, dry rust colored flower heads retained Distribution: Western North America - California, Utah, Arizona and Northern Baja Interesting Facts: Some may say it has pink pollen, but in fact the anthers of this plants are simply pink. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 11 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Coastal Bushmallow Malacothamnus fasciculatus Flowering Season: April - July Description: Shrub <6’, softly lobed felty leaves, pink with orangish center flowers bundled along stalk Distribution: Western North America - California and Mexico Interesting Facts: On the underside of its leaves, it has star-like hairs (stellate trichomes), which help it capture moisture on foggy days. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 12 RETURN TO WILDFLOWERS SHRUBS Bush Sunflower Encelia californica Flowering Season: February - June Description: Branched <4’, oval green smooth edged leaves, yel
Native Herptiles Field Guide C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Native Herptiles Field Guide About the Ecosystem Field Guide Our Role Cabrillo Guide 1 C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT About the Ecosystem Cabrillo National Monument is home to 12 species of herptiles – six species of snakes, five species of lizards, and one amphibian, the Garden Slender Salamander. Long-term monitoring of these species began in 1995 by Dr. Robert Fisher (SDSU, then USGS), as part of a larger scale study of herptile species in Southern California. National Park Service took over monitoring at Cabrillo in 2000 to continue assessments of possible decline in species’ numbers. Because the Point Loma peninsula is island-like (surrounded on three sides by ocean, and cut off by development to the north), and due to their limited home ranges, these animals are extremely susceptible to population decline and extirpation (no longer existing in a particular area where they historically were found). Eight reptile species are thought to have already been extirpated from the peninsula: Coronado Island Skink, Red Diamond Rattlesnake, Western Yellowbellied Racer, Coast Horned Lizard, Red Coachwhip, Two-striped Gartersnake, California Glossy Snake, and the Western Long-nosed Snake. R E T U R N T O 2H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Field Guide WHAT ARE YOU LOOKING AT? Snakes • Elongated, legless reptile without eyelids Lizards • Reptile typically with long body, detachable tail, four legs, and moveable eyelids Amphibian • No lungs; breathe through their skin 3 FIELD GUIDE Reptiles - Snakes California Kingsnake California Striped Racer San Diego Gopher Snake San Diego Night Snake San Diego Ring-necked Snake Southern Pacific Rattlesnake R E T U R N T O 4F I E L D G U I D E SNAKES California Kingsnake Lampropeltis californiae Active Period: Daytime in cooler weather, night, dusk and dawn in hot weather Description: 2.5 - 3.5' long with smooth, shiny scales; alternating bands or lateral stripe of black or brown and white or light yellow. Distribution: Southwest North America Interesting Facts: Preys upon rattlesnakes because it is immune to rattlesnake venom. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 5 RETURN TO SNAKES SNAKES California Striped Racer Coluber lateralis lateralis Active Period: Daytime Description: A long, thin snake with smooth scales; body is olive, gray, or black in color with two yellow or cream stripes on either side of the body that extend to the tail. Distribution: California and Baja California Interesting Facts: Excellent eyesight; “periscopes” in shrubs looking for prey, usually lizards. This species does not constrict, but rather chomps down on prey whole. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 6 RETURN TO SNAKES SNAKES San Diego Gopher Snake Pituophis catenifer annectens Active Period: Daytime and hot nights Description: Large snake with tan or light yellow body with brown or black blotches on back and sides; dark stripes in front of eyes and behind each eye. Distribution: California and Baja California Interesting Facts: Often misidentified as a rattlesnake because of their size and similar markings. When threatened they will flatten their head and rattle their tails. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 7 RETURN TO SNAKES SNAKES San Diego Night Snake Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha klauberi Active Period: Nighttime, dusk and dawn Description: Small, slender snake with narrow flat head; color matches environment - from light gray to cream with gray or brown blotches on back and sides; slit pupils. Distribution: California and Baja California Interesting Facts: Rear-fanged and technically venomous, but harmless to humans. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 8 RETURN TO SNAKES SNAKES San Diego Ring-necked Snake Diadophis punctatus similis Active Period: Cloudy days, dusk, and at night Description: Small, thin snake with smooth scales; body is black - gray - olive in color with orange band that circles the neck; underside of tail is bright red/orange. Distribution: California and Baja California Interesting Facts: When threatened, will flip and coil body to show off bright coloration - a deterrent to predators. Fanged and venomous, but harmless to humans. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 9 RETURN TO SNAKES SNAKES Southern Pacific Rattlesnake Crotalus oreganus helleri Active Period: Nighttime when hot, daytime when warm Description: Heavy-bodied pit viper with triangular head and rattled tail; brown - olive brown body with dark blotches outlined in white; dark barred tail. Distribution: California and Baja California Interesting Facts: Contrary to popular belief, baby rattlesnakes are NOT more dangerous than adults! This species gives live birth and hunts through heat sensing. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 10 RETURN TO SNAKES FIELD GUIDE Reptiles - Lizards Orange-throated Whiptail Southern California Legless Lizard Great Basin Fence Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard Western Sideblotched Lizard R E T U R N T O
Terrestrial Mammals Field Guide C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Terrestrial Mammals Our Role Cabrillo Guide 1 C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT About the Ecosystem Situated on the tip of the Point Loma Peninsula, Cabrillo National Monument is surrounded on three sides by water and the fourth by development. The park’s location creates an island-like habitat for the organisms that reside here. Terrestrial mammals have limited home ranges, which make them extremely susceptible to population decline and extirpation (no longer existing in an area where they were historically found). Long-term monitoring programs of the park’s resident mammal species have been in place since the 1990s. Some small mammals, such as mice and shrews, are captured in pitfall buckets during herpetofauna (snake and lizard) monitoring. Others are monitored via motion-sensored camera traps located throughout the park. Bats are monitored by a special device that records the high-frequency echolocation sounds bats emit. Biologists can use those recordings to determine what species of bats are around. As of 2018, there have been confirmed recordings of 11 different species at Cabrillo. The Point Loma Peninsula provides an important stop-over for migratory species, such as the Hoary Bat and Big Free-Tailed Bat. R E T U R N T O 2H O M E P A G E C ABRILLO N ATION AL MONUMENT Field Guide WHAT ARE YOU LOOKING AT? • Medium-sized mammals larger than rodents but no larger than foxes • Small, flying mammals that are almost exclusively nocturnal • Characterized by strong, constantlygrowing incisors and no canine teeth • Small, nocturnal insectivore 3 FIELD GUIDE Meso-Mammals R E T U R N T O 4F I E L D G U I D E MESO-MAMMALS Brush Rabbit Sylvilagus bachmani Active Period: Twilight Description: Small, uniform gray-brown rabbit; no larger than approximately 1' when fully grown. Distribution: Oregon to Baja California, Mexico Interesting Fact: Foraging activity at night decreases when moonlight is increased, and also less active on windy or rainy nights, as this species relies on its hearing to listen for predators. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 5 RETURN TO MESO-MAMMALS MESO-MAMMALS Desert Cottontail Rabbit Sylvilagus audubonii Active Period: Dawn & Dusk Description: Light brown in color with distinct, white "cotton" tail, orange nape, and dark rim on outer edge of the ears; 1.2' long when fully grown. Distribution: Montana to Central Mexico Interesting Fact: The Cottontail uses its white cottonlike tail to distract predators as it runs away, flicking it to one side or the other. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 6 RETURN TO MESO-MAMMALS MESO-MAMMALS Feral Cat Felis catus Active Period: Primarily Nocturnal Description: House cats introduced to natural areas by humans who have released them there. Distribution: Every continent except Antarctica Interesting Fact: Feral cats cause negative impacts on the environment by preying on native birds, lizards, and small mammals. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 7 RETURN TO MESO-MAMMALS MESO-MAMMALS Gray Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Active Period: Primarily Nocturnal Description: Medium-sized canids with a mix of red, white, black, and gray fur; 3.5’ long and 6-11 pounds fully grown. Distribution: Southern Canada to northern South America Interesting Fact: This is the only canid species in North America able to climb trees. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 8 RETURN TO MESO-MAMMALS MESO-MAMMALS Raccoon Procyon lotor Active Period: Nocturnal Description: Color can range from black to tan, with a distinct mask across the eyes and a bushy tail with 4-10 rings; stocky in build and generally weighs 13-15 pounds. Distribution: Southern Canada to northern South America Interesting Fact: Raccoons are well-adapted to live in proximity to humans and often make dens under structures. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 9 RETURN TO MESO-MAMMALS MESO-MAMMALS Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Active Period: Primarily Nocturnal Description: Overall black with a thin, white stripe along their head and a V-shaped white marking along their back; about the size of a house cat. Distribution: Southern Canada to northern Mexico Interesting Fact: When threatened, this skunk will discharge an overpowering fluid spray which can reach up to 18 feet, causing nausea, pain, and even blindness. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 10 RETURN TO MESO-MAMMALS MESO-MAMMALS Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana Active Period: Nocturnal Description: Gray fur and a white head with a long, furless tail they use as an additional limb; 13-21" long fully grown. Distribution: Throughout North and Central America Interesting Fact: Opossums will play dead when threatened by predators, a behavior that can last up to 6 hours. This species is not native to California. RETURN TO FIELD GUIDE 11 RETURN TO MESO-MAMMALS FIELD GUIDE Bats • Tail is fully connected to the membrane • Insectivorous • Tail projects beyond the membrane connecting it to th
CNM Geology Guide How Point Loma Was Formed & Geologic Features Step 1~76 Million Years Ago An underwater current created fan-shaped deposits of sand, mud, and gravel on the ocean floor. For millions of years these deposits, called alluvial fans, compacted and layered one on top of another. These layers are the ground you are walking on today! Step 2~2 Million Years Ago The Earth’s crust is made of plates fractured with fault lines. These faults move (plate tectonics) and cause geologic events such as earthquakes. Plates sometimes bunch up against each other which can create new formations. Bunching in this region of San Diego forced the bottom of the ocean upwards and above the surface, exposing the sediment from the alluvial fan. This movement created the Point Loma Peninsula. Step 3–Current Day Forces are still at work on the peninsula! Waves carve the sandstone shore and erode the cliffs, and water moves sand toward the beach. Wind forms dunes and beach ridges on the top of sea cliffs. Plate tectonics are still forcing the peninsula to rise about 5 inches every 1,000 years! Lindavista Fm. Point Loma Fm. Cabrillo Fm. Bay Point Fm. The Point Loma peninsula consists of four major formations that were created in different ways. The Point Loma and Cabrillo formations represent layers from different parts of the alluvial fan. The Bay Point Fm. and the Linda Vista Fm. however, are the products of continuous plate tectonic movement and erosion caused by waves. Alluvial Fan Deposits Sandstone Alluvial fans are blankets of gravity-deposited sediment under the ocean. If we drained the ocean, the alluvial fan that created the Point Loma Peninsula might look something like this. Sandstone is made of layers of sediment deposited by alluvial fans and compressed over time to make stone. Because it’s made of sand it erodes (breaks away) easily – be careful climbing around the cliffs! Fissure (Cracks) Marker/Bolt Cracks such as these were created when the peninsula was uplifted and tilted by plate tectonics. These metal bolts are used in biological surveys. The bolts enable scientists to return to the same location year after year for long-term monitoring programs. Inoceramid Concretion Concretions are geologic features that are created much like a pearl: they start with seed material, such as a shell, then layers of calcium carbonate build around it, continuing to layer and harden over time. This true fossil is that of a large, thin bivalve (2-shelled animal) called an Inoceramid. These relatives of modern-day clams went extinct near the end of the Cretaceous period, around 65 million years ago. Trace Fossils Trace fossils are fossilized tunnels that were made by animals as they searched for food in the sand. The left trace fossil was created by a relative of modern-day sea urchins, the right two trace fossils were created by relatives of modern-day shrimp.

also available

National Parks
USFS NW