"Cedar Breaks Amphitheater in Summer" by NPS Photo , public domain

Cedar Breaks

National Monument - Utah

Cedar Breaks National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located in the U.S. state of Utah near Cedar City. Cedar Breaks is a natural amphitheater, stretching across 3 miles, with a depth of over 2,000 feet.


Official visitor map of Cedar Breaks National Monument (NM) in Utah. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Cedar Breaks - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Cedar Breaks National Monument (NM) in Utah. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of popular Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) trails on the Markagunt Plateau and the Dixie National Forest in Utah. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Markagunt - OHV Trails

Map of popular Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) trails on the Markagunt Plateau and the Dixie National Forest in Utah. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Travel Map (MVTM) of Cedar City Valley Ranger District in Dixie National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Dixie MVTM - Cedar City 2019

Motor Vehicle Travel Map (MVTM) of Cedar City Valley Ranger District in Dixie National Forest (NF). Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Cedar City Ranger District in Dixie National Forest (NF) in Utah. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).,Dixie MVUM - Cedar City 2021

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Cedar City Ranger District in Dixie National Forest (NF) in Utah. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).,

https://www.nps.gov/cebr https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cedar_Breaks_National_Monument Cedar Breaks National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located in the U.S. state of Utah near Cedar City. Cedar Breaks is a natural amphitheater, stretching across 3 miles, with a depth of over 2,000 feet. Crowning the grand staircase, Cedar Breaks sits at over 10,000 feet and looks down into a half-mile deep geologic amphitheater. Come wander among timeless bristlecone pines, stand in lush meadows of wildflower, ponder crystal-clear night skies and experience the richness of our subalpine forest. Cedar Breaks National Monument is located east of Cedar City, Utah, just a short drive from Interstate 15. The park is centrally located between Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks. For detailed driving directions, please visit our Directions & Transportation page by clicking the green button below. Cedar Breaks Visitor Contact Station Coming Soon! The National Park Service and Zion Forever Project are working with partners and supporters to enhance the view at Cedar Breaks National Monument and bring a new home for visitors at the park. The facility will serve the needs of the visitors in an efficient and sustainable way through modest design limiting the impact on the park’s dramatic landscape. Construction is expected to last two years. For more information about the visitor contact station, please visit www.cedarbreaks.org. The Cedar Breaks Visitor Contact Station will be centrally located in the national monument at the primary overlook. The visitor contact station will be a short walk from the Point Supreme parking lot and overlook. Point Supreme Campground Point Supreme Campground is surrounded by meadows of wildflowers in the summer! At 10,000 feet elevation, it is a comfortable place to camp during the hotter summer months. The Point Supreme Campground has 25 campsites and accommodates both tents and RVs. Camping is available from mid-June to mid-September. Note that the campground opening and closing dates may be vary & are subject to favorable weather. Camping Fee 24.00 This fee covers one night of camping for up to 8 people per site. Campers are required to pay the park entrance fee at the Point Supreme fee station. Senior or Access Pass Camping Fee 12.00 This fee covers one night of camping for up to 8 people per site. Must present a senior pass or access pass when reserving the site. Tent at Campground Red tent overlooking green meadow. Campsites overlook meadows of blooming flowers during the summer months. Meadow of Flowers Meadow of wildflowers. An explosion of wildflowers surrounds the Point Supreme Campground throughout the summer months. Restroom Facility Restroom building at Point Supreme Campground Restroom Building Campsite Campsite at Point Supreme Example of a campsite at the Point Supreme campground. Cedar Breaks Amphitheater The ground falls away from the viewer creating brilliant rock formations of pink, red, and orange. Cedar Breaks Amphitheater Cedar Breaks Information Center A small log cabin with a stone chimney on one side. This log cabin built in 1937 housing the information center and park store. Wildflowers Yellow sunflowers and orange paint-brush wildflowers in a meadow. Cedar Breaks is famous for wildflowers blooming throughout the summer! Bristle-cone Pine Tree Ancient Bristle-cone pine with sun shining through the branches. Ancient Bristle-cone pines grow along the rim at Cedar Breaks National Monument. Bluebells on the Rim Bluebell flowers growing on the rim of the Cedar Breaks Amphitheater. Bluebell flowers growing on the rim. The Civilian Conservation Corps As part of the New Deal Program, to help lift the United States out of the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1933. The CCC or C’s as it was sometimes known, allowed single men between the ages of 18 and 25 to enlist in work programs to improve America’s public lands, forests, and parks. CCC men lined up in front of a building and looking at a flag pole with an american flag. California Condor Species description of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). An adult condor with the wing tag label number 80 stands over a juvenile condor. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. erosional features and rock strata The Civilian Conservation Corps at Cedar Breaks In 1934, on July 4th, the CCC made their first appearance at Cedar Breaks, “acting as traffic directors, assisting in getting many of the stalled cars up to the Breaks and serving a barbecue to some 3,000 people” at the official dedication ceremony and celebration for the new national monument. That, of course was just the beginning of the Cs’ involvement at Cedar Breaks National Monument. Civilian Conservation Corps crew at Cedar Breaks Arches National Park’s Free-Flowing Waters Visitors to Arches National Park experience natural free-flowing waters and have water to quench their thirst, thanks to an agreement between the National Park Service and the State of Utah. The sun sits just below the horizon behind Delicate Arch. Chessman Canyon Fire Provided Resource Benefit at Cedar Breaks National Monument Chessman Canyon Fire Provided Resource Benefit at Cedar Breaks National Monument Smoke coming off of Cedar Breaks National Monument's Chessman Canyon Fire Cedar Breaks National Monument Designated as an International Dark Sky Park Cedar Breaks National Monument and the International Dark Sky Association (IDA) are excited to announce the designation of Cedar Breaks as an International Dark Sky Park. This distinction recognizes Cedar Breaks as a sanctuary of natural darkness and for the opportunity it provides visitors to enjoy the night sky. A park visitor enjoys the view to the stars at Cedar Breaks National Monument Survival of the Southern Paiute The Paiutes have overcome insurmountable challenges and devastation as a people. Their long struggle to preserve the Paiute way and flourish continues. But they will not give up. Instead, they celebrate their achievements, promising that while “[t]he struggle is long and difficult… the Paiute will survive.” Native American man in ceremonial dress with orange cliffs in the background. California Condor Reintroduction & Recovery A tagged California condor flies free. NPS Photo/ Don Sutherland A wing-tagged California condor flying in the blue sky. Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. About The Southern Paiute “Paa” ute means water ute, and explains the Southern Paiute preference for living near water sources. The Spanish explorer Escalante kept detailed journals of his travels in the Southwest and made notes concerning Southern Paiute horticulture, writing in 1776, that there were “well dug irrigation ditches” being used to water small fields of corn, pumpkins, squash, and sunflowers. Southern Paiute boy by wickiup shelter. SW CA Condor Update - 2017-01 (January) From January 2017: An update from Grand Canyon National Park on the California Condor recovery program for the Arizona/ Utah population. A condor flying wild and free. World CA Condor Update - 2018 An update on the world California Condor population for 2018. A close-up of the pink bald head of a California condor with a ruffle of black feathers. World CA Condor Update - 2016 Population Status An update on the world California Condor population for 2016. A close up of the pink bald head of a California condor with a ruffle of black feathers. World CA Condor Update - 2017 An update on the world California Condor population for 2017. A close-up of the pink bald head of a California condor with a ruffle of black feathers. SW CA Condor Update – 2020-02 An update on the Southwest California Condor Meta-Population for 2019 from Grand Canyon National Park (updated February 2020). A condor flying wild and free. What We’re Learning and Why it Matters: Long-Term Monitoring on the Northern Colorado Plateau Knowing which key natural resources are found in the national parks, and whether they're stable or changing, helps decisionmakers make sound choices. The Northern Colorado Plateau Network is building that knowledge. After more than ten years of monitoring, we've learned a lot about park ecosystems, how they're changing, and what they may look like in the days to come. Find out what we’ve learned and how it’s being used to help managers plan for the future. Man stands in a stream, looking down at a handheld gauge. Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Paleogene Period—66.0 to 23.0 MYA Colorful Paleogene rocks are exposed in the hoodoos of Bryce Canyon National Park and the badlands of Badlands and Theodore Roosevelt national parks. Extraordinary Paleogene fossils are found in Fossil Butte and John Day Fossil Beds national monuments, among other parks. fossil skull with teeth expsoed Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Monitoring From Space: Using Satellite Imagery to Measure Landscape Conditions on the Ground Scientists from the Northern Colorado Plateau Network travel thousands of miles each year to collect data on plants, soils, and water across network parks. But it would be impossible to cover every square inch of the Northern Colorado Plateau with boots on the ground. Instead, we simultaneously monitor the parks with boots in space—satellite data that provide information at a much broader scale. Satellite and Earth in space
Cedar Breaks National Monument National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Offcial Newspaper 2019 Visitor Guide Cedar Breaks Amphitheater NPS Photo by Nancy Julian Contact Information What to Do Today? Cedar Breaks National Monument Information Center (Late May - Mid October) (435) 586 - 0787 Get started with this guide to Cedar Breaks National Monument! Here you will fnd information and events that are not found on our park map. While here, please enjoy and respect the plants, animals and other people in this park. If we all do our part, those who follow will experience the same beautiful place for generations to come! E-mail: cedarbreaksinfo@nps.gov Mailing Address & Administrative Offce (Year-round) Cedar Breaks National Monument 2390 West Highway 56, Suite #11 Cedar City, Utah 84720 (435) 586 - 9451 Website: www.nps.gov/cebr Emergencies Dial 911, then contact a ranger at the Fee Station or Information Center. Cell phone reception is not reliable in the monument or surrounding area. Anybody Can Become a Junior Ranger! To earn your badge follow these three steps: 1. Pick up a free junior ranger workbook at the Information or Discovery Center. 2. Complete the activities required for your age. 3. Bring your completed workbook to the Information Center or Family Discovery Center to get your badge! Tag Your Memories! Get your posts shared on Cedar Breaks’ social media feeds! Facebook & Instagram: @CedarBreaksNationalMonument Hours of Operation When visiting after hours, please pay entrance fees at the Honor Fee kiosk behind the Fee Station. Service Time Open Season Information Center 9 AM - 6 PM 7 Days a Week Late May - Mid Oct. Family Discovery Center 10 AM - 12 PM 1 PM - 3 PM Wed - Sunday Late June - Mid Aug. Restrooms 24 Hours a Day 7 Days a Week Late May - Mid Oct. Campground 24 Hours a Day 7 Days a Week Mid June - Late Sept. (Dependent on weather) Scenic Drive 148 24 Hours a Day 7 Days a Week Late May - Mid Oct. (Dependent on weather) This publication and more are brought to you by the Zion National Park Forever Project, Cedar Breaks’ offcial nonproft partner. Learn more at: Mountain Bluebird w w w. z i o n p a r k . o r g Welcome 1 Trails, Kids & Camping Campground Trail 1 Mile (1.6 Km) Round Trip. This easy trail connects Point Supreme Campground and the Information Center. Begin by walking the Sunset Trail from the Information Center and crossing Hwy 148. The Campground Trail is a dirt path leaving the paved Sunset Trail, descending through meadows and majestic stands of subalpine fr, Engelmann spruce and quaking aspen before arriving at Point Supreme Campground. Although the Campground Trail is short, it allows hikers to experience all three of the monument’s habitats: the amphitheater, spruce-fr-aspen forest and meadows. For this reason, the Campground Trail is a favorite for wildfower enthusiasts and bird watchers. Sunset Trail Alpine Pond Trail Ramparts Trail 2 Miles (3.2 Km) Round Trip. 4 Miles (6.4 Km) Round Trip. This easy wheelchair-accessible paved trail leads visitors past the Point Supreme picnic area to the Sunset Overlook. This easy 2-mile double-loop trail meanders through forests and meadows. Trailheads are located at Chessmen Ridge Overlook and at the north Alpine Pond parking area. This strenuous out-and-back hike along the rim of the amphitheater features sweeping views of the monument’s spectacular geology. 2 Miles (3.2 Km) Round Trip. This trail is built to ofer all ages and abilities the opportunity to enjoy a walk in the woods. Because it was built to avoid steep grades, this trail provides gentle slopes and ofers many rest areas for children, the elderly, those using mobility devices and those just wanting to avoid mud and dirt. The trail meanders through the forest and near the amphitheater rim. It also traverses natural meadows, making it an ideal hike to see wildlife as well as wildfowers. The views seen from the Sunset Overlook are stunning , especially at sunset! At both ends, the path splits into a fat upper route that weaves in and out of subalpine meadows and a lower route that descends into a spruce-fr forest. Both feature the Alpine Pond, a lush spring-fed water source that supports many plants and animals. A series of short switchbacks connect the upper and lower routes at the pond. The distance from either trailhead to the pond is a half mile. The Alpine Pond Trail provides a unique opportunity for self-guided learning. A numbered trail guide is available for purchase at the Information Center and at both trailheads. The trailhead is located at the south end of the Information Center parking lot. The trail climbs and descends for one mile to Spectra Point. Hikers may then continue down a short series of switchbacks before leveling out over the next mile to Ramparts Overlook. The Ramparts Trail provides a unique perspective of high-elevation life. Lowgrowing cushion plants cling to the exposed limestone, playf
Cedar Breaks National Monument National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Winter Visitor Guide Are you ready to discover a whole new park? Each winter Cedar Breaks transforms into a wonderland many miss out on due to the myth that the park “closes” during the colder months of the year. Trees and meadows become cloaked in a protective layer of snow revealing tracks of fox, coyote, weasels, predatory birds, and other yearlong residents. What might you discover on a snowy path? Trail Distances & Key Routes (one way) Miles A to High Mountain 3 A to B - North Route 3.5 A to B - South Route 1 B to C 10.5 C to D 4.5 C to Hwy 14 2 D to Hwy 14 0.25 Rattlesnake / North Rim Loop Trail 1.5 Trail Key: Snowmobile Complex Snowmobile travel restricted to this path High Mountain Trail Brian Head Trail Cedar Breaks Trail Duck Creek Trail Sage Valley Trail Ski & Snowshoe Rattlesnake / North Rim Loop Trail IN CASE OF EMERGENCY Call 911 Rules for Winter Recreation in Cedar Breaks • • Snowmobiles are ONLY permitted on marked routes. Leave no trace by using restrooms before visiting and packing out all sanitary waste and trash. • Pets must be kept under control at all times. • Avoid scaring wildlife. • Maintain separate snowshoe and ski trails whenever possible. • Snowmobilers must ride single file and keep to the right. • When stopping, pull as far right and off the trail as possible. • Snowmobilers must yield the right-of-way to skiers, snowshoers and those passing or traveling uphill. • Winter camping is allowed above the rim of the breaks, except within 100 yards of any park road or facility. (It is advised to call park headquarters before staying overnight in the park. Cedar Breaks National Monument National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Tips for Safe Winter Recreation • There are no restrooms in the monument in the winter. Please use restrooms in Brian Head or Duck Creek before visiting. • GPS, flashlight, waterproof matches, a pocketknife, and whistle may come in handy in the case of emergency. • Cedar Breaks sits at over 10,000 feet (3,000 meters) in elevation! Snowshoeing & skiing at this altitude can be much more physically challenging and cold. Take your time, drink plenty of water, remember to snack and take lots of breaks. • Cellphone service is unreliable in Cedar Breaks and the surrounding area. • Wear sunglasses and apply sunscreen to protect against strong UV rays. • The park does not do avalanche control. Never assume trails are free of avalanche hazards, especially when recreating along the amphitheaters rim. • • • Cedar Breaks National Monument E-mail: cedarbreaksinfo@nps.gov Website: www.nps.gov/cebr Falling trees are an ever-present hazard. Be extra careful when it is windy or after fresh snowfall. Hypothermia can be fatal. Be sure to wear non-cotton wicking layers closest to your skin, an insulating layer (including hat, and gloves), and a shell or wind proof layer on top. Emergencies Dial 911 Cell phone reception is not reliable in the monument or surrounding area. Mailing Address & Administrative Office Cedar Breaks National Monument 2390 West Highway 56, Suite #11 Cedar City, Utah 84720 (435) 586 - 9451 Sturdy waterproof footwear and wool socks are essential to preventing frostbite and providing comfort. Carry at least two liters of water per-person and plenty of high-energy food. Ski & Snowshoe Parking: • Social Media Facebook & Instagram @CedarBreaksNationalMonument Trailers are not allowed to park at the junction of 143 & 148 due to limited space. The best way to access park overlooks is from the north entrance through Brian Head Town. During and after heavy snowstorms 143 could be temporarily inaccessible. • ch • Park diagonal like this uit Please carpool and park on an angle to the road. ang • oP 3t Drive on Highway 143 through Brian Head to the junction of 143 & 148. 14 • ad n Snow tires and/or chains are needed to drive on this road. 3 14 to ia Br He Don’t’ park like this 148 To Cedar Bre aks NM (Snowed over du ring winter.) • Contact Information Past Open and Close Dates for State Route 148 Closing & opening of State Route 148 usually occurs mid-November & late May but predicting exact dates is not possible due to unpredictable snow storms. See the chart below for recent years road opening and closure dates. Season 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 SR-148 Open Date June 17 May 25 May 23 May 8 May 21 May 27 May 26 May 15 SR-148 Closure Date Oct 21 Dec 14 Nov 25 Dec 11 Nov 18 Nov 27 Jan 10 (2018) Nov 30
Cedar Breaks National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cedar Breaks National Monument Junior Ranger Activities Cedar Breaks Junior Ranger Program Funded by Zion Natural History Association Cedar Breaks National Monument 2390 West Highway 56, Suite 11 Cedar City, UT 84720-4151 (435) 586-9451 www.nps.gov/cebr EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Circle your age group above and check off the activities you have completed below. Treasure Hunt Bingo Amazing Bristlecones That’s the Breaks Crossword Weather Wonders Geologist’s Notebook Lightning Dot- to- Dot Wildflower Starry Night Wild for Wildlife If I Were Superintendent Spruce, Fir, or Pine? Ranger Activities ____________________ Junior Ranger _____________________ Officiating Ranger 13 and older, do all activities Cedar Breaks National Monument 10- 12 do 6 activities at 8- 9 do 5 activities Junior Ranger 5- 7 do 4 activities Has earned the title of To become a Cedar Breaks Junior Ranger, if you are between the ages of: _________________________ Activities This certifies that Junior Rangers have a very important job. They help the park by setting a good example for other visitors. To be a Junior Ranger, you need to follow the park rules by staying on the trails, not picking wildflowers, and not feeding wildlife. This protects the park and shows others how to enjoy parks without damaging them. It’s also important for Junior Rangers to learn about the park’s geology, plants, wildlife, and weather. Once you know more about something you understand better how to take care of it. Junior Ranger Certificate So You Want to be a Junior Ranger? Congratulations Ranger! Now that you’ve completed your activity packet, you’re ready to assume your duties as a Junior Ranger. The most important part of your mission is to be a good example to others by knowing and obeying the rules at the parks you visit. You can also show your badge to your friends at home and tell them what you learned at Cedar Breaks. The last thing you can do is to visit more National Parks and have fun learning what makes each of them special. Remember to ask about Junior Ranger programs whenever you visit a National Park. Treasure Hunt Bingo For this activity, you will need to keep your eyes and ears open. When you find one of the items listed below, put an “X” on it. When you get five X’s in a row (can be side- ways, up and down, or diagonal), you have finished the activity. Be sure to put an X on all that you see or hear. Try to find as many as you can even if they are not in a row. R.V. or Arch or Cave motorhome Junior Ranger Pledge I promise: Someone smiling 9 I will have fun exploring the national parks. 9 I will not feed wildlife, pick plants, or disturb any living thing in the national parks. Ground Squirrel Indian Paintbrush Gooseberry bush Heard a bird call Subalpine fir tree Chipmunk I will be a good example to others and share what I learn both in the national parks and at home. A Piece of litter Aspen Tree Deer 16 A Bird Park Ranger Cloud Yellowbellied marmot Red Rocks A funny hat Brian Head Peak Hoo- Doos Someone taking a picture Colorado columbine Engelmann spruce tree U.S. Flag 9 Lava rocks 1 That’s the Breaks Cedar Breaks became a National Monument because of its beautiful rocks. Learn more about the geology of Cedar Breaks by completing this crossword puzzle. Most of the answers can be found in the visitor center. Down 1. Water _______ in cracks, breaking the rock apart. 2. Another name for iron oxide. 3. What fossil is sometimes found at Cedar Breaks? 4. The porous, black rocks are from ______ flows. 5. Cliff edges at Cedar Breaks erode one foot every ________ years. 6. What makes some rock layers purple? 7. The sediments that formed these rocks were deposited in a ____ bed. 8. What color does limonite stain a rock? 9. A tall, thin spire of rock is called a __________. 10. Iron oxide turns rocks what color? 11. The opposite of out. Across 1. A break in the earth’s surface along which motion has occurred. 5. A long, thin ridge of rock is called a ____. 12. The kind of rock that forms when particles fall out of air or water into broad, flat layers which then harden over time. 13. Holes in long, thin ridges of rock. 14. The rocks at Cedar Breaks are approximately _____ million years old. 15. The study of rocks. 16. The rocks on top of Brian Head Peak are made of_____. 17. The white cliff near the top of the breaks is made of ____________. 18. The process that wears away rock over time. Ranger Activities Do ONE of the following activities: (1) Attend a Ranger Program The Rangers at Cedar Breaks give Geology Talks, Campfire Programs and Guided Walks to help Visitors learn about the National Monument. Attend a Ranger Program and see what you find out! I attended the following program:__________________________ Ranger’s signature and date:_______________________________ (2) Interview a Park Ranger Park Rangers have a variet
Cedar Breaks National Monument National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Geology Rocks Reveal Change The rocks of Cedar Breaks National Monument reveal the powerful forces of geologic change that have created the canvas upon which today’s remarkable landscape is painted. Standing at the rim of Cedar Breaks amphitheater, you gaze into a high-altitude wonderland of colorful cliffs and pinnacles. Yet the rocks tell stories of ancient seas, violent volcanoes, and a time when a visitor to Cedar Breaks would have found themselves afloat in a body of water the size of modern-day Lake Erie. 2. Lake Claron: Utah’s First Great Lake 1. Ancient Mountains & Seas Hidden in the forested Ashdown Gorge lie the oldest rocks in the monument, relics from a time when Cedar Breaks would have been beach front property! In the late-Cretaceous period (~90 million years ago), southwestern Utah was a shoreline. To the east was a shallow sea. A bygone mountain range towered to the west. Caught in-between, the area was buried in thousands of feet of sediment shed from the disintegrating mountains and deposited along coastal rivers, lakes, and swamps. These sediments became the fossil-rich brown sandstones and shales of the Straight Cliffs and Wahweap Formations, which are very prominent on the drive to Cedar City via Highway 14. 1. Late-Cretaceous: 90 million years ago By the end of the Cretaceous, the sea had retreated and the Rocky Mountains were beginning to rise to the east. Now surrounded by mountains on all sides, Southwest Utah became a closed basin home to ancient Lake Claron. By about 60 million years ago, streams were bringing sand, silt and mud into Lake Claron, where it settled to the lake bottom. Small organisms like snails fed in the muddy ooze, adding their calcareous skeletons to the detritus upon their death. Trace amounts of iron in the sediment would combine with oxygen and water, “rusting” many of the layers into warm red, orange, and pink hues. These processes continued for millions of years, gradually filling the basin. During wet periods, the lake level would rise. During dry periods, the lake level would fall. Ancient soils preserved between the rock layers suggest that at times the lake would dry up entirely. This constantly (but gradually) changing climate over ~25 million years created the many intricate and vibrantly colored layers of the Claron Formation, the most prominent rock layer at Cedar Breaks and nearby Bryce Canyon. 2. Eocene: 50 million years ago 3. An Explosive Landscape A suite of volcanic rocks above the rim of the amphitheater point to the arrival of violent and turbulent times, just as the days of the tranquil Lake Claron were coming to a close about 35 million years ago. Soft grey rock near North View and on the lower slopes of Brian Head Peak belongs to the Brian Head Formation. This layer contains material erupted from volcanoes to the west near the Utah/Nevada border (more than 60 miles away) as well as sediment that settled to the bottom of the dwindling lake. These volcanic eruptions, among the largest in Earth’s history, sent pyroclastic flows (hot clouds of ash, volcanic gasses, and molten rock fragments) racing across the landscape. These flows form a volcanic rock called tuff; good examples are the Leach Canyon and Isom Formations found near the summit of Brian Head Peak. 3. Early Miocene: 20 million years ago Finishing the Masterpiece The rocks of Cedar Breaks may provide the canvas and palette, but a talented artist is still required to paint a masterpiece. At Cedar Breaks, the artists are weathering (the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks to produce sediment), and erosion (the transport of sediment by wind or water). Without the majestic handiwork of these fundamental geologic processes, Cedar Breaks would be a featureless alpine plateau, instead of a stunning natural wonder visited by people from around the world. Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range province of western Utah and Nevada. The Hurricane Fault divides the two regions in SW Utah. A fault is a fracture in the Earth’s crust along which movement occurs, creating earthquakes. For the past 10 million years, earthquakes along the Hurricane Fault have been lowering land to the west, forming the level valley far below. At the same time, the east side of the fault has moved upward, elevating Cedar Breaks and the Markagunt Plateau to their lofty heights. This process continues today. Small earthquakes are common along the Hurricane Fault. Geologic sleuth work indicates that larger quakes occur periodically. It is not a matter of if, but rather when, the Hurricane Fault will rupture again. The active fault poses a significant seismic hazard to cities and towns in southwestern Utah. Weathering & Erosion: Natures Hammer & Chisel While the rocks at Cedar Breaks are ancient, the landscape is still in its infancy and in a constant state of change. Prior to the uplift of the Markagunt Plateau, the r
Cedar Breaks National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cedar Breaks National Monument Cedar City, Utah Common Wildflowers of Cedar Breaks Marsh Marigold In early Spring you’ll find this white flower in wet meadows and along streams Indian Paintbrush This orange to red flower blooms all summer in the forests and meadows. Lupine May through July, lupine blooms white to light purple throughout the forests and meadows. Arrowleaf Balsamroot Yellow Arrowleaf Balsamroot flowers in dry forest openings. Springbeauty Tiny and pink, Springbeauty is one of the first flowers to blossom as the snow melts. Phlox Low-growing cushion phlox can be found in early Spring on otherwise bare alpine slopes. Its color ranges from white to pale lavender. Larkspur Deep purple Larkspur grows in midsummer along streams and in wet meadows. The flower gets its name for the ”spur” on the back of each bloom. Colorado Columbine Fireweed Magenta fireweed grows where the ground has been disturbed by fire or human activities. Columbine is usually vibrant blue with white center petals. At Cedar Breaks, however, the flowers tend to be light lavender to white. Flax Fields of Flax turn Chessman meadow bright blue in early summer. Cinquefoil Aspen Bluebell Named for its distinctive five leaves, yellow Cinquefoil blooms in midsummer meadows. One of the park’s most common flowers, Bluebells bloom for most of the summer at Cedar Breaks. Penstemon Elkweed One of the most dramatic plants in the park, Elkweed produces basal leaves one year and a tall stalk of greenish-white flowers the next. These flowers are identified by their blue to purple color and the five lobes of their tubular flowers. Ligusticum Also called Osha or Wild Parsley,this plant often grows three feet high; its white flowers form umbrella-shaped clusters. Native Americans use the roots to treat many illnesses. Aster One of the last flowers still blooming in September, palepurple Aster is found in open sunny spaces. Little Sunflower A late summer flower, the sunflower turns August meadows gold. Please enjoy the wildflowers of Cedar Breaks, but remember that picking flowers (or removing any object) from National Parks and Monuments is not permitted. In order for their to be a brilliant display of wildflowers next year, this year’s wildflowers need to be able to go to seed. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA
Cedar Breaks National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cedar Breaks National Monument Cedar City, Utah Historic Sites and Structures The First Visitors People have been visiting the Cedar Breaks area for at least 9,000 years. Seasonal campsites left by Desert Archaic people indicate that they came to hunt and to collect chert on the lower slopes of Brian Head Peak. Chert can easily be fashioned into arrowheads and other tools; archeological evidence suggests that the Desert Archaic people collected it primarily for use as a trade item. Since that time, visitors to the area have enjoyed its resources in a variety of ways. Minnie’s Mansion European Americans had settled below Brian Head Peak by 1868. Because most of the settlers were of Irish descent, the area became known as “Little Ireland. ” Like the Desert Archaic people before them, their habitation of the high plateau was seasonal: most families owned small herds of dairy cattle which they moved up to the mountains for summer pasture. By 1921, the Adams Family had built a lodge, known as “Minnie’s Mansion, ” in Cedar Breaks Lodge what is now the northern section of the Monument. The Mansion offered dining, lodging, and dancing to area residents. Old timers recall that people came from as far away as Nevada to attend Utah Pioneer Day celebrations on July 24. Minnie’s Mansion was short-lived—the summer seasons weren’t long enough to turn a profit, and the establishment closed within five years. Today only traces of its foundations can be found. By the time Minnie’s Mansion ceased operation, a new establishment had opened on the south rim of Cedar Breaks: Cedar Breaks Lodge. Built in 1924, the lodge was owned by the Utah Parks Company, a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Railroad. The railroad hoped to attract rail passengers by developing a “loop tour” starting in Cedar City and connecting Zion, Bryce, the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, and Cedar Breaks. Breaks for dinner before heading back to the “Dudes, ” as the tourists were known, train depot in Cedar City. A dollar twentytraveled in small tour buses driven by “gearfive bought a chicken dinner, complete with jammers. ” mashed potatoes, gravy, homemade bread and dessert. The Lodge seated 120 people—some All theUtah Parks Company lodges were designed by Gilbert Stanley Underwood, who nights the tables were set three times to accomodate tour buses and locals who had would later design the famous Awahnee come up to spend the evening. Lodge at Yosemite. Cedar Breaks was the smallest of the lodges. Utah Parks tour buses stopped at Cedar The Civilian Conservation Corps at Cedar Breaks On August 22nd, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared Cedar Breaks a National Monument. Once the Monument was established, however, it still had to be developed. Fortunately, 1933 also saw the establishment of the Civilian Conservation Corps, otherwise known as the CCC. This program was designed to provide work for unemployed men during the Great Depression. Enrollees were young men between the ages of 18 and 25 whose families were on federal relief. They agreed to send $25 of their $30 monthly paycheck home to support their families. In addition, they received room, board, clothing, and technical training. In 1937 a detail of 27 men from the Zion CCC camp were detailed to Cedar Breaks to begin construction of a Visitor Center and Ranger Cabin. Visitor Center under construction, 1937 These structures exhibit classic National Park Service rustic architecture. The log cabin style recalls America’s pioneer heritage. The buildings are also designed to appear as if they are a natural part of the environment. The massive fireplaces and sweeping cut of the log ends make the buildings appear to rise out of the earth organically. Both buildings are on the national register of historic places. “We got hailed on, we got snowed on, but we had a lot of fun doing the job. ” Henry A Bott, Jr., CCC worker at Cedar Breaks The Visitor Center Today “What upset me most in my life, really, was to go up there one time and find that beautiful old lodge, Cedar Breaks Lodge, was torn down, cleaned up, and hauled away. So many of us didn’t know it was happening at all. ” Ray Knell Former “gear-jammer” Utah Parks Company The End of an Era After World War II, the increase in automobile travel led to a decline in rail travel. Never profitable in themselves, the lodges became a drain on UP resources. The Utah Parks company donated the lodges to the National Park Service in 1970. It was determined that Cedar Breaks Lodge was uneconomical to maintain, and it was torn down in 1972. Further Reading Stanley Cohen. The Tree Army: A Pictoral History of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Pictoral Histories Publishing Co., 1993. Christine Barnes. Great Lodges of the National Parks. WW West Inc. , 2002. Albert A. Good. Park and Recreation Structures. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. ---. Patterns from the Golden A
Cedar Breaks National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cedar Breaks National Monument Cedar City, Utah Lightning Strikes Lightning strikes the earth as often as 2,000 times an hour in the United States. Every year an average of 80 Americans are killed by lightning. Most deaths occur in the late summer, a time when thunderclouds boil over the horizon and when many people vacation out-of-doors. Building Up a Charge On a hot summer day, heat rises from the ground and travels upward into the clear sky. As the air rises, it cools. Moisture in the air condenses, forming the ice crystals and water droplets that give shape to towering cumulonimbus clouds. These condensation particles cool and fall through the rising warmer air; they then warm and rise again as other particles fall, creating turbulent currents with speeds of up to 100 miles per hour. As the particles rush through the air, they lose or gain electrons, becoming positively or negatively charged. For reasons not clearly understood, the positively charged particles gather at the top of the cloud, while the negatively charged particles gather at the bottom. As the cloud moves over the earth, its negatively charged underside induces a positive charge in the ground. It is this charge you experience when your hair stands on end; you may also hear humming or sizzling, or experience a tingling sensation. Tall objects may glow with a blue light known as St. Elmo’s Fire. These are all signs that a lightning strike is immanent. The Thunder Rolls…. Lightning strikes the earth when the difference in charge between the cloud and the earth is great enough to overcome the insulating properties of the air. A “leader” of negatively charged electrons descends from the cloud. As it approaches the earth the leader increases the positive charge of the ground, drawing a “streamer” of A lightning bolt heatsupwards. the air The within its channel temperatures in excess 50,000 positively charged electrons two meet 20-30 feet to above the ground, creating an openof electric circuit F. aThe airelectrical explodes, creating a supersonic Ascurrent the wave slowsAlltoofthe and massive discharge of 10,000-20,000 amps.shock (Typicalwave. household is 15 amps.) this takes place less thanyou a second. speed of insound, hear thunder. Because sound travels at a rate of roughly 1,000 feet per second, you can determine your distance from the strike by counting the seconds between the lightning flash and when you hear thunder. Dividing by 5 gives the distance in miles. Although this may help you determine your margin of safety, it can be difficult to be sure that the thunder you hear originates from the lightning you saw. Remember too that while the sky may be blue directly above you, lightning can strike several miles from its source cloud. Whenever you hear thunder, you are close enough to be hit by lightning. Lightning danger persists as long as 30 minutes after you hear the last thunderclap. The Impact When lightning strikes a tree, the sap flashes into steam and the tree explodes. When lightning strikes a human being, the effects are less dramatic, but still potentially fatal. Victims of lightning strikes are almost always knocked unconscious; intense muscle contractions often throw them to the ground, causing broken bones or other injuries. Burns may be internal or external, light or severe. Most lightning deaths occur because the lightning interrupts the electrical impulse that regulates the heartbeat. The result is cardiac arrest. Avoiding the First Strike Lightning has been known to strike the same place, and even the same person, more than once. Your best option is to avoid the first strike. Outdoors Avoid exposed areas like mountaintops and scenic overlooks such as Point Supreme where you are the tallest object. Get out of and away from open water. Put down umbrellas, golf clubs, and other objects that may act as lightning rods. If at all possible, take shelter in an enclosed building or in an all-metal vehicle with the windows rolled up. Avoid contact with metal components of the vehicle. Convertibles, small sheds in open areas, and open-sided picnic shelters will not protect you from lightning. If you cannot reach a car or building, stay away from metal conductors such as fence lines, metal pipes, and rails which may carry lightning from a distance. Do not stand beneath natural lightning rods such as tall trees. In a forest, seek shelter in groves of shorter trees or in low-lying areas. Move to a low place, such as a valley, but be alert for the possibility of flooding. Caves and crevices may not be safe shelters—moisture in their walls and floors can conduct electricity. If no shelter is available, do not lie flat on the ground. Crouch with your feet together and your hands over your ears to minimize hearing damage from thunderclaps. Stay at least 15 feet away from other people so that lightning does not jump between you. Indoors During electrical storms
Cedar Breaks National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cedar Breaks National Monument Cedar City, UT Why Are The Trees Dying? What happened to the trees? As you travel through the spruce/fir forests on the Markagunt Plateau, you will see thousands of dead and dying Engelmann spruce trees. These trees have been killed by the spruce bark beetle. These tiny insects, like fire, act as a natural agent of forest renewal. Spruce Bark Beetle The spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) is native to the spruce/fir forests of the Markagunt Plateau, and to many other spruce forests throughout the world. Generally the beetle population is small (endemic) with beetles preferring downed trees in areas of windfall, logging, or other ground disturbing activities. These insects live most of their lives under the bark of spruce trees. Adults bore through the bark of the tree and lay Can the trees fight back? When a healthy spruce tree is attacked by beetles it has an effective natural defensesap. When a beetle bores into the bark, the tree begins to produce excess amounts of sap which is released into the holes bored by the insects. Normally, the sap kills the beetle and seals the wound. However, under epidemic conditions, when thousands of beetles infest a single How did the beetles reach such epidemic levels? Although the spruce bark beetle has always been a part of the spruce/fir forest ecosystem, the most recent research indicates that a fungal root disease may have affected the overall health of this forest, and made the trees more vulnerable to beetle attack. Under natural conditions, periodic fires burn through the forest and suppress growth of the fungus that causes this disease, so the trees remain healthier and can defend themselves against the beetles. A century of fire suppression has allowed the fungal root disease to progress, weakening the trees so they are less successful in their defense. Other forest conditions, such as drought and downed their eggs in the cambium layer, just under the bark. This is the layer that transports water and nutrients between the leaves and roots of the tree. As the eggs hatch, the beetle larvae feed on the cambium tissue, cutting off the supply of nutrients to the tree, and killing it. When the beetles reach adulthood, they emerge from the tree and fly off to infest other trees. tree, the tree’s defense mechanism is ineffective. The needles of a beetleinfested tree will turn light green to yellow after the first year of the infestation, then turn brown after the second year. The needles have usually dropped by the third year following the initial infestation. trees from windfall and logging activities have also contributed to the explosion of the beetle population that began in this area about 1992. Research also suggests that this spruce/fir forest renews itself on a cyclic basis every 300 to 500 years. The natural fire regime usually results in a “stand replacement” fire an average of every 330 years. With the suppression of fire, conditions have developed to allow a different agent of renewal-the spruce bark beetle-to assume its natural role in the cycle of forest succession. What now? Although large areas of beetle-killed trees located on the Dixie National Forest will be logged to salvage the timber for log home construction and other uses, largescale commercial timber harvests will not occur within the boundaries of Cedar BreaksNational Monument. The spruce bark beetle is a native insect and is part of the natural process of forest renewal. The National Park Service is mandated by Congress to preserve natural processes, as far as possible, within parks. Over time, as trees die and fall, the decaying logs provide habitat for many species of mammals, birds, and insects. As the wood decays, nutrients are released into the surrounding soil. The new openings created by falling trees allow sunlight to reach the forest floor, improving conditions for meadow grasses, forbs, and shrubs. These are then followed by “pioneer” tree species such as quaking aspen. As the aspen grow tall and shade the soil, conditions become favorable for the germination of conifer seeds, such as spruce and fir, and the cycle continues. Another tool of renewal in forests is fire. During a natural fire regime, with short intervals between fires, a wildland fire would normally consume brush and dead materials on forest floors leaving healthy standing trees alive. individual trees “torch, ” the fire spreads along the top of the trees moving rapidly in a crown fire. Crown fires are very difficult to combat, making them the most devastating of all wildland fires. The associated risks of a dead forest means the park management team must concern itself with the hazards of falling trees in developed recreational sites and unnatural levels of dead and downed wood that could fuel a wildfire. To address these concerns, a Hazard Fuel Management Project has been undertaken to reduce ha

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