"Aerial view" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Channel Islands

National Park - California

Channel Islands National Park comprises 5 ecologically rich islands off the Southern California coast. Anacapa Island has trails to a 1932 lighthouse and clifftop Inspiration Point. Santa Cruz Island’s many sea caves include the vast Painted Cave. Santa Rosa Island features rare Torrey pines. Thousands of seals gather at San Miguel Island’s Point Bennett. Southernmost Santa Barbara Island draws nesting seabirds.

maps

Official visitor map of Channel Islands National Park (NP) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Channel Islands - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Channel Islands National Park (NP) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/chis/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_Islands_National_Park Channel Islands National Park comprises 5 ecologically rich islands off the Southern California coast. Anacapa Island has trails to a 1932 lighthouse and clifftop Inspiration Point. Santa Cruz Island’s many sea caves include the vast Painted Cave. Santa Rosa Island features rare Torrey pines. Thousands of seals gather at San Miguel Island’s Point Bennett. Southernmost Santa Barbara Island draws nesting seabirds. Channel Islands National Park encompasses five remarkable islands and their ocean environment, preserving and protecting a wealth of natural and cultural resources. Isolation over thousands of years has created unique animals, plants, and archeological resources found nowhere else on Earth and helped preserve a place where visitors can experience coastal southern California as it once was. While the mainland visitor center in Ventura is readily accessible by car or public transportation, the islands are only accessible by park concessionaire boats and planes or private boat. Advanced planning is highly recommended. Channel Islands National Park Visitor Center The Robert J. Lagomarsino Visitor Center at Channel Islands National Park features a bookstore, a display of marine aquatic life, and exhibits featuring the unique character of each park island. Visitors also will enjoy the 25-minute park movie, “A Treasure in the Sea,” shown throughout the day in the auditorium (closed-caption film available upon request). The fully accessible visitor center is open 8:30 am until 5 pm daily. The visitor center is closed on Thanksgiving and December 25th. The visitor center is located in the Ventura Harbor in Ventura, California. Ventura is located 70 miles north of Los Angeles and 30 miles south of Santa Barbara. Plane, train, and bus service are all available to Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. Only train, bus, and private car transportation are available from Los Angeles and Santa Barbara to Ventura. Outdoors Santa Barbara Visitor Center The small Outdoors Santa Barbara Visitor Center not only has one of the best views of Santa Barbara, but also offers visitors information about Channel Islands National Park, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Santa Barbara Maritime Museum, and the City of Santa Barbara. Open 10 am until 5 pm. Closed every Wednesday, Christmas Day, New Year's Day,Thanksgiving Day, and the First Friday in August for Fiesta. Also, occasionally closes early for special events. The Outdoors Santa Barbara Visitor Center is located in the Santa Barbara Harbor in Santa Barbara, California. Santa Barbara is located 100 miles north of Los Angeles and 30 miles north of Ventura. Plane, train, and bus service are all available to Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. San Miguel Island Ranger and Visitor Contact Station The visitor contact and ranger station is only open when staff is present. This visitor center can only be visited by boat. Book your transportation with the park concessioner. Santa Barbara Island Visitor Center A small visitor center is located on the island. Features include displays on the natural and cultural resources of the island. This visitor center can only be visited by boat. Book your transportation with the park concessioner. Santa Rosa Island Visitor Contact Station The historic schoolhouse is now home to this small visitor contact station with exhibits on the ranching history of Santa Rosa Island. This visitor center can only be visited by boat. Book your transportation with the park concessioner. Scorpion Ranch Visitor Center on Santa Cruz Island The small visitor center resides in the historic Scorpion Ranch house which was constructed in 1886-1887. This visitor center can only be visited by boat. Book your transportation with the park concessioner. Visitor Center Anacapa Island Once the historic Coast Guard general services building (workshop and garage), this Mission Revival style building now serves as a small visitor center that features include displays on the natural and cultural resources of the island and the original lead-crystal Fresnel lens from the Anacapa Lighthouse. This visitor center can only be visited by boat. Book your transportation with the park concessioner. Anacapa Island Campground Primitive camping is available (seven sites; $15 per night per site; reservations required). Picnic table, food storage box, and pit toilet are provided. No water is available. Distance from landing to campground is one-half mile and includes a 157-stair climb. WARNING: Western gulls nest on Anacapa Island From April through mid-August. During this time, visitors will encounter seabird rookery conditions: guano, strong odor, constant noise, bird carcasses, and birds protecting their territory. Anacapa Island Campground Fee 15.00 Advanced camping reservations are required for all of the park's campgrounds. There are no entrance fees to visit the park. However, a reservation fee of $15.00 per site-per night is charged for camping on the islands. For six of the sites on Anacapa Island, this fee covers up to four people. For one of the sites, it covers up to six people. Reservations can be made by calling (877) 444-6777 or through http://www.recreation.gov/ Anacapa Island Campground by Tim Hauf Within a field of yellow flowers lie tents that overlook historic buildings and the ocean. Anacapa Island Campground San Miguel Island Campground Primitive camping is available (nine sites; $15 per night per site; reservations required). Wind shelter, picnic table, food storage box, and pit toilet are provided. No water is available. Distance from landing to campground is one mile up a steep canyon (400 ft. climb). San Miguel Island Campground Fee 15.00 Advanced camping reservations are required for all of the park's campgrounds. There are no entrance fees to visit the park. However, a reservation fee of $15.00 per site-per night is charged for camping on the islands. For San Miguel Island, this fee covers up to four people. Reservations can be made by calling (877) 444-6777 or through http://www.recreation.gov/. San Miguel Island Campground by Tim Hauf Camping tents in grassland overlooking a foggy ocean. San Miguel Island Campground Santa Barbara Island Campground Primitive camping is available (seven sites; $15 per night per site; reservations required). Picnic table, food storage box, and pit toilet are provided. No water is available. Distance from landing to campground is one-quarter mile and includes a steep climb. Santa Barbara Island Campground Fee 15.00 Advanced camping reservations are required for all of the park's campgrounds. There are no entrance fees to visit the park. However, a reservation fee of $15.00 per site-per night is charged for camping on the islands. For Santa Barbara Island, this fee covers up to four people. Reservations can be made by calling (877) 444-6777 or through http://www.recreation.gov/ Santa Barbara Island Campground by Tim Hauf Small tent perched on bluff overlooking the ocean. Santa Barbara Island Campground Santa Cruz Island Del Norte Backcountry Campground The Santa Cruz Island Del Norte Backcountry Campground is currently the only backcountry campground on Santa Cruz Island. The hike to the campground is 3.5 miles from Prisoners Harbor and 12 miles from Scorpion Anchorage. It has four primitive campsites (four persons per site) and users must camp within these designated sites.Reservations are required ($15 per night-per site). A picnic table, food storage box, and pit-style toilet are provided (campers must bring their own toilet paper). Santa Cruz Island Del Norte Backcountry Campground Fee 15.00 Advanced camping reservations are required for all of the park's campgrounds. There are no entrance fees to visit the park. However, a reservation fee of $15.00 per site-per night is charged for camping on the islands. For the Santa Cruz Island Del Norte Backcountry Campground, this fee covers up to four people. Reservations can be made by calling (877) 444-6777 or through http://www.recreation.gov/. Santa Cruz Island Del Norte Backcountry Campground by Tim Hauf Campground picnic table on green grass overlooking ocean, coastline, and blue sky with white clouds Santa Cruz Island Del Norte Backcountry Campground Santa Cruz Island Scorpion Canyon Campground Primitive camping is available (25 individual sites at $15 per night-per site and 6 group sites at $40 per night-per site; reservations required). Picnic table, food storage box, potable water, and pit toilet are provided. Distance from landing to campground is one-half mile. Santa Cruz Island Scorpion Canyon Campground Fee 15.00 Advanced camping reservations are required for all of the park's campgrounds. There are no entrance fees to visit the park. However, a reservation fee of $15.00 per site-per night is charged for the 25 individual sites at Santa Cruz Island Scorpion Canyon Campground. This this fee covers up to six people. For the six group sites the fee is $40.00 per site-per night and covers up to 15 people. Santa Cruz Island Scorpion Canyon Campground by Kathy deWet Oleson Blue camping tent in green grass with picnic table and tall trees Santa Cruz Island Scorpion Canyon Campground Santa Cruz Island Scorpion Canyon Campground by Tim Hauf White flowers on green grassy hillside overlooking campground in tall trees below. Santa Cruz Island Scorpion Canyon Campground Santa Rosa Island Backcountry Beach Camping Backcountry camping on Santa Rosa Island is currently limited to certain beaches between August 15th and December 31st. Hiking is along the beach and rugged, unsigned (and sometimes unmaintained) dirt roads. The closest beach for camping is 8 miles from the boat/plane drop-off location. Reservations are required ($10 per night-per site). No services are provided.This is primitive, dispersed, backcountry camping. Visitors must backpack to all locations and carry all of their own gear, food and water. Santa Rosa Island Backcountry Beach Camping Fee 10.00 Advanced camping reservations are required for all camping in the park. There are no entrance fees to visit the park. However, a reservation fee of $10.00 per site-per night is charged for backcounrty beach camping on Santa Rosa Island. This fee covers up to four people. Reservations can be made by calling (877) 444-6777 or through http://www.recreation.gov/. Santa Rosa Island Backcountry Beach Camping Island coastline with tan sand beach leading out to rolling hills in the distance with green water. Southeast Quadrant Beach Santa Rosa Island Campground Primitive camping is available (15 sites; $15 per night per site; reservations required). Wind shelter, picnic table, food storage box, toilet, and potable water are provided. Distance from landing to campground is 1.5 miles from the pier and .25 miles from the airstrip. Santa Rosa Island Campground Fee 15.00 Advanced camping reservations are required for all of the park's campgrounds. There are no entrance fees to visit the park. However, a reservation fee of $15.00 per site-per night is charged for camping on the islands. Santa Rosa Island Campground by Tim Hauf Campgrounnd wind shelters on dry, grassy terrace looking down canyon to blue ocean. Santa Rosa Island Campground Inspiration Point by Tim Hauf Steep, rugged ocean cliffs extending in an island chain. Inspiration Point, Anacapa Island: One of the most spectacular views in the park can be found from Inspiration Point. Looking to the west, one may see Middle and West Anacapa, with Santa Cruz Island in the distance. Arch Point by Tim Hauf Yellow flowers in foreground extending out along a rocky coastline to a natural arch. Arch Point, Santa Barbara Island: With winter rains, the coreopsis emerges from summer's dormancy with light green foliage and bright yellow daisy-like flowers Torrey Pines by Tim Hauf Pine tree high on a ridge overlooking a bay with blue water and white sand beach. Torrey Pines, Santa Rosa Island: Torrey pines occur naturally in only two locations throughout the world--on the cool, fog drenched northeastern slopes of Bechers Bay and just north of San Diego. Point Bennet by Tim Hauf Brown seals and sea lions on white sand beach with blue water and partly cloudy sky. Point Bennet, San Miguel Island: One of the greatest concentrations of wildlife in the world occurs on San Miguel with over 100,000 pinnipeds gathering to breed, pup, and rest. Island Fox by Tim Hauf Rust and grey colored fox in green grass. Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island: Thousands of years of isolation in a unique island environment has resulted in the development of the endemic island fox, a dwarf form of the mainland gray fox. 2019 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service Celebrate 50 years of the NPS Volunteer-in-Parks Program, and learn about the contributions of the volunteer recipients of the 2019 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service, for work performed in fiscal year 2019. a volunteer wearing a red life vest walks towards you with a smile, lifting a canoe paddle Shark Awareness Before heading into the ocean, review some safety information to further minimize the chances of a shark encounter. Shark and fish in the blue ocean waters Partnerships add a Charge to your Travel Plans The National Park Service, the National Park Foundation, BMW of North America, the U.S. Department of Energy, concessioners, and gateway communities have collaborated to provide new technologies for travel options to and around national parks. As part of this public-private partnership, BMW of North America, working through the National Park Foundation, donated and arranged for the installation of 100 electric vehicle (EV) charging ports in and around national parks. 2014 Recipients: George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service Discover the inspirational stories and amazing dedication of volunteers honored with the 2014 Hartzog Award. Volunteer Thelma Johnson standing with her cooking equipment Channel Islands Serve As Reptile Evolution Laboratory What do pygmy mammoths, Channel Islands foxes, and Santa Cruz Island gopher snakes have in common? Sure, they’re all vertebrates found at one time or another in Channel Islands National Park, but there’s something else. All are dwarf species with larger mainland counterparts. Recent research by Dr. Amanda Sparkman has found that they are not the only Channel Islands dwarfs. The park’s southern alligator lizards and western yellow-bellied racers are also dwarf species. Portrait of a southern alligator lizard climbing on a rock NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Channel Islands National Park, California Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] rocky coast Mountaintop Sea Cows? In August 2018, a paleontological crew excavated the first known sea cow fossil skeleton from Channel Islands National Park. It is estimated to be 20 to 25 million years old and is likely a new species. Two men outdoors on a sunny day, excavating a fossil Basking Sharks Sighted In Santa Barbara Channel NOAA has been actively trying to find and study basking sharks since 2009. They managed to find and tag four individuals in 2010-2011. Then, they found no more...until this year! No one is quite sure why, but this spring there were a slew of basking shark sightings in the Santa Barbara Channel. For example, in early May Channel Islands National Park staff spotted a school of 21(!) basking sharks. Underwater view of a huge shark with its enormous, seemingly toothless mouth wide open. Investigating Ocean Acidification in the Rocky Intertidal <em>July 21, 2016</em> - Cabrillo National Monument and Channel Islands National Park are concerned about the impact that ocean acidification will have on their intertidal communities and the ability of their visitors to enjoy a seascape rich in marine life. They already monitor key rocky intertidal species, but to understand the dynamics of ocean acidification in the rocky intertidal and how the monitored species are responding, a new type of monitoring has become necessary. A freshly collected interidal seawater sample. Black Abalone Regain Lost Ground <em>March 15, 2017</em> - For many years after the black abalone population crashed in the 1980s and 90s, Channel Islands National Park biologists found little evidence of recovery. Surviving abalone did not appear to be reproducing. That began to change around 2007 on Santa Cruz Island. Then other islands began to experience some slow recovery as well. Meanwhile, Cuyler Harbor, a site on San Miguel Island, still had not seen any black abalone since 1997. That is, until 2016. A mix of black abalone sizes/ages Crystal Clear: Prisoners Harbor Coastal Wetland Restoration Non-native eucalyptus trees were introduced for horticultural and utilitarian purposes in the 1880s. When agricultural operations were abandoned, eucalyptus trees expanded and spread beyond their intended purpose. The park, in partnership with The Nature Conservancy, recently restored this rare wetland by removing fill and reconnecting hydrology. Wildlife response to the restoration has been dramatic and immediate. view overlooking a harbor with dock World War II Plane Crashes in National Parks During WWII, more than 7,100 air crashes involved US Army Air Force (USAAF) aircraft occurred on American soil. Collectively these crashes resulted in the loss of more than 15,599 lives (Mireles 2006). Many of these military aircraft accidents occurred in remote, often mountainous, areas managed by the National Park Service. plane crash at base of grassy hill Channel Islands Bald Eagles Have Their Best Year Yet In mid-March, biologists and bald eagle fans watched with excitement as a live webcam captured three eggs hatching within a few days of each other on a nest in Sauces Canyon, Santa Cruz Island. Another webcam at a nest on Santa Cruz Island’s Fraser Point captured a similar scene: three more eggs hatching in close succession. Those six were among a total of 19 eaglets to be successfully raised by a record 20 breeding bald eagle pairs across the Channel Islands in 2018. Webcam portrait of a young bald eagle looking towards the camera in the early morning sunlight Biologists Document Seabird’s Journey from Rare Visitor to Breeding Resident In 2014, Channel Islands National Park biologists began to notice a new and impressive seabird roosting on East Anacapa Island, and on Sutil Island, off of Santa Barbara Island. They recognized the birds as brown boobies, which had been occasionally seen passing through over the years. Last fall, David Mazurkiewicz and his fellow seabird biologists counted 102 brown boobies on Sutil Island, and in an exciting new development, they discovered four active brown booby nests! Brown booby sitting on a nest, surrounded by several other brown boobies Invasive Kelp Spreads into New Territory Do you know that seaweed from your miso soup? Tasty as it is, Wakame, or <em>Undaria pinnatifida</em>, is not only known as a celebrated staple of some Asian cuisines. It is also a notorious marine invader. Undaria was first found in California in 2000 in Long Beach Harbor. Since then it has been inadvertently carried by boat to other harbors up and down the California coast. In 2008, it was discovered in Ventura Harbor, the mainland home of Channel Islands National Park. Undaria pinnatifida growing on the seafloor 2002 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2002 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards The Archeology of Abalones: Chinese and Japanese Fishing Camps in Channel Islands National Park From the mid-1800's to early 1900's, Chinese and Japanese fishermen harvested abalone around the Channel Islands. Archeology has uncovered what daily life was like for these individuals as they worked and camped on the islands. Cooking and Drying Abalone. Pilot Mark Oberman Awarded Airward for Safe Aviation Actions during Thomas Fire Channel Islands Aviation pilot Mark Oberman responded to assist Channel Islands National Park employees on December 5, 2017 when the Thomas fire burned on the mainland. For his efforts, the NPS awarded him with an Airward. Mark Oberman (left) holds Airward, while ranger Ian Williams sits to the right. Wildland Fire in Chaparral: California and Southwestern United States Chaparral is a general term that applies to various types of brushland found in southern California and the southwestern U.S. This community contains the most flammable type of vegetation found in the United States. Chaparral on steep rocky slopes. Scorpion Rock: A Model of Seabird Restoration Success For Cassin’s auklets, good nesting habitat must have lots of natural crevices or lend itself to the construction of nest burrows. Scorpion Rock was great for burrowing until crystalline iceplant, an invasive species, began driving out native vegetation and triggering soil erosion. Between 2008 and 2012, the Montrose Settlements Restoration Program sponsored a huge push to remove crystalline iceplant from Scorpion Rock, help native species take root, and stem erosion. Scorpion Rock seen from the coast of Santa Cruz Island Microplastics on National Park Beaches Every beachgoer has probably noticed plastic trash littering their favorite beaches, however remote. A new study of microplastic distribution on national park beaches indicates that whichever one you visit, there is probably also some amount of plastic that is harder to see, mixed in with the sand between your toes. Microplastic piece and organic matter Field Season Beginning for Mediterranean Coast Plant Monitoring Teams <em>March 15, 2017</em> - Even for drought tolerant southern California plant communities, four dry years in a row was a lot to handle. Annual vegetation monitoring at each of the three parks in the Mediterranean Coast Inventory and Monitoring Network recorded significant dieback in some places. This year, however, rainfall has been well above average throughout the region. Monitoring teams are excited to survey in a much more brightly colored landscape. Shooting stars decorated in water droplets Eelgrass Eelgrass is a type of marine, flowering seagrass that exists in temperate zones around the world. It thrives in soft seafloor environments, typically in shallow bays and estuaries, such as Point Reyes National Seashore's Drakes Estero, Estero de Limantour, and Tomales Bay. In Channel Islands National Park, large eelgrass beds occur off of Anacapa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa Islands. Eelgrass bed at Scorpion Anchorage, Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park. Night Sky Darkness in Coastal Southern California National Parks The velvet black of a dark night sky offers many values. People seek darkness for stargazing. Birds navigate by starlight. Prey hides from predator in the dark. But light pollution from human development—streetlights, buildings and other sources of artificial light—is spilling over into natural areas and taking an ecological toll. In Southern California, the National Park Service monitors the night sky of its parks and applies best practices to improve night sky darkness. Portion of the Milky Way visible over mountaintops in the Santa Monica Mountains. Surfgrass Surfgrass occurs in turbulent waters at or below the low tide line. It requires a rocky substrate to latch onto so it does’t wind up washed ashore or stranded at sea. During negative tides, surfgrass beds are often exposed to the air where their contents may be feasted upon by birds or explored by intrepid tidepoolers. Surfgrass during low tide at Channel Islands National Park Gary Fellers Leaves Legacy of Scientific Inquiry in California National Parks Few individuals have shaped our understanding of terrestrial species in the San Francisco Bay Area and California national parks like Dr. Gary Fellers, who passed away in November. Gary worked at Point Reyes National Seashore from 1983 until his retirement in 2013, first as a National Park Service scientist, and later as a researcher for the USGS Western Ecological Research Center. Dr. Gary Fellers Scientist Profile: Stephen Whitaker, Marine Ecologist “My current position as a marine ecologist for the National Park Service is a dream by most accounts! I often tell people when asked, “What do I do,” that I am responsible for assessing the condition of the shoreline habitats in Channel Islands National Park. In reality, my jurisdiction is not limited to the shore as I also spend chunks of time working underwater offshore in kelp forest, eelgrass, and other biogenic habitats in the park." Stephen Whitaker in full rain gear, collecting data at a rocky intertidal monitoring plot. Pacific Border Province The Pacific Border straddles the boundaries between several of Earth's moving plates on the western margin of North America. This region is one of the most geologically young and tectonically active in North America. The generally rugged, mountainous landscape of this province provides evidence of ongoing mountain-building. Drakes Estero in Point Reyes National Seashore. NPS photo/Sarah Codde POET Newsletter September 2012 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from September 2012. people on beach POET Newsletter November 2011 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from November 2011. kelp forest California Spiny Lobster This species of spiny lobster is often encountered in rocky dens or in beds of surfgrass at relatively shallow depths. California spiny lobster Garibaldi This species of damselfish inhabits the warmer waters of the Pacific Ocean from Monterey Bay, California to Baja California along rocky coastal reefs and among kelp forests. Garibaldi (Hypsypops rubicundus) Pollinators - Hummingbirds Hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) are amazingly adapted pollinators, and they play an important role in pollination. A flying hummingbird hovers next to a red flower National Parks Defend America's Coast During World War II Many national park sites joined the war effort in World War II by erecting Aircraft Warning, radio and radar stations. Some historic forts came to life with coastal defenses ready to defend the nation. color photo of explosion atop a fort wall, ocean beyond Elk Kelp Elk kelp, with its distinctive antler-like branches, is the second-largest kelp species in Channel Islands National Park. It grows in cool, deep waters, often too deep for giant kelp forest to grow. Green blades of elk kelp reaching towards the surface in turquoise ocean water POET newsletter May 2012 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from May 2012. kids cleaning beach POET Newsletter May 2013 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from May 2013. kid underwater Giant Kelp Giant kelp is the worlds largest species of marine algae. In the United States, it can be found along the west coast, especially around southern California where it grows in dense patches, or kelp forests. Giant kelp Paleontology of Channel Islands National Park Channel Islands National Park has one of the best fossil records in the National Park Service. The marine rocks of the islands have yielded significant microfossils, shellfish and other invertebrates, and marine vertebrates such as sea cows. Younger sedimentary deposits blanketing the islands include fossils of birds, other small vertebrates, snails, plant roots, and the famous pygmy mammoths. rolling hills covered in grass Conserving pinnipeds in Pacific Ocean parks in response to climate change The evolutionary record from previous climate perturbations indicates that marine mammals are highly vulnerable but also remarkably adaptable to climatic change in coastal ecosystems. Consequently, national parks in the Pacific, from Alaska to Hawaii, are faced with potentially dramatic changes in their marine mammal fauna, especially pinnipeds (seals and sea lions). black harbor seal Rancho del Norte Cultural Landscape Rancho del Norte is a component landscape of the Santa Cruz Island Ranching District of Channel Islands National Park. Although this ranch was constructed in 1952, the wider landscape has a period of significance of 1880 to 1952 for its associations with ranching. A simple wooden structure has wooden siding, a slightly tilting roof, and a door with a window. Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 12, No. 2, Fall 2020 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> fossils on the ground with two people and a mountain in the distance Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Since 2002, the National Park Service (NPS) has awarded Environmental Achievement (EA) Awards to recognize staff and partners in the area of environmental preservation, protection and stewardship. A vehicle charges at an Electric Vehicle charging station at Thomas Edison National Historical Park Series: Crystal Clear: A Call to Action In 2016, the nation celebrates the centennial of the National Park Service (NPS) as the steward of special places that represent our natural and cultural heritage. Many national parks were founded on the beauty and value of water. Since the preservation of the Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park in 1872, the National Park System has grown to include significant examples within majestic rivers, the Great Lakes, oceans and coasts, and other spectacular water resources. bright blue lake green islands in between Series: Physiographic Provinces Descriptions of the physiographic provinces of the United States, including maps, educational material, and listings of Parks for each. George B. Dorr, founder of Acadia National Park Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Neogene Period—23.0 to 2.58 MYA Some of the finest Neogene fossils on the planet are found in the rocks of Agate Fossil Beds and Hagerman Fossil Beds national monuments. fossils on display in a visitor center Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Compliance Inspires Science on Santa Cruz Island In May 2020, the Scorpion Fire burned 1,395 acres on eastern Santa Cruz Island in Channel Islands National Park. Burned Area Emergency Response funding supported emergency stabilization, including environmental compliance and an inventory of burned archeological sites. With park staff, researchers, and Chumash tribal partners working together, the compliance project became one of discovery and science that provided insight on Chumash lifeways across hundreds of generations. Person looking at a small object near a rock formation, with a charred landscape beyond. Plan Like a Park Ranger: Top 10 Things to Know Before You Go A visit to the Channel Islands is an exercise in preparation and self-reliance. ranger with visitor looking at map West Coast National Parks Work with NOAA to Better Understand Ocean Acidification in the Rocky Intertidal and Beyond Ocean acidification (OA) is a huge threat to marine life. But it is hard to track remotely on a large scale. So this summer, seven West Coast national parks are teaming up with the 2021 NOAA West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise. They’ll collect water samples in-person to check several OA indicators. Their data will help paint the most detailed picture yet of OA conditions up and down the coast, from parks’ rocky intertidal zones to dozens of miles offshore. Collage of different rocky intertidal creatures photographed against a white background. An Ocean on the Edge Along the northwestern tip of the continental United States, large rocky stacks rise like sentinels from the mist. Shrouded in beauty and wonder, the expansive coastline of Olympic National Park sets a dramatic stage for the convergence of several unique ecosystems. Pristine, glacier-capped mountains painted in lush rainforests descend swiftly into the crashing waves where land meets sea. This is where our story begins. Black-and-white photo of impressive rocky stacks rising up above an expansive coastline. Insularity, The Seacoast, and the Paleocoastal Landscapes of California's Islands Dr. Torben Rick will discuss the archeology of paleocoastal landscapes and his fieldwork investigating a 13,000 calendar year archaeological record on California’s Channel Islands. His research has investigated the impacts of people on ancient kelp forests and other marine ecosystems, the effects of human hunting on marine mammals, birds, and fishes, evidence for the introduction and movement of ancient wild and domesticated animals to offshore islands. 2020 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service Each year nearly 300,000 volunteers across the National Park Service (NPS) donate more than 6.5 million hours of service, for a value of more than $185 million. Through their extraordinary work and dedication, these volunteers make an exceptional contribution to their parks and communities. We are pleased to congratulate the national recipients of the 2020 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service. Photo of Tom and Karen Hartley dressed in period clothing standing and smiling outdoors.
Channel Islands National Park California National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Nowhere Else On Earth Something draws us to the sea and its islands. Maybe it is the thrill of traveling over water to an unfamiliar land or the yearning for tranquility—to walk on a deserted beach with birds, salty breezes, and the rhyth­mic wash of waves as our companions. You don’t have to go far to find such a place. Off the coast of southern California the Channel Islands seem to float on the horizon like ribbons of dark rock. Named for the deep troughs that separate them from the mainland, the eight islands and their encircling waters are home to over 2,000 species of animals and plants—145 are found nowhere else on Earth. Iso­lation over thousands of years and the mingling of warm and cold ocean currents give rise to the rich biodiversity of these is­lands. Today, five of the islands, their submerged lands, and the waters within one nautical mile of each island are protected as Channel Islands National Park. A Safe Haven for Seabirds Channel Islands The islands provide essential nesting and feeding grounds for 99 percent of seabirds in southern California. Eleven seabird species nest on the islands, including the only major breeding colony of California brown pelicans in the western United States. Not long ago they faced extinction. In 1970 only one chick on West Ana­ capa survived. Scientists pinpointed DDT as the cause and listed the brown pelican as an endangered species in 1970 and banned DDT in 1972. The fight to save these birds led to a remark­­able recovery and in 2009 they were removed from the endangered species list. The Channel Islands from the Ice Ages to Today Living Alone   Lower ocean levels during the ice ages narrowed the distance across the Santa Barbara Channel and exposed some of the seafloor. The land offshore, easier to reach then, allowed some spe­ cies to venture into this new terri­ tory. Mam­­moths swam the chan­ nel. Mice and foxes drifted over on rafts of veg­etation. Plants and seeds floated. Birds flew. Later, water from melting glaciers raised the sea level. This widened the channel again and increased the isolation of animals and plants from the mainland. Kinship of Islands and Sea  A powerful bond between the land and sea controls everything here, from where plants grow to when seals breed. Together, water cur­ rents, winds, and weather create an eco­system that supports a rich diversity of life. Among the 2,000 species you will find here are northern fur seals, bright orange garibaldi (California’s state marine fish), some 28 species of whales and dolphins, intertidal dwellers like sea stars and surfgrass, and squid, a major link in the food chain as predator and prey. Many species evolved over time and adapted to the isolated environment. Mam­moths evolved to a new species of pygmy mammoth, and gray foxes shrank to the size of house cats, becoming today’s island fox. Species of mice, scrub jays, and many plants grew larger. People on the Islands  The islands attracted seafaring people long ago; 13,000-year-old remains of a human leg bone found on Santa Rosa record the earliest known human presence in North America. Over time Chumash Indians settled on the northern islands, and Gabrieliño/Tongva settled the southern islands. Prosperous and industrious, the tribes joined in a trading net­work that extended up and down the coast and inland. The island Chu­ mash used purple olivella shells to manufacture the main currency used for this commerce. The region’s temperate climate and bountiful natural resources later attracted Spanish explorers, mis­ sionaries, and ranchers. In October 1542 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailed into the Santa Bar­bara Channel. His expedition wintered on an island he called Isla de Posesión. On Jan­uary 3, 1543, Cabrillo died from injuries and may have been buried on one of the islands, although his grave has never been found. Capt. George Van­couver gave the islands their pres­ent names in 1793. Early in the 1800s fur traders searched the coves for sea otters, seals, and sea lions, nearly hunting them to extinction. Protection and Restoration   Pro­tection for the islands began in 1938 when Anacapa and Santa Barbara became Channel Islands National Monu­ment. In 1980 Con­ By 1822 most Chu­mash had been gress designated San Miguel, moved to mainland missions. Fish­ Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Ana­capa, ing camps and ranching had be­ Santa Barbara, and the submerged come economic mainstays by the lands and waters within one nauti­ late 1800s. In the 1900s the military cal mile of each island as Channel set up lookouts on Anacapa and Islands National Park. The waters Santa Barbara and practiced bomb­ extending out six nautical miles ing raids on San Miguel. These from each is­land are a National activities had devastating effects Marine Sanc­tuary. Channel Islands on the island ecology, introducing Nation­al Park monitors and pro­ alien plant and a
Marine Protected Areas Expanded in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Update to the Protecting Your Channel Islands Brochure September 2007 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has added a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) to the existing state water MPAs. The new MPAs include eight no-take marine reserves, where all extractive activities and injury to sanctuary resources are prohibited, and a marine conservation area, where commercial and recreational lobster fishing and recreational fishing for pelagic species are allowed, while all other resource extraction and injury is prohibited. Transiting and anchoring in MPAs is allowed as long as fishing gear is stowed and not in use. Some small gaps remain between the state and new MPAs. A decision to fill in the gaps by the California Fish and Game Commission is anticipated in October 2007. The new MPAs went into effect on July 29, 2007. For more information, visit http://channelislands.noaa.gov/ or call 805.966.7107. Geographic Coordinates for the Channel Islands MPAs The following geographic coordinates and the mean high water line define the boundaries of the MPAs within the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. Boundary descriptions and regulations are available at the California Department of Fish and Game website (http://www.dfg.ca.gov/marine/channel_islands/index.asp) and in the Federal Register 15 CFR Part 922 or the sanctuary website. Richardson Rock (San Miguel Island) Marine Reserve 34o 02.211' N. lat. 120o 36.290' W. long. o 34 10.398' N. lat. 120o 36.290' W. long. 34o 10.398' N. lat. 120o 28.200' W. long. o 34 03.600' N. lat. 120o 28.200' W. long. Harris Point (San Miguel Island) Marine Reserve 34o 03.100' N. lat. 120o 23.300' W. long. 34o 12.295' N. lat. 120o 23.300' W. long. o 34 12.295' N. lat. 120o 18.400' W. long. 34o 01.800' N. lat. 120o 18.400' W. long. o 34 03.500' N. lat. 120o 21.300' W. long. 34o 02.900' N. lat. 120o 20.200' W. long. Judith Rock (San Miguel Island) Marine Reserve 34o 01.80' N. lat. 120o 26.60' W. long. o 33 58.50' N. lat. 120o 26.60' W. long. 33o 58.50' N. lat. 120o 25.30' W. long. o 34 01.50' N. lat. 120o 25.30' W. long. Carrington Point (Santa Rosa Island) Marine Reserve 34o 01.30' N. lat. 120o 05.20' W. long. o 34 04.00' N. lat. 120o 05.20' W. long. o 34 04.00' N. lat. 120o 01.00' W. long. 34o 00.50' N. lat. 120o 01.00' W. long. o 34 00.50' N. lat. 120o 02.80' W. long. Skunk Point (Santa Rosa Island) Marine Reserve 33o 59.00' N. lat. 119o 58.80' W. long. o 33 59.00' N. lat. 119o 58.00' W. long. 33o 57.10' N. lat. 119o 58.00' W. long. o 33 57.10' N. lat. 119o 58.20' W. long. South Point (Santa Rosa Island) Marine Reserve 33o 55.000' N. lat. 120o 10.000' W. long. 33o 50.400' N. lat. 120o 10.000' W. long. o 33 50.400' N. lat. 120o 06.500' W. long. 33o 53.800' N. lat. 120o 06.500' W. long. Painted Cave (Santa Cruz Island) Marine Conservation Area 34o 04.50' N. lat. 119o 53.00' W. long. o 34 05.20' N. lat. 119o 53.00' W. long. 34o 05.00' N. lat. 119o 51.00' W. long. o 34 04.00' N. lat. 119o 51.00' W. long. Scorpion (Santa Cruz Island) Marine Reserve 34o 02.940' N. lat. 119o 35.500' W. long. o 34 09.270' N. lat. 119o 35.500' W. long. o 34 09.270' N. lat. 119o 32.800' W. long. 34o 02.800' N. lat. 119o 32.800' W. long. Gull Island (Santa Cruz Island) Marine Reserve 33o 58.000' N. lat. 119o 51.000' W. long. 33o 58.000' N. lat. 119o 53.000' W. long. o 33 51.717' N. lat. 119o 53.000' W. long. 33o 51.717' N. lat. 119o 48.000' W. long. o 33 57.700' N. lat. 119o 48.000' W. long. Footprint Marine Reserve 33o 54.119' N. lat. 119o 30.965' W. long. o 33 57.672' N. lat. 119o 30.965' W. long. 33o 57.426' N. lat. 119o 25.987' W. long. o 33 54.119' N. lat. 119o 25.987' W. long. Anacapa Island Marine Conservation Area 34o 00.800' N. lat. 119o 26.700' W. long. 34o 04.998' N. lat. 119o 26.700' W. long. o 34 04.998' N. lat. 119o 24.600' W. long. 34o 00.400' N. lat. 119o 24.600' W. long. o 34 00.400' N. lat. 119o 24.600' W. long. Anacapa Island Marine Reserve 34o 00.400' N. lat. 119o 24.600' W. long. 34o 04.998' N. lat. 119o 24.600' W. long. o 34 04.998' N. lat. 119o 21.400' W. long. 34o 01.000' N. lat. 119o 21.400' W. long. Santa Barbara Island Marine Reserve 33o 28.500' N. lat. 119o 01.700' W. long. 33o 28.500' N. lat. 118o 54.527' W. long. o 33 21.792' N. lat. 118o 54.527' W. long. o 33 21.792' N. lat. 119o 02.202' W. long. 33o 27.900' N. lat. 119o 02.200' W. long. Coordinates are unprojected (Geographic), in decimal minute format, and are based on the North American Datum of 1983.
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Channel Islands National Park 25th Anniversary 1980—2005 The National Park System One of the great ironies of the American park system is that it was assembled without benefit of a blueprint. What we enjoy today has been stitched together over more than a century like a giant quilt, park by park, by the loving hands of What does Channel Islands National Park have in common with Valley Forge, Gettysburg, Mammoth Cave, and Great Smoky Mountains? They are all units of the National Park System, established by Congress to care for America's most precious places. Parks like Cape Hatteras, Yosemite, and Death Valley protect magnificent landscapes and important ecosystems, while the “fabric” of American history is preserved at places such as the Statue of Liberty, Independence Hall, and the USS Arizona. Archeological sites found at Mesa Verde, Dinosaur, and Ocmulgee represent another part of this incredible collection, “owned” by all Americans. These public lands protect the irreplaceable resources of our American heritage. Want to know more? Ask a park ranger for the brochure on the National Park System, check into the National Parks Passport program, or visit the website at www.nps.gov. thousands of people who wanted to save something precious for their children and grandchildren. Stewart L. Udall, former U. S. Secretary of the Interior Dept. 2 Channel Islands National Park is one of 388 National Park System sites. The National Park Service Mission Though the first national park, Yellowstone, was created in 1872, the National Park Service was not established until 1916. During the early years, our national parks were protected by the U.S. Army. Troops of cavalry fought fires, guided visitors, and built roads and trails. By the turn of the century, a few far-sighted individuals saw the need to better manage the rapidly evolving system of national park areas. Their efforts resulted in the Organic Act of 1916, which replaced soldiers with civilians as the guardians of the parks. In this act, Congress established the purpose of the National Park Service, which is: The National Park System was the beginning of an idea for the whole world, and I wonder if it is not the best idea the U.S. ever gave the world. Margaret E. Murie, conservationist ...to conserve the scenery The National Park and the natural and historic Service is a federal gency, like the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service objects and the wild life therein and to provide for and the U.S. Geological Survey. Each agency's director works for the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, who in turn the enjoyment of the same in such reports to the President. manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations. The National Park Service symbol is in the shape of an arrowhead, to signify the agency's mission of protecting cultural resources. The interior details, buffalo, and mountain scenery, represent the protection of natural resources. 3 Establishing Channel Islands National Park A series of federal and landowner actions have helped to preserve the Channel Islands. Federal efforts began in 1932 when the Bureau of Lighthouses (precursor to the United States Coast Guard) brought Santa Barbara and Anacapa Islands to the attention of the National Park Service (NPS) and proposed that the islands be turned over for national park purposes. In 1937 biologist Theodore D. A. Cockerell of the University of Colorado, who had been collecting specimens on the islands for several years, wrote an article, planned a book, and tried to get his publications into the hands of people to explain why the islands were considered of unusual interest. He was impressed with the extraordinary importance of the islands for natural history studies and urged the park service to accept a land transfer. Cockerell may well have tipped the balance of opinion towards park service takeover, for in 1938 the NPS made the decision to take the excess lighthouse property and ask for national monument status. On April 26, 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a proclamation designating Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands as Channel Islands National Monument. The first words of the opening paragraph of the proclamation explained why the land warranted preservation, and read, “Whereas certain public islands lying off the coast of Southern California contain fossils of Pleistocene elephants and ancient trees, and furnish noteworthy examples of ancient volcanism, deposition, and active sea erosion, and have situated thereon various other objects of geological and scientific interest . . .” President Roosevelt believed that gradual recovery of the islands’ natural characteristics could only be effected by a good management plan, one the NPS was obliged to carry out in accordance with its traditional duties to preserve resources in their natural condition. Geology r
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park The Island Fox: Here Today... The island fox (Urocyon littoralis) lives on six of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of southern California—San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, San Nicolas, and San Clemente. Each island has its own subspecies, and they are found nowhere else in the world. Once you could see island foxes on most any trip to the larger Channel Islands. Bounding through the grass, trotting along the trail, peering intently at something underfoot—a fox sighting was often the highlight of your island adventure. In recent years, island fox populations have declined 95% on the three northernmost islands—San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz. A park monitoring program on San Miguel Island saw their numbers drop from around 450 in 1994 to 15 in 1999. Without aggressive recovery actions, foxes on these islands may be extinct within a few short years. How could this happen in such a seemingly isolated and protected area? The puzzle is complex, with a variety of factors affecting the outcome. The Mystery Initially, the decline in fox numbers on San Miguel Island was viewed as possibly a natural fluctuation, not uncommon in wildlife. Genetic studies and historical observations showed other “bottlenecks” in island fox history, where numbers greatly declined and then recovered. During this recent event, San Miguel studies showed that adults were slowly disappearing yet still breeding successfully. However, very few pups survived their first year. The decline also moved from west to east across the island. At the same time, on the southern islands, both adult and pup populations were stable. In examining the evidence, park biologists looked at a range of causes: disease, parasites, predation, and other environmental factors. The west-to-east pattern suggested disease movement, so blood and fecal samples were studied. There was no A Conspiracy of Circumstances Historically, golden eagles were not found on the Channel Islands. There was no prey base, and the resident and highly territorial bald eagles may have prevented them from utilizing the islands. Since bald eagles feed mostly on fish and carcasses, in a sense, island foxes were protected. But bald eagles disappeared during the 1950s and 60s due to the effects of the pesticide DDT. With the banning of U.S. production of DDT in 1971, continental bald eagle populations have recovered. However, bald eagles have never returned to the islands due to the persistence of DDT in ocean food chains. In more recent years, golden eagle numbers have risen on the mainland. The increased competition has caused them to search for new food sources and territories across the channel. With an abundance of feral piglets on Santa Cruz Island, supplemented by island foxes, golden eagles have found a new hunting territory. The first golden eagle nest was EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA apparent disease that could have caused the decline. With foxes at the top of the island food chain, predation on them had been rare, but telemetry studies proved otherwise. Foxes on Santa Cruz Island were radio-collared by researchers from the Institute for Wildlife Studies. Of 29 foxes that died over a two-year period, 21 had been preyed upon. Golden eagles were suspected, but initially there was no direct evidence. In the fall of 1998, a follow-up telemetry study was conducted by the National Park Service on San Miguel Island. Within a few months, four of the eight foxes collared had been attacked and eaten. This time, the culprit left a feather at one of the scenes. A lab identified it as “golden eagle.” A major part of the mystery was solved. discovered in 1999, and eagles have bred annually on the island since then. Compounding the situation is a general lack of island vegetation. Years of grazing by ranch animals have removed much of the native chaparral cover, leaving only nonnative grasses in many areas. Since the foxes hunt during the day and have few places left to hide, they are easy targets for hungry golden eagles. Other complications in need of further study are the diseases and parasites potentially introduced to the foxes by domestic dogs. When an important link in a food chain is removed, there are other effects as well. Recently, island mice populations rose dramatically. Would this have happened if foxes were still abundant? What else has been affected by this change in unique island food chains? A Fox in Our Future? Channel Islands National Park is coordinating a recovery effort with the help of many individuals and organizations. Canon U.S.A., Inc. provided a grant to study the fox decline, and the National Park Foundation manages a fund-raising campaign. On March 4, 2004, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the island fox as an endangered species. The was the last chapter in the island fox’s long 19-year wait for federal protection and will help
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park The Island Chumash An Introduction What’s in a Name Traditionally the Chumash people lived in an area extending from San Luis Obispo to Malibu, including the four Northern Channel Islands. Today, with the exception of the Islands, Chumash people live in these territories and areas far beyond. Approximately 148 village sites have been identified, including 11 on Santa Cruz Island, eight on Santa Rosa Island, and two on San Miguel Island. Due to the lack of a consistent water source, Anacapa Island was likely inhabited on a seasonal basis. A true maritime culture, the Chumash hunted and gathered natural resources from both the ocean and the coastal mountains to maintain a highly developed way of life. Today we have evidence of more than 13,000 years of Native American occupation of the islands, highlighted by the discovery of Arlington Springs Woman. Among the oldest dated human remains in North America, radio- carbon dating indicates she lived approximately 13,000 years ago. This rich, continuing history is a testament to the Chumash people and their iland home. Michumash is the word from which the name Chumash is Over time, many Chumash place names have been derived. Roughly translated, Michumash means “makers of altered to reflect the uses or perceptions of various shell bead money” and is the term mainland Chumash used to refer to those inhabiting the islands. other cultures. Anacapa Island, however, retains a name closest to the Chumash Anyapakh, meaning “mirage.” ‘Achum, or shell bead money was “minted” by the island Limuw: A Story of Place Chumash using small discs shaped from olivella shells and Santa Cruz Island, known by the Chumash people as drills manufactured from Santa Cruz Island chert. The Limuw, translates to “in the sea,” while Santa Rosa shell bead money was exchanged with mainland villages Island, or Wi’ma, means “redwood driftwood.” for resources and manufactured goods that were otherwise unavailable on the islands. Though no translation to modern English is known, San Miguel Island was referred to as Tuqan. Hutash, the Earth Mother, created the first Chumash that some of the Chumash people had to move off the people on the island of Limuw, now known as Santa Cruz. They were made from the seeds of a Magic Plant. island. They would have to go to the mainland, where there weren’t any people living in those days. Hutash was married to the Alchupo’osh, Sky Snake, the But how were the people going to get across the water to Milky Way, who could make lightning bolts with his the mainland? Finally, Hutash had the idea of making a tongue. One day, he decided to make a gift to the Chumash bridge out of a wishtoyo (rainbow). She made a very long, people. He sent down a bolt of lightning, and this started a very high rainbow that stretched from the tallest mountain fire. After this, people kept fires burning so that they could keep warm and cook their food. on Limuw all the way to Tzchimoos, the tall mountain near Mishopshno (Carpinteria). In those days, the Condor was a white bird. But the Hutash told the people to go across the rainbow bridge,and Condor was very curious about the fire he saw burning in fill the whole world with people. So the Chumash people the Chumash village. He wanted to find out what it was. started to go across the bridge. Some of them got across So he flew very low over the fire to get a better look. But he safely, but some people made the mistake of looking down. flew too close; he got his feathers scorched, and they It was a long way down to the water, and the fog was turned black. So now the Condor is a black bird, with just a swirling around. They became so dizzy that some of them little white left under the wings where they did not get burned. fell off the rainbow bridge, down through the fog, into the ocean. Hutash felt very badly about this, because she told them to cross the bridge. She did not want them to drown. After Alchupo’osh gave them fire, the Chumash people lived more comfortably. More people were born each year, and their villages got bigger and bigger. Limuw was getting crowded. And the noise people made was starting to annoy Hutash. It kept her awake at night. So, finally, she decided So, to save them, she turned them into dolphins. Now the Chumash call the dolphins their brothers and sisters. The Island Chumash often traded with mainland villages to acquire necessities that were scarce on the islands. Acorns, a staple in the Chumash diet, were one such trade item. Using a mortar and pestle, acorns can be ground into meal that is then leached to remove tannic acid. Grinding stones, including the mortar and pestle, are often made from sandstone, though hopper mortars exist. These mortars are constructed of a basket fashioned from Juncus and fastened to a grinding stone using asphaltum. The Tomol Chumash
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Hiking Anacapa Island Welcome to Anacapa Island, one of the five islands in the Channel Islands National Park. Anacapa is composed of three islets: East, Middle and West. You have arrived on East Anacapa. Middle and West Anacapa are set aside for the island wildlife except for a small beach on the West islet called Frenchy’s Cove that can be reached only by boat. Once you have scaled the rugged cliffs using the stairway from the landing cove, you will find a figure eight-shaped trail system that meanders over gentle slopes to dramatic overlooks, magnificent coastal views, and the last permanent lighthouse built on the west coast. An interpretive trail guide is available to interpret these and other island resources. Hikers need to assume individual responsibility for planning their trips and hiking safely. To increase your odds of a safe hike, decrease your disturbance to wildlife, and lessen damage to resources, visitors should be in good physical condition and must follow the regulations and guidelines in the “Limiting Your Impact” section of the park newspaper and those listed below: • • Visitor must stay on the designated trail system when hiking around Anacapa Island. No off-trail hiking is permitted. Avoid cliff edges. Wood railroad ties on the ground mark the safe boundary of viewing areas at some overlooks. For your own safety, do not stand on or step past these wood markers. Some cliff edges are not marked. Please stay back from exposed cliff edges as they are eroding and can be very fragile. Children should be supervised at all times by an adult. • Since East Anacapa is a cliff island, access to the water is only at the Landing Cove (no beaches, only a dock). • To protect wildlife and visitors, do not throw anything off the island into the ocean below. • Hikers should never hike alone—use the buddy system. This allows someone to go for help if you encounter trouble. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA • Carry plenty of water and drink it. One quart for short walks, more for longer hikes. • Be aware of poison oak, “jumping” cholla cactus, ticks, and scorpions. Poison oak can be identified by its clusters of three shiny leaflets. Some ticks carry disease; check your clothing and exposed skin after hiking. • In order to help prevent wildfires, do not smoke on trails or in brush areas. Smoking is allowed only on the cement area by the crane at the top of the stairs. • When departing from the islands, visitors are responsible for meeting the boat concessionaire on time. Be aware of departure time by asking the ranger or concessionaire employees. N Hiking Destinations Destination (from visitor center) Distance (miles, round trip) Difficulty Description 1 Inspiration Point 1.5 Easy Extraordinary views. Not to be missed. 2 Pinniped Point .4 Easy Overlooks a haul out site for California sea lions. 3 Cathedral Cove .6 Easy Overlooks a cove with beautiful rock formations. 4 Lighthouse .5 Easy View the historic lighthouse built in 1932. Inspiration Point, timhaufphotography.com N EAST A N A C A PA Landing Cove Cathedral Cove 3 Inspiration Point 4 2 1 ott 0 0 Arch Rock Pinniped Point 1 km 1 mi
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park EAST ANACAPA ISLAND MAP & GUIDE East Anacapa Island Arch Rock Landing Cove Cathedral Cove 2 3 1 2 Inspiration Point 7 6 5 Lighthouse 4 3 Campground, Restroom Pinniped Point Visitor Center, Ranger Station, Picnic Tables, Restrooms /4 1 How to use this trail guide There are two routes indicated on the map above. Both routes begin at the visitor center. You may take the lower trail located in front of the buildings, which leads to Cathedral Cove. Or you may take the upper trail located behind the buildings, which leads to Pinniped Point. Both routes cover the same information. For variety, we recommend you take the opposite route back. Before beginning your exploration of Anacapa please note a few rules that will ensure your safety and protect the plants and animals on the island. /2 mile 1 Stay a safe distance back from cliff edges. The soil on the cliffs is unstable, and many of the overlooks are undercut. Do not risk your safety for a “better” view. Stay on the marked trails. Many of the plants on Anacapa are fragile, the soil is easily eroded, and off-trail travel disrupts roosting and nesting seabirds. No collecting. The park’s natural and cultural resources are protected by federal law. Please, leave Anacapa as you find it so that others may also enjoy the island. East Anacapa Island: A World of Isolation A peaceful silence surrounds the tile-roofed buildings below the lighthouse on Anacapa. It is a silence that is accented by an occasional call of a foghorn, a cry from a gull flying overhead, or the bellow of a protective male sea lion below. It is a reminder that Anacapa is an island, a world apart, isolated from the mainland by eleven miles of ocean. Isolation is an important facet of life on all the Channel Islands. It has fostered the evolution of plants and animals found nowhere else in the world. Plants and animals that are unique to a certain location are called endemic species. Isolation, essential for a species to become endemic, allows these creatures to become well adapted to their unique environment. Isolation has also played a major role in shaping human activities on Anacapa. The island’s separation from the mainland, as well as its steep cliffs, have limited and directed human use and occupation of Anacapa for thousands of years. TRAIL STOP 1 Lighthouse Complex At 11:00 pm on December 2, 1853, a frightening jolt woke the passengers aboard the side-wheel steamer Winfield Scott. Rushing on deck, they discovered that the ship had run aground in dense fog. Water poured into the ship’s hold through two gaping holes in its wooden hull. Boarding the lifeboats, the passengers rowed to safety on Middle Anacapa Island, but the Winfield Scott was lost. Its remains lie submerged off the island’s north shore. Despite the wrecking of the Winfield Scott and other ships off Anacapa’s coast, a light was not placed on the island until 1912. Because of Anacapa’s isolation, and the difficulties of building and supplying such a remote station, the first light was an unmanned, acetylene beacon placed atop a fifty-foot-tall metal tower. Responding to requests for better navigation aids along the Santa Barbara Channel, the Bureau of Lighthouses replaced the beacon with a lighthouse containing a 3rd-order Fresnel lens in 1932. The lens is now on display in the Anacapa Island Visitor Center. Buildings to support the lighthouse were constructed in the Spanish Revival style, characterized by tile roofs, stucco walls, and arched openings. The light station resembled a small town, with four residences flanking a main street that led to the powerhouse, oil house, general services building, fog signal building, lighthouse, water tank building, and other support structures. A series of ninety steps with two landings and a crane were built to transport people and gear from the landing cove to the top of the steep cliff. Anacapa’s isolation has always presented special challenges to island residents. Food, water, and other supplies must be shipped from the mainland and hoisted up the steep slopes at the Landing Cove. Power is supplied by solar energy supplemented by generators; communications are by radio and cell phone. TRAIL STOP 2 Iceplant Meadow Water Tank Building Native plants that develop in isolation are often vulnerable to competition from hardier, alien species introduced by humans. In the 1940s and 50s light-station residents brought red-flowered iceplant (Malephora crocea) to Anacapa for landscaping and erosion control. The plant spread rapidly in disturbed soil and overwhelmed native plants, reducing diverse natural vegetation and food sources on which native animals, including seabirds depend. In the past, this iceplant, with its thick fleshy green leaves and large red flowers, covered about 20 percent of east Anacapa like a red and green carpet. To restore Anacapa’s native vegetation, park
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park San Nicolas Island Alone on a windswept island-the thunder of enormous elephant seals and the crashing of surf filling the air. Imagine white sand beaches without footprints and tidepools brimming with life. Imagine you were on such an island, alone, for eighteen years. Island of Isolation Located 65 miles off the southern California coast, San Nicolas is one of eight Channel Islands. The island contains over 20 square miles of gently rolling terrain accented with steep sea cliffs. These steep cliffs are perfect nesting habitat for seabirds such as cormorants and western gulls. Atop the island the tiny island fox reigns as the largest land mammal. The isolated beaches provide resting places for three species of pinnipeds (seals and sea lions)- northern elephant seals, harbor seals, and California sea lions. Dense undersea kelp forests surround the island providing food and shelter for many species of fish, invertebrates, and, once again, for sea otters. Pristine tidepools ring the sialnd’s rocky shores where crabs, abalone, sea urchins, and sea snails have adated to their ever-changing homes. San Nicolas Island is typical of the islands in the Channel Islands archipelago-but it is also unique. A Military Presence Since 1933 San Nicolas Island has been under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Navy. Approximately 400 people work and staff the island. San Nicolas is part of the Pacific Missile Test Center’s Sea Test Range. Navy personnel work on projects such as missile tracking and weapon system testing. A 10,000-foot runway accommodates supersonic target aircrafts and planes from the mainland during operations. Facilities for island personnel include a bowling alley, cafeteria, and hobby shop. Because of the military operations, visitation by the general public is prohibited. The natural resources of San Nicolas Island are managed by a joint agreement between the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Interior, and California’s Department of Fish and Game. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is currently working on a sea otter recovery program on the island. Once abundant around all the Channel Islands, sea otters were hunted to the brink of extinction for their valuable pelts. Biologists working on the sea otter project relocate animals from the Monterey Bay population in hope that a colony of otters will be established once again in southern California. The Lone Woman The Nicoleno were the group of Tongva peoples who lived on San Nicolas island for thousands of years, (Note: the Tongva have been sometimes referred to as Gabrielino. However, Gabrielino more specifically refers to Tongva peoples living near the San Gabriel Mission.) These people maintained a thriving culture, trading with the Chumash on the northern Channel islands and with the Nicoleno people on the mainland. In the mid and late 1700s, Russian and Aleut sea otter hunters began frequenting the waters around San Nicolas, and the island people began to feel the brunt of intrusion by the outside world. Nicoleno men were killed and women were kidnapped. The Spanish padres who were building the California missions decided to remove the Nicoleno from San Nicolas Island for their safety. Eighteen years later, Captain George Nidever was on a sea otter hunting trip and found the woman. She was a gracious hostess to the men of Nidever’s party and cooked food for them. They returned to the city of Santa Barbara, and the woman lived with Captain Nidever’s family for seven weeks before she died. She is buried at the Santa Barbara Mission, where she was baptized “Juana Maria.” Many versions of this story have been told, but the most famous is “Island of the Blue Dolphins” by Scott O’Dell. The story of the lone woman begins as the San Nicolas islanders were evacuated. According to legend, the Mexican schooner “Peor es Nada” sailed to San Nicolas to bring the islanders to the mainland. As the ship was loading passengers, a woman realized that her child was not on board. She swam back to the island and as she did a storm came up and prevented the ship from recovering her. When the woman located her child, the child had died. The schooner sailed to the mainland and promptly sank. The woman was alone on San Nicolas Island. Channel Islands National Park EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA For more information on San Nicolas Island contact: 1901 Spinnaker Drive Ventura, CA 93001
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Interpretive Guide Steve Smith Kathy Dewet-Oleson Wm. B. Dewey timhaufphotography.com Peter Howorth timhaufphotography.com Eastern Santa Cruz Island EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Trail Guide 4 timhaufphotography.com Contents Channel Islands Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point Other Points of Interest Scorpion Ranch Area Place Name, Pier, Flooding Ranch House Bunkhouse Storage Shed, Caves Outhouse, Implement Shed Meat Shed, Eucalyptus Trees Scorpion Water System Telephone System Farm Implements Dry Stone Masonry Retaining Walls, Check Dams Stone Piles Smugglers Cove Place Name, Road Oil Well, Delphine’s Grove Ranch House, Windmill, Well Eucalyptus, Olive Groves Scorpion Bluffs Living on the Edge Mixing of Waters Potato Harbor Diatomaceous Earth The Rest of Santa Cruz Island The Giant Kelp Forest Marine Protected Areas 2 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE 14 14 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 How To Use This Guide We recommend that you begin with the“Trail Guide” section that provides six interpretive stops along the one-mile walk from Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point. This will give you a general overview of the island. Then, if there is still time, use the “Other Points of Interest” section to select another area to visit. Also, please note that many of the topics covered in both sections are applicable to any island location. For a more detailed hiking map, trail descriptions, and safety and resource protection information please see the “Hiking Eastern Santa Cruz Island” map and guide available at island bulletin boards, the visitor center, or at nps.gov/chis. Scorpion Canyon 31 Volcanism Native Plants Terrestrial Animals 31 32 35 Prisoners Harbor 42 Xaxas, Place Name, Ranch Pier, Wharehouse Corrals, Scale House, Lookout Ranch House Complex Wetland, Restoration Landbirds 42 43 40 40 45 48 National Park .2 Map Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND 3 Tr Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point Channel Islands N owhere Else On Earth Scorpion Beach timhaufphotography.com Trail Guide— 1 p ail Sto C lose to the mainland yet worlds apart, Santa Cruz Island, along with the other Channel Islands, is home to plants and animals that are found nowhere else on earth. Like on the Galapagos Islands of South America, isolation has allowed evolution to proceed independently on the islands, fostering the development of 145 endemic or unique species. Santa Cruz Island is host to 60 of these endemic species. Some, like the island jay, are found only on Santa Cruz. 4 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Isolation also has played a major role in shaping human activities on the island. While the southern California coastal mainland has seen extensive development, the Channel Islands are undeveloped. The island’s separation from the mainland by 25 miles of an often turbulent ocean has limited and directed human use and occupation for thousands of years. And it continues today, giving us a chance to see coastal southern California as it once was. So step back in time and experience the island’s isolation as you walk to Cavern Point. It’s like nowhere else on earth. reserving the Past 2 Scorpion Ranch Complex Isolated and far behind the times as the island was, it was a demonstration of how a group living as we did could learn to make do with what we had. -former ranch superintendent, Clifford McElrath, On Santa Cruz Island Pier Gherini family collection Pier Gherini family collection “Joe could do most anything, except write. An expert rider, huntsman, and general ranch worker, Joe also was a mechanical whiz. He once took a 1915 Waterloo Boy tractor that had been “mothballed” because the early workmen wouldn’t touch it, and used the parts to make a sawmill. The fact that we didn’t need a mill in no way detracted from the ingenuity and skill that went into its making. All of these people had one common characteristic. They knew and loved the Island. Each in his own way was rugged and self-reliant. They took its beauties and hardships in stride.” continued on next page Unloading sheep, Scorpion pier, 1977. Sawmill built by Joe Griggs, 1955. timhaufphotography.com hile the isolated island offered ranchers several advantages over the mainland, including no predators and the world’s best fence (the ocean), it created special challenges as well. Supplying such a remote outpost was probably the biggest challenge. The transportation of supplies and stock onto and off the island was always an adventure—the distance to the mainland, rough seas, and expense made it very difficult. However, as former ranch superintendent Clifford McElrath wrote in his memoir On Santa Cruz Island, ranchers would adapt to the difficulties of isolated island life through self-reliance and by “learning to make do with what [they] had.” Pier Gherini, former owner of the eastern portion of the island, wrote a humorous story
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Hiking Eastern Santa Cruz Island Several trails and roads traverse eastern Santa Cruz Island, providing visitors with spectacular hiking opportunities. These trails and roads range from the maintained, relatively flat, signed trails of Scorpion Valley to the unmaintained, rugged, mountainous paths of the Montañon area. Hikers need to assume individual responsibility for planning their trips and hiking safely. To increase your odds of a safe hike, decrease your disturbance to wildlife, and lessen damage to resources, visitors should be in good physical condition and must follow the regulations and guidelines in the “Limiting Your Impact” section of the park newspaper and those listed below: • Stay on trails and roads while hiking—avoid animal trails which are narrow, uneven, unstable, and dangerous. • Cliff edges should be avoided at all times since they tend to be crumbly and unstable. Stay well back. Rock throwing from cliffs is not permitted as it can be dangerous for kayakers below. • • • No hiking is allowed beyond the national park boundary onto The Nature Conservancy property. The boundary is marked by a fenceline between Prisoners Harbor and Valley Anchorage. • Hikers should avoid hiking alone—use the buddy system. This allows someone to go for help if you encounter trouble. When departing from the islands, visitors are responsible for meeting the boat concessioner on time. Be aware of departure time by looking at your boarding pass or asking the ranger or concessioner employees. • Carry plenty of water and drink it. One quart for short walks, more for longer hikes. Pack out what you pack in, including your trash. There are no trash cans on the island so please take your garbage with you. • Do not directly or indirectly feed the wildlife. Secure your trash and food at all times. Use the storage boxes provided at the picnic tables or behind the kiosk in the orientation area. Gulls, ravens, skunks, mice and especially foxes have all gotten into visitors’ food. Unfortunately, foxes in the Scorpion area have become habituated to human food. Failure to store your food and trash properly or intentionally feeding wildlife will result in a citation and fine. • Be aware of poison oak, “jumping” cholla cactus, ticks, and scorpions. Poison oak can be identified by its clusters of three shiny leaflets. Some ticks carry disease; check your clothing and exposed skin after hiking. • In order to help prevent wildfires, do not smoke on trails or in brush areas. Smoking is allowed only on beaches. Destination Distance Difficulty Description (miles, round-trip) F r o m S c o r p i o n B e a c h: 1 Historic Ranch .5 Easy View the historic Scorpion Ranch complex dating to the late 1800s. Exhibit areas include an orientation kiosk, blacksmith shop, farm implements, and a visitor center located in the Scorpion ranch house. 2 Cavern Point Loop 2 Moderate Not to be missed. Magnificent coastal vistas and seasonal whale viewing. To avoid a steep climb, hike clockwise, beginning from campground (near site #22) and looping back to Scorpion Anchorage. From Cavern Point, you may also follow the North Bluff Trail west for 2 miles out to Potato Harbor. 3 4 Potato Harbor 5 Moderate A longer hike than the Cavern Point hike, but also with spectacular coastal views. No beach access. Scorpion Canyon Loop 4.5 Moderate to strenuous A scenic loop hike to the interior with a chance to see the unique island scrub-jay. To avoid a steep climb, hike clockwise starting on the Smugglers Road towards the oil well and eventually down into Scorpion Canyon and back out to the beach. Hike off trail into the right (or northwest) fork of Scorpion Canyon to see the island scrub-jay, but be prepared for extremely rocky conditions. 5 6 Smugglers Cove 7.5 Strenuous Follow the Smugglers Road to the beach at Smugglers Cove. Carry water. No water available at Smugglers. Montañon Ridge 8 Strenuous For experienced hikers. Great views. This ridge can also be reached from Smugglers Cove (8 miles roundtrip and off-trail hiking) and Prisoners Harbor (21 miles round-trip). F r o m S m u g g l e r s C o v e: 7 Smugglers Canyon 2 Strenuous Off-trail hiking in a stream bed (seasonal water) with native vegetation and steep canyon walls. Be prepared for uneven terrain and loose rock. 8 9 Yellowbanks 3 Strenuous This trail leads to an unmaintained route to the beach. San Pedro Point 4 Strenuous This off-trail hike leads to an overlook. No beach access. For experienced off-trail hikers. F r o m P r i s o n e r s H a r b o r: 10 Prisoners Harbor .5 Easy View the historic Prisoners Harbor area and search for the island scrub-jay (usually found in nearby trees or stream-side vegetation). Walk up the Navy Road for a short distance to get a nice view from above. 11 12 Del Norte Camp 7 Strenuous Follow t
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Kayaking Information Kayaking Regulations and Safety for Eastern Santa Cruz Island Kayaking is a unique and rewarding way to experience the pristine marine environment of eastern Santa Cruz Island. Here you will encounter spectacular displays of wildlife. The island’s cliffs, their numerous caves and the rest of the coastline and neighboring islets are home to twelve different species of nesting seabirds and shorebirds, including ashy and leach’s storm-petrels, Xantus’s murrelets, Brandt’s and pelagic cormorants, Cassin’s auklets, pigeon gillemots and black oystercatchers. Santa Cruz, the other Channel Islands, and all their associated islets and offshore rocks comprise one of the largest breeding centers on the west coast for seabirds and shorebirds. California sea lion and harbor seals also rest and breed throughout the island’s shoreline. The protection and preservation of these rare and unique marine resources is a major mission of the National Park Service. By following the wildlife-specific regulations listed below, you can help protect these park treasures for future generations to enjoy. Also, within this marine environment you will face new challenges and may encounter unexpected dangers. Since the marine environment can be unforgiving, follow the safety information listed below and use extra caution when engaging in these activities. This bulletin is designed specifically to help in planning a safe, enjoyable, and environmentally sound sea kayak trip in the park. For more information on kayaking in the park including planning your trip, weather, safety, and other park regulations please refer to the park newspaper or visit www.nps.gov/chis/. Regulations In addition to the regulations listed below, visitors should follow the “Limiting Your Impact” guidelines listed in the park newspaper and must comply with all regulations in Title 36, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and the Superintendent’s Compendium. Visit www.nps.gov/chis/ for a complete list of regulations. Xantus’s Murrelet As in all national parks, natural and cultural resources are protected under federal law. Visitors may not collect,harass, feed or otherwise harm the native wildlife, plant life or other natural and cultural resources of Channel Islands National Park. These include, but are not limited to, vegetation, animals, rocks, shells, feathers and other natural, archeological, and historic features within the park. Under federal law it is illegal to feed, touch, tease, frighten or intentionally disturb wildlife, including seabirds, seals and sea lions. They are very sensitive to any type of human disturbance, especially during nesting and pupping seasons. [Title 36CFR 2.2 (a)(2)] Do not directly or indirectly feed the native wildlife. Wildlife can become habituated to human food by being fed. Once habituated, these animals will beg for food, becoming nuisances to visitors. In addition, habituated animals may bite and transmit diseases, and may consume plastics which obstruct their digestive systems, causing them to starve. Secure your food and garbage at all times. [Title 36CFR 2.2 (a)(2)] Safety No lifeguards on duty. All watersports are at your own risk. Use the buddy system. Open ocean conditions. You are not in a protected cove. Be alert to wind, waves, and currents at all times. Weather and Sea Conditions • Always observe and evaluate sea conditions before entering the water. Check marine weather forecast for the East Santa Barbara Channel in advance. To protect wildlife, landing is prohibited on all offshore rocks and islets . [Superintendent’s Compendium 36 CFR 1.5 (a)(1)] Visitors may not set foot ashore inside sea caves, including, but not limited to ledges and beaches. [Superintendent’s Compendium 36 CFR 1.5 (a)(2)] To protect nesting ashy storm-petrels and Xantus’s murrelts and their habitats, Bat Cave and caves #3 and #4 within the Cavern Point Cove Cave Complex are closed year-round. Bat Cave hosts the largest nesting colony for the rare ashy storm-petrel in the world with over 100 nests. The Xantus’s murrelet is proposed for state and federal endangered species listing. [Superintendent’s Compendium 36CFR 1.5 (a)(1)] Bat Cave: UTM 11S 0262623, 3770695 Lat. N34°03’07.2”, Long. W119°34’25 Cavern #3 & #4: UTM 11S 0263641, 3770901 Lat. N34°03’16.0”, Long. W119°33’41 Marine Reserves are closed to fishing. The area between Scorpion Rock and Potato Harbor from the shoreline out to 3 nautical miles is a State Marine Reserve— the take of living, geological, or cultural resources is prohibited. Please see the park newspaper or a ranger for more information on marine reserves. •Use the buddy system. Stay together and conduct your watersports within the skills of the least experienced member in the group. Equipment •All kayakers must have lifejackets. •Helmets are highly recommended. Always wear a helmet when below cliff
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Hiking Santa Rosa Island Several trails and roads traverse Santa Rosa Island, providing visitors with spectacular hiking opportunities. These trails and roads range from the relatively flat route to Water Canyon Beach to the rugged, mountainous path to Black Mountain. Hikers need to assume individual responsibility for planning their trips and hiking safely. To increase your odds of a safe hike, decrease your disturbance to wildlife, and lessen damage to resources, visitors should be in good physical condition and must follow the regulations and guidelines in the “Limiting Your Impact” section of the park newspaper and those listed below: • The ranch buildings in Bechers Bay are closed except for escorted tours. However, visitors may use the picnic area on the lawn of the main ranch house. Restrooms are located nearby. • The back beaches and sand dunes between and including Skunk Point and just north of East Point are closed to hiking from March 1st to September 15th to protect the nesting area for the snowy plover, a federally listed, threatened shorebird. Please remain on the wet sand (below mean high tide) or the road throughout this area. • Please avoid disturbing sensitive pinniped (seals and sea lions) and seabird areas that are found throughout the island. • It is recommended that visitors use the trail and road system when exploring Santa Rosa Island. Please avoid animal trails, which are narrow, uneven, unstable, and dangerous. • Avoid cliff edges since they are crumbly and unstable. Stay well back. Children should be supervised at all times by an adult. Destination Distance (from pier) (miles, round-trip) 1 Campground 2 Water Canyon Beach 3 Water Canyon 4 Cherry Canyon 5 Black Mountain 6 Torrey Pines • Hikers should never hike alone—use the buddy system. This allows someone to go for help if you encounter trouble. • Carry plenty of water and drink it. One quart for short walks, more for longer hikes. • Be aware of poison oak, “jumping” cholla cactus, ticks, and scorpions. Poison oak can be identified by its clusters of three shiny leaflets. Some ticks carry disease; check your clothing and exposed skin after hiking. • In order to help prevent wildfires, do not smoke on trails or in brush areas. Smoking is allowed only on beaches. • When departing from the islands, visitors are responsible for meeting the boat and airline concessionaire on time. Be aware of departure time by asking the ranger or concessionaire employees. Concessionaire trips are not scheduled every day. Difficulty Description Easy A flat walk along the coastal terrace to the Water Canyon campground. Easy If the wind is not too strong, explore the wonderful 2-mile-long white sand beach. The pier is not accessible from the beach unless there is a minus tide. 3 Moderate to strenuous Although the round trip to the mouth of Water Canyon is only 3 miles, the canyon continues for another 6 miles exiting near Soledad Peak. Follow the stream bed and animal paths through a beautiful canyon with year-round water and native vegetation on the steep walls. This is an off-trail hike for experienced hikers. 3.5 Moderate A loop hike with riparian vegetation and views of Bechers Bay. Other trails branch off of the Cherry Canyon trail allowing for visits to Black Mountain, the campground, and Water Canyon beach. 8 Strenuous A long, steep climb that rewards visitors with oak woodlands and great views (weather permitting) of Santa Rosa, San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and the mainland. Visitors may make this a loop hike by including the Cherry Canyon trail and Telephone and Soledad roads. 5 Moderate View one of the rarest pines in the world, the Torrey pine. The easier, moderate route allows visitors to view the pines along the flat Coastal Road. The strenuous route follows the loop trail to the top of the grove, providing spectacular views. For the best route take the loop trail up the western edge of the grove, along the top, and down the steep, eastern side of the grove. For an easier, more gradual descent, follow the road down to Southeast Anchorage. 3 (.5 from airstrip) 3 (to beach entrance) (via the loop trail) (to base of pines) 7.5 Strenuous (via the loop trail) 7 East Point 8 Lobo Canyon 16 Strenuous (due to length) 9 (to canyon mouth) Strenuous A beautiful hike along the coast or along the Coastal Road with opportunities to explore the Torrey pines and beaches. The back beaches and sand dunes between and including Skunk Point and just north of East Point are closed from March 1st to September 15th. Please remain on the wet sand (below mean high tide) or the road throughout this area. A spectacular canyon with wind- and water-sculpted sandstone cliffs, a year-round stream, riparian vegetation, and a spectacular coast at its mouth. Well worth the effort. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Ca r r in g to n Po
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Interpretive Guide timhaufphotography.com Santa Rosa Island EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Trail Guide 4 Derek Lohuis Contents Channel Islands Pier to Water Canyon Beach Other Points of Interest Vail & Vickers Ranch Area Hichimin, Place Name More Sheep Ranch Vail & Vickers Cattle Ranch Hunting Cowboy Life Horses Boats Pier Rope House, Chute, Pile Driver Corrals Fencing, Water Resources Foreman’s House, Schoolhouse Bunkhouse Horse Barn Blacksmith Shop Barn, Boilers Scale House, Branding Shed Main Ranch House Miscellaneous Structures Hay Fields, Eucalyptus Cypress Trees, Airstrip Water Canyon Native Plants 17 17 17 18 21 22 24 25 29 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 43 46 Skunk Point 48 Torrey Pines Mixing Waters Western Snowy Plover Tidepools Jane L. Stanford Shipwreck 2 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE 48 48 49 52 How to Use This Guide We recommend you begin with the Trail Guide which provides eight interpretive stops along the 1.75-mile walk from the pier to Water Canyon Beach via Cherry Canyon. Then select another area to visit according to your time, interest, and ability. Also, please note that many of the topics covered in the various locations are applicable to any island location. For a more detailed hiking map, please see the “Hiking Santa Rosa Island” bulletin available at island bulletin boards. East Point Abalone Rocks Marsh Qshiwqshiw, Munchkin Dudleya Black Mountain Cloud Forest, San Miguel Island Carrington Point Soft-leaved Island Paintbrush Pygmy Mammoth Lobo Canyon Geology Landbirds Terrestrial Animals Johnsons Lee WW II Army Camp, Radar Post Post-War Military Facilities 53 53 54 55 55 56 56 56 57 57 58 61 66 66 67 th i Sm y H wa igh 1 3 Ranch 2 Road Soledad stal d Roa ho lep Te n n anyo rry C 5 ad o eR Che Coa 8 4 6 7 Wrec k 0.25 miles Beach n o y n Ca Water Bechers Bay N Roa d Map Pier National Park SANTA ROSA ISLAND 3 Tr Pier to Water Canyon Beach N owhere Else on Earth Pier timhaufphotography.com Trail Guide— 1 Channel Islands p ail Sto C lose to the mainland, yet worlds apart, Santa Rosa Island, along with the other Channel Islands, is home to plants and animals that are found nowhere else on Earth. Like on the Galápagos Islands of South America, isolation has allowed evolution to proceed independently on the islands, fostering the development of nearly 150 endemic or unique plants and animals. Santa Rosa Island is home to 46 of these and some, like the rare munchkin dudleya, are found only on Santa Rosa Island. 4 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Isolation has also played a major role in shaping human activities on the island. While the southern California coastal mainland has seen extensive development, the Channel Islands remain undeveloped. The islands’ separation from the mainland by over 25 miles of an often turbulent ocean has limited and directed human use and occupation for thousands of years. And it continues today, giving us a chance to see coastal southern California as it once was. So step back in time and experience the island’s isolation as you walk from the pier through Cherry Canyon and eventually on to Water Canyon Beach. It’s like nowhere else on Earth. National Park Tr 2 Vail & Vickers Ranch Complex An island ranch is a study in self-reliance. With no stores, phones…everything has to be fashioned from whatever is on hand; it’s the art of making do. Gretel Ehrlich, Cowboy Island: Farewell to a Ranching Legacy No one was better at this than Diego Cuevas, a former ranch foreman, who stated in an oral history that he learned to “fix things by improvising. You had to out there. We didn’t have any stores.” Margaret Vail Woolley, part of the Vail family that owned the island, concurred, “He [Diego] could make anything out of anything. It was remarkable. He was perfect for the island.” Some of Diego’s inventions included shutting off the generator by creating a timer using ice, cables, and pulleys (which didn’t work), or by using a rat trap, string, and an alarm clock (which did work). He also built a motorized cart to haul slop to the pigs and a diesel-hauling trailer with a tank. He installed a truck engine in a boat given to the ranch by the Air Force and devised a cooling system for it that worked with salt water and a kelp knife timhaufphotography.com hile the isolated island offered ranchers several advantages over the mainland, including no predators and the world’s best fence (the ocean), it created special challenges as well. Supplying such a remote outpost was probably the biggest challenge. The transportation of supplies and stock on and off the island was always an adventure—the distance to the mainland, rough seas, and expense made it very difficult. However, ranchers adapted to the challenges of island life through selfreliance and, as one ranch foreman wrote, “learning to make do with what [they]
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Exploring San Miguel Island Welcome to San Miguel Island, one of five islands in Channel Islands National Park. This is your island. It is also your responsibility. Please take a moment to read this bulletin and learn what you can do to take care of San Miguel. This information and the map on the back will show you what you can see and do here on San Miguel. About the Island San Miguel is the home of pristine tidepools, rare plants, and the strange caliche forest. Four species of seals and sea lions come here to breed and give birth. For 10,000 years the island was home to the seagoing Chumash people. Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo set foot here in 1542 as the first European to explore the California coast. For 100 years the island was a sheep ranch and after that it was used by the military. San Miguel is still owned by the Navy, but it is managed under agreement by the National Park Service. In 1980 it was designated part of Channel Islands National Park. Access Permit Required A permit (inlcuding liability waiver) is required to visit and hike on the island. They may be obtained at concessioner offices and on the island. On your own you may explore the Cuyler Harbor beach, Cabrillo monument, and the Lester ranch site. Many parts of San Miguel are closed to protect wildlife, fragile plants, and geological features. Several areas, however, are open for you to explore on your own. Others are open to you when accompanied by a park ranger. The Nidever Canyon trail will take you to the ranch site, monument and ranger station. The trail begins at the top of the dune above Gull Rock. It climbs along the east wall of the canyon. Contacting a Ranger To see other parts of the island, such as Point Bennett or the caliche forest, you must go with a ranger. The San Miguel ranger can be contacted on Marine Radio Channel 16. You can also arrange a hike with the ranger through park headquarters at (805) 6585730. Island Rules Everything is protected. Do not collect anything. Take your trash off the island with you. San Miguel Island is open only when National Park Service personnel are on the island. Hikers must stay on trails. Access permit (including liability waiver) is required. No pets are allowed on shore. No smoking or fires. Safety The island was a former bombing range and there are possible unexploded ordnance. Do not disturb any munitions that you may find on or off shore. It is extremely dangerous and may detonate at any time. Report its location to a ranger, who will have it removed by qualified personnel. Hikers must be escorted except where indicated on this map. California State fishing regulations apply. No fishing in marine reserves. Hantavirus has been found in deer mouse populations on San Miguel. This is a potentially fatal disease and some basic precautions should be taken: avoid contact with rodents; do not feed wild animals; keep food and drink in rodent-proof containers. For more information, please see the bulletin board in the campground. Use caution when crossing the rockfall along the beach. Carry plenty of water and drink it. The Nidever Canyon trail is steep and slippery. Watch your step. Hikers should never hike alone—use the buddy system. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Richardson Rock Marine Reserve No Commercial or Recreational Fishing Allowed Boating prohibited within 300 yards of shore from Castle Rock to Judith Rock from Apr. 30 to Oct. 1 and Dec.15 to Mar. 15. No boating within 100 yards of shore year-round. Point Bennett Cuba Wreck N Judith Rock Research Station Castle Rock Adams Cove Judith Rock Marine Reserve No Commercial or Recreational Fishing Allowed Otter Harbor Tyler Bight to n No Commercial or Recreational Fishing Allowed Cuyler Harbor 0 0 Prince Island Bay Point 2 km 2 mi Cardwell Point *Refer to the National Marine Sanctuary's Protecting Your Channel Islands brochure for more information on marine reserves. *To avoid disturbing sensitive seals, sea lions, and seabirds, please stay away from the shoreline where you see them congregate. Lester Ranch site Cabrillo Monument Judge Rock Gull Rock Palm Trees Harris Point Marine Reserve 831 ft Crook Point San Miguel Hill Harris Point Lester Point on 817 ft Caliche Forest Green Mountain Sim ve Co Using This Map • • • • • • Landing is only permitted on the beach at Cuyler Harbor. There is no drinking water on the island. Pit toilets are available at both the ranger station and the campground. The distance from the palm trees to the campground is about one mile. If seals are present on the beach, do not approach or disturb them. On the beach, you may walk to either end of the beach to where the sand runs into the rock. This map is your guide to the open areas on San Miguel Island. The dashed lines mark the trails and sections of beach that you may travel on your own wit
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park timhaufphotography.com Santa Barbara Island Trail Guide Trail 1 Arch Point Trail Stops 1 Signal Peak Trail Stops .25 miles Arch Point 4 Shag Rock North Webster Point 3 Elephant Seal Cove 5 2 2 6 North Peak Landing Cove 1 1 3 7 4 5 Sea Lion Rookery Signal Peak 6 7 Cat Canyon timhaufphotography.com Webster Point How To Use This Trail Guide This trail guide provides 7 interpretive stops along the 2.3 mile loop to Arch Point or the 3 mile loop to Signal Peak. The stops and information are the same for either trail. Please see the adjacent map for specific stop locations for both trails. Arch Point stops are indicated with black circles, while Signal Peak stops have white circles. Also, please note that many of the topics covered are applicable to any island location. No matter what trail you choose to hike, take this guide along to learn about the rich natural and cultural history of Santa Barbara Island. For a more detailed hiking map, please see the “Hiking Santa Barbara Island” bulletin available at the orientation sign near the visitor center. National Park Service 1 Tr 1 p a i l St o Nowhere Else on Earth Location: Orientation Sign near the Visitor Center Close to the mainland, yet worlds apart, Santa Barbara Island, along with the other Channel Islands, is home to plants and animals that are found nowhere else on Earth. As on the Galápagos Islands of South America, the isolation of the Channel Islands has allowed evolution to proceed independently, fostering the development of nearly 150 plants and animals endemic, or unique, to these islands. Santa Barbara Island is home to 14 of these species and some, like the rare Santa Barbara Island live-forever, are found only on this island. coastal mainland has seen extensive development, the Channel Islands remain undeveloped. The islands’ separation from the mainland by up to 60 miles of an often turbulent ocean has limited and directed human use and occupation for thousands of years. And this limited use continues today, giving us a chance to see coastal southern California as it once was. So step back in time and experience Santa Barbara Island’s isolation as you walk to Arch Point or up to Signal Peak. It’s like nowhere else on Earth. timhaufphotography.com Isolation has also played a major role in shaping human activities on the islands. While the southern California 2 Santa Barbara Island Trail Guide Tr 2 p ail Sto Preserving the Past Location: Trail Junction with Arch Point Trail An island ranch is a study in self-reliance. With no stores, phones…everything has to be fashioned from whatever is on hand; it’s the art of making do. While the isolated island offered ranchers several advantages over the mainland, including no predators and the world’s best fence (the ocean), it created special challenges as well. Supplying such a remote outpost was probably the most considerable of these. The transportation of supplies and stock on and off the island was always an adventure—the distance to the mainland, rough seas, and high expense made it very difficult. However, ranchers adapted to the challenges of island life through selfreliance and, as one ranch foreman wrote, “learning to make do with what [they] had.” No one was better suited to this island life than Alvin Hyder, who lived on Santa Barbara Island along with his extended family from 1914 to 1922. According to Alvin’s son, Buster, “The ol’ man got up with a lantern and went to bed with a lantern. Eight hours was just getting’ started. He worked all the time. He was a hard-working man who never knew when to stop.” In order to produce income and be as self-sufficient as possible, the Hyders developed a diverse operation: they raised various crops (barley, corn, and potatoes), maintained a vegetable garden, and imported different animals, including Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Gretel Ehrlich, Cowboy Island: Farewell to a Ranching Legacy Alvin Hyder family on Santa Barbara Island. sheep from Santa Cruz Island, horses, mules, pigs, goats, rabbits, chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys. Not all of these enterprises succeeded. “Too much guano in the ground… burned [the potatoes].” High winds wreaked havoc on the chickens and geese: “We watched more gosh darn chickens and turkeys and our stuff blow out in that ocean—blow ‘em clear out.” One terrible year, the Hyders even lost their entire hay harvest: “We sold our hay to this guy [in San Pedro], and he went bankrupt. We lost all of our feed and all our work…we got skunked.” Raising sheep for wool and meat eventually became the mainstay of the Hyder operations. But even this had its challenges. One of the biggest was transporting the sheep and supplies to National Park Service 3 Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Remaining Hyder Ranch buildings as of 1946. Cleve Hyder fa
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Hiking Santa Barbara Island Welcome to Santa Barbara Island, one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park. Once you have scaled the rugged cliffs using the steep trail from the landing cove, you will find a just over 5 miles of trails that meander over gentle slopes and low mountain tops to dramatic overlooks and magnificent coastal views. Hikers need to assume individual responsibility for planning their trips and hiking safely. To increase your odds of a safe hike, decrease your disturbance to wildlife, and lessen damage to resources, visitors should be in good physical condition and must follow the regulations and guidelines in the “Limiting Your Impact” section of the park newspaper and those listed below: • Please stay on the designated trail system when hiking around the island. Portions of the trails are subject to closure when pelicans are nesting from January through August. • Avoid cliff edges. Wood railroad ties on the ground mark the safe boundary of viewing areas at some overlooks. For your own safety, do not stand on or step past these wood markers. Some cliff edges are not marked. Please stay back from exposed cliff edges as they are eroding and can be very fragile. Children should be supervised at all times by an adult. • Since Santa Barbara Island is a cliff island, access to the water is only at the Landing Cove (no beaches, only a dock). • To protect wildlife and visitors, do not throw anything off the island into the ocean below. • Hikers should never hike alone—use the buddy system. This allows someone to go for help if you encounter trouble. • Carry plenty of water and drink it. One quart for short walks, more for longer hikes. • Be aware of poison oak, “jumping” cholla cactus, ticks, and scorpions. Poison oak can be identified by its clusters of three shiny leaflets. Some ticks carry disease; check your clothing and exposed skin after hiking. • In order to help prevent wildfires, no smoking is allowed on Santa Barbara Island. • When departing from the islands, visitors are responsible for meeting the boat concessionaire on time. Be aware of departure time by asking the ranger or concessionaire employees. (NOTE: Please see the back for hiking destinations and map.) EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA 1 2 3 N 5 4 Hiking Destinations Destination (from visitor center) Distance Difficulty Description 1 Moderate Great views and wildflowers in season. 2.5 Strenuous View elephant seals from overlook. (miles, round trip) 1 Arch Point 2 Elephant Seal Cove 3 Webster Point 3 Strenuous Fantastic coastal views. 4 Sea Lion Rookery 2 Moderate View seal lions from overlook. 5 Signal Peak 2.5 Strenuous Highest point on island with views of Sutil Island. · Portions of trails are subject to closure when pelicans are nesting from January through August. · Hikers must stay on island trails to protect vegetation, nesting seabirds, and for visitor safety.

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