"Winter Panoramic" by National Park Service , public domain

Crater Lake

National Park - Oregon

Crater Lake National Park is in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon. It’s known for its namesake Crater Lake, formed by the now-collapsed volcano, Mount Mazama. Wizard Island is a cinder cone near the western edge of the lake. The Rim Drive, a road surrounding the lake, offers views of the park’s volcanic formations. The park’s numerous trails include Sun Notch, with views of the Phantom Ship, a small island.

maps

Official visitor map of Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the Eastern part of the Douglas Forest Protection Association area in Oregon. Published by the Oregon Department of Forestry.Douglas Forest Protection Association - East 2020

Map of the Eastern part of the Douglas Forest Protection Association area in Oregon. Published by the Oregon Department of Forestry.

Map of Sand Creek in the Klamath-Lake Protection District in Oregon. Published by the Oregon Department of Forestry.Klamath-Lake - Sand Creek 2014

Map of Sand Creek in the Klamath-Lake Protection District in Oregon. Published by the Oregon Department of Forestry.

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Eastern part of Tiller Ranger District (RD) in Umpqua National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Umpqua MVUM - Tiller East 2016

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Eastern part of Tiller Ranger District (RD) in Umpqua National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Eastern part of Diamond Lake Ranger District (RD) in Umpqua National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Umpqua MVUM - Diamond Lake East 2016

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Eastern part of Diamond Lake Ranger District (RD) in Umpqua National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Western part of Diamond Lake Ranger District (RD) in Umpqua National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Umpqua MVUM - Diamond Lake West 2016

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Western part of Diamond Lake Ranger District (RD) in Umpqua National Forest (NF) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

brochures

Summer/Fall Visitor Guide to Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Visitor Guide - Summer/Fall 2021

Summer/Fall Visitor Guide to Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Winter/Spring Visitor Guide to Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Visitor Guide - Winter/Spring 2019/2020

Winter/Spring Visitor Guide to Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure for Bicycling at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Bicycling

Brochure for Bicycling at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure for Fishing at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Fishing

Brochure for Fishing at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Birds at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Birds

Brochure about Birds at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Mammals at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Mammals

Brochure about Mammals at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Reptiles and Amphibians at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Reptiles and Amphibians

Brochure about Reptiles and Amphibians at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Trees at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Trees

Brochure about Trees at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Introduction to Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Introduction

Introduction to Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about the National Park System regarding Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - National Park System

Brochure about the National Park System regarding Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about the Crater Lake Lodge at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Crater Lake Lodge

Brochure about the Crater Lake Lodge at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

History brochure for Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - History

History brochure for Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Geology brochure for Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Geology

Geology brochure for Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about the World's Deepest Lakes, including Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - The World's Deepest Lakes

Brochure about the World's Deepest Lakes, including Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Climate Change at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Crater Lake - Climate Change

Brochure about Climate Change at Crater Lake National Park (NP) in Oregon. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/crla https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crater_Lake_National_Park Crater Lake National Park is in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon. It’s known for its namesake Crater Lake, formed by the now-collapsed volcano, Mount Mazama. Wizard Island is a cinder cone near the western edge of the lake. The Rim Drive, a road surrounding the lake, offers views of the park’s volcanic formations. The park’s numerous trails include Sun Notch, with views of the Phantom Ship, a small island. Crater Lake inspires awe. Native Americans witnessed its formation 7,700 years ago, when a violent eruption triggered the collapse of a tall peak. Scientists marvel at its purity: fed by rain and snow, it’s the deepest lake in the USA and one of the most pristine on earth. Artists, photographers, and sightseers gaze in wonder at its blue water and stunning setting atop the Cascade Mountain Range. From the west (Medford) - Take Hwy 62 to the West Entrance. Open year-round. From the south (Klamath Falls) - Take Hwy 97 north to Hwy 62 to the South Entrance. Open year-round. The North Entrance is on Hwy 138 and is accessed from Interstate 5 east at Roseburg or Hwy 97 south from Bend and Chemult. Winter travelers from Roseburg take Route 138 east to Route 230 south to Route 62 east to the park's west entrance. Travelers from Bend take Route 97 south to Route 62 to the park's south entrance. Rim Visitor Center Only open in summer, but due to COVID-19 this visitor center was closed in 2020 and 2021. Hours for 2022 will be announced in June. Views of the lake are prominent and accessible from Rim Visitor Center. It is located at the historic Kiser Studio in Rim Village. Outdoor exhibits at the near-by Sinnott Memorial Overlook are likely open until mid-October. Get your passport stamp at the US Post Office located at headquarters, 9am to12pm and 1pm to 3pm. Rim Visitor Center* is in Rim Village, 7 miles north of Highway 62 from Annie Springs Entrance Station or 14 miles south of the North Entrance** via West Rim Drive. Angle-in parking with additional parking in the picnic area. Large vehicles use the dedicated parking area at the entrance to Rim Village or near-by pullouts. *There is no physical address for the Rim Visitor Center. **North Entrance Road and West Rim Drive are closed from November 1 or the first significant snowfall to generally mid-June. Steel Visitor Center Steel Visitor Center is closed through 2022 for a major structural renovation to stabilize the building against seismic and excessive snow load forces. The historic integrity of this former ranger dormitory, now known as the Steel Visitor Center, will remain while accessibility and safety will be increased for all visitors and staff. The building will get new electric wiring, IT cabling, plumbing, heating, and an updated interior building layout. More visitor services info will be added as it is available. Steel Visitor Center is located at park headquarters, 4 miles north of Highway 62 and 3 miles south of Rim Village on Munson Valley Road (sometimes shown on maps as Volcanic Scenic Byway). Turn into park headquarters at the only blinking 3-way stop sign in the park. During summer, there are two accessible parking spaces in front of the flagpole, and drop-off space next to the winter-access snow tunnel on the right side of the visitor center. Lost Creek Campground, elevation is 6,000 feet (1,829 meters) CLOSED 2021 Lost Creek Campground is managed by the National Park Service. It usually opens in early July and closes in mid-October, depending on weather and other factors. It is for tent campers only--NO RVs, buses, trailers, or vans and truck with toilets. Registration is self-serve on the day of arrival. No advance registration is available. The campground fills by mid-afternoon. The only means of knowing site availability is upon arrival at the campground. Tent Only 5.00 All sites are tent-only and are $5 per night. Payment is due the day of arrival when you self-register for a site. Payment is by cash (exact change only) or a check made out to the National Park Service. Credit cards are not accepted. Senior Pass and Access Pass holders are entitled to a 50% discount. Maximum number of people per campsite is 8 with and a maximum of 2 vehicles. Lost Creek Campground is limited to 30 days each calendar year with no more than 14 consecutive days in any park campground. Entrance Sign to Lost Creek Campground four 8-inch, round, brown, wood posts with a cross beam holding the entrance sign to Lost Creek Camp Entrance Sign to Lost Creek Campground Lost Creek Campground Site Campsite with picnic table and bear proof storage container Lost Creek Campsites are settled in a grassy meadow surrounded by conifers. Lost Creek Campsite #14 Campsite with picnic table and bear proof storage container, parking area, and site # post Campsite 14 is in the inner circle. Lost Creek Campsite #4 Campsite with picnic table and bear proof storage container A campsite nestled next to Lost Creek and the Greyback Trail. Mazama Campground Open only in the summer, Mazama Campground has 214 sites in an old-growth forest at an elevation of 6,000 feet (1,829 m). All sites have a picnic table, fire ring, and bear-resistant food locker. The campground is operated by the park's concessioner, Crater Lake Hospitality. In June, some sites are available only on a first-come, first-served basis, all others by reservation. In July, August, and September, all sites are available by advance reservation, either online or by calling 866-292-6720. Tent Site 21.00 Maximum number of people per campsite is 6. Maximum number of vehicles per campsite is 2. If no tent sites are available, tent campers may rent an RV site at the fee posted for that site. Camping is limited to 30 days per year, with no more than 14 consecutive days. Senior Pass and Access Pass holders are entitled to a 50% discount on camping fees. When you make a reservation, you'll be charged the full amount. Upon arrival at the campground with a valid pass and identification you will be refunded 50%. RV No-hookups 31.00 Maximum RV length is 50 feet (15 meters). Maximum trailer length is 35 feet (11 meters). If no tent sites are available, tent campers may rent an RV site at the fee posted for that site. Senior Pass and Access Pass holders are entitled to a 50% discount on camping fees. When you make a reservation, you'll be charged the full amount. Upon arrival at the campground with a valid pass and identification you will be refunded 50%. RV Electricity Only 36.00 Maximum RV length is 50 feet (15 meters). Maximum trailer length is 35 feet (11 meters). Senior Pass and Access Pass holders are entitled to a 50% discount on camping fees. When you make a reservation, you'll be charged the full amount. Upon arrival at the campground with a valid pass and identification you will be refunded 50%. RV Full Hookups 42.00 Maximum RV length is 50 feet (15 meters). Maximum trailer length is 35 feet (11 meters). Senior Pass and Access Pass holders are entitled to a 50% discount on camping fees. When you make a reservation, you'll be charged the full amount. Upon arrival at the campground with a valid pass and identification you will be refunded 50%. PCT Hikers and Bicyclist Walk-In Camp 5.00 This group site is reserved for visitors arriving by bicycle or PCT hikers only. A space in this site may be obtained on the day of arrival and not before. Mazama Campsite blue and white tent next to a picnic table at a campsite A tent campsite at Mazama Village Campground Mazama Campsite Campsite with picnic table, fire ring and wood, two small tents, and a hammock hung between trees Prepared to camp and enjoy a campfire. Amphitheater long benches with a center walk face a raised amphitheater structure with screen The amphitheater hosts nightly ranger programs in July, August, and early September. Wizard Island A view of Crater Lake and Wizard Island Looking at Crater Lake and Wizard Island from Discovery Point Chaski Bay a view of Phantom Ship and Chaski Bay A view from Garfield Peak along the rim of Crater Lake Crater Lake a view of Crater Lake from the lakeshore A view across Crater Lake from the lakeshore Crater Lake from Mount Scott Crater Lake as seen from the summit of Mt. Scott A view of the caldera from Mt. Scott, the highest point in Crater Lake National Park Vidae Falls water flowing over Vidae Falls Water flowing over Vidae Falls Wildflowers on Wizard Island wildflowers on Wizard Island Wildflowers along the Wizard Island Summit Trail Crater Lake in Winter A view of Crater Lake in the winter A view of Crater Lake in the winter Clouds in the Caldera Clouds in the Crater Lake Caldera Clouds in the Crater Lake Caldera Park Air Profiles - Crater Lake National Park Air quality profile for Crater Lake National Park. Gives park-specific information about air quality and air pollution impacts for Crater Lake NP as well as the studies and monitoring conducted for Crater Lake NP. Wildflowers in Crater Lake National Park Tribute: Gary L. Larson, Limnologist A remembrance of limnologist Gary L. Larson Gary Larson NPS Structural Fire Program Highlights 2014 Intern Accomplishments Carpenter Ant Curious about carpenter ants? Explore their natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. close up photo of carpenter ant NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Crater Lake National Park, Oregon Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. illustration of erupting volcano Pileated Woodpecker Curious about the pileated woodpecker in Oregon and California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Face and front of a woodpecker, with black body, red crest, and small blue berry in its beak. Pikas in Peril The National Park Service stewards pika populations in more than a dozen parks and seeks to understand the vulnerability of pikas and other mountain species to climate change. Pikas in Peril, funded in 2010, was a collaborative research program directed by scientists from the National Park Service, Oregon State University, University of Idaho, and University of Colorado-Boulder. Profile of a pika on rough, dark red lava rock. © Michael Durham Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. 2007 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2007 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Vascular plant hyperdiversity in high-elevation riparian communities of National Park Service units in the Klamath Network Monitoring data provide evidence of high vascular plant diversity in riparian environments. This surprising pattern indicates a high conservation significance of these park environments. Stream and forest scene at Lassen Volcanic National Park (Credit: NPS Photo) The impact of introduced crayfish on a unique population of salamander in Crater Lake, Oregon Expansion of introduced crayfish in Crater Lake has and likely will continue to cause declines in the abundance and distribution of the Mazama newt and ultimately could lead to the newt’s extinction. A biologist returns Mazama newts to Crater Lake. Copyright Jeremy Monroe, Freshwaters Illustrated Walking With Wildflowers: Monitoring Pacific Crest Trail Plant Communities as Climate Changes Walking with Wildflowers is a citizen science program dedicated to monitoring plant phenology along the Pacific Crest Trail using observations from hikers and backpackers. Its main goal is to determine whether plant species are able to respond to changing climatic conditions and better understand how plants use seasonal cues to time flowering. Trail through a meadow surrounded by trees, with mountains beyond Giant Water Bug Curious about giant water bugs in Oregon and California? Explore their natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network.” Brown, flattened but with many whitish, columnar eggs attached to its back. Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. Volcanic Legacy Scenic Byway One of only 42 All American Roads in the Nation, the 500-mile route connects Lassen Volcanic and Crater Lake National Parks. The volcanic activity of the Cascade Mountain Range has created unique geological formations that can only be seen in this part of America. A white car on a mountain road with a large mountain in the background History of the Panoramic Lookout Project Most documentation of the panoramic lookout photos project, which began about 1930 to document areas seen from the lookout system, comes from the US Forest Service. The NPS project began in 1934. Lester Moe worked for the Forest Service taking photos in 1933 and 1934, and later worked for NPS. Several innovations came about from this project: the Osborne photo-recording transit and “special emulsion infra-red sensitive film” not affected by smoke and haze. sample of the panoramic lookout project Sandhill Crane Curious about the sandhill crane in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Two large grayish-brown cranes stand together with wings outspread Researching the Riddle of Crater Lake's Secret Garden A microbiologist talks about her research in Crater Lake, the origins of curiosity, and what she hopes for young scientists. Microscopic moss leaf covered with microorganisms Anna's Hummingbird Curious about the Anna's hummingbird in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Small, green hummingbird with narrow bill and iridescent rose-colored feathers on throat and crown. Parks, pikas, and physiological stress: Implications for long-term monitoring of an NPS climate-sensitive sentinel species Baseline values of physiological stress can be incorporated into monitoring plans for pikas, providing park managers with additional information related to the vulnerability of this climate-sensitive model species that occurs within a large number of western parks. American pika (Copyright Dick Orleans) Pollinators - Bumble bee Get the buzz on bumblebees! There are approximately 46 species of bumble bees (genus Bombus) native to North America and 250 species worldwide—all dependent on flowering plants. A bumblebee lands on a white flower Orange Sulphur Curious about the orange sulphur butterfly in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Yellowish-orange butterfly with dark band along the wing edges perches with wings open. NPS Launches Projects in Crater Lake and Yellowstone to Reduce Wildfire Risk and Protect Structures NPS Launches Projects in Crater Lake and Yellowstone to Reduce Wildfire Risk and Protect Structures. Piles created from fuels reduction project At Crater Lake National Park Great Gray Owl Curious about the great gray owl in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Large gray-checkered owl with outspread wings comes to land on a post. Ruffed Grouse Curious about the ruffed grouse in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Grouse with reddish brown and white mottling and streaking, a head crest and a dark tail band. Castle Crest Wildflower Trail Cultural Landscape Castle Crest Wildflower Trail is a 0.40-mile interpretive trail that loops around a meadow below Castle Crest Ridge. Originally built in 1929, the trail was created to provide visitor access to and interpretation of one of the most abundant wildflower displays in the park. The Castle Crest Wildflower Trail was not only connected to the early development of Crater Lake’s education program, it was also a local manifestation of a greater NPS educational movement. A meadow surrounded by forest. Rim Drive Historic District Cultural Landscape The period of significance for the Rim Drive Historic District is 1926 to 1941, reflecting the years of development when planning and design efforts were undertaken by the National Park Service and the Bureau of Public Roads. With work relief funding from the federal government, the road and its associated features were constructed to provide access to the area's unique scenic features while also blending into the area's natural character. A view from a rocky trail shows Rim Drive winding through peaks and subalpine meadows. Rim Village Cultural Landscape Rim Village is located on the southwestern edge the Crater Lake caldera. The landscape is a mixture of highly designed developed areas and natural areas, including large indigenous hemlock trees and the fragile landform of the caldera. The landscape is significant for the period 1927 through 1941 for its association with the American Park Movement and early NPS master planning. brown building surrounded by turf The Watchman Cultural Landscape The Watchman is a component cultural landscape of Rim Drive Historic District at Crater Lake National Park. The Watchman Observation Station and the Watchman Trail demonstrate Rustic architecture and Naturalistic landscape architectural styles commonly employed in park planning and development. The features were designed to support its use as a fire lookout, for visitor enjoyment and interpretation, and to emphasize the natural views and landscape characteristics. A steep rocky rim drops into the sharp blue of Crater Lake, seen from the lookout on Watchman Peak. It's a Wrap: Completing the Crater Lake Vegetation Map Dodging fires at Crater Lake National Park in the summer of 2017, the Klamath Network vegetation mapping crew gathered their last season of field data. The summer’s plots check the accuracy of the final map, setting the stage for its publication in June of 2018. Vegetation maps help us learn how park landscapes change over time, and help us identify unique or sensitive park habitats. The new map offers more detail and higher accuracy than any previously available to the park. Person outside, looking at a GPS and recording species data. Making Sense of Monitoring Data: Whitebark Pine Conditions in the Southern Cascades Klamath Network botanist, Sean Smith, has been monitoring whitebark pine conditions in two network parks since 2012. Jenell Jackson, the graduate student he worked with early on, recently coauthored a paper with Smith and other scientists in the journal <em>Forests</em> sharing what they’ve learned about whitebark pine. Their study aims to support park managers grappling with how best to protect this increasingly threatened tree in the southern Cascades. Close-up of tree bark covered in orange blisters. Series: Panoramic Project Shows How National Parks Change Over Time In the 1930s, panoramic photographs were taken from lookout points. Comparing these images to present-day photographs allows us to understand change over time. Viewing photographs of different eras in the national parks can give many insights on ecosystem processes, as well as simply change over time. The panoramic lookout photographs provide a window on the past and an opportunity to compare to the present with changes to landforms and land cover. Lester Moe documenting park landscapes in the 1930s Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Park Air Profiles Clean air matters for national parks around the country. Photo of clouds above the Grand Canyon, AZ Whitebark Pine - Featured Creature Curious about the whitebark pine? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Gray and white bird with black wings digs into a pine cone on the end of a pine branch. Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Scientist Profile: Andrew Ray, Ecologist Meet Andrew Ray, ecologist with the Greater Yellowstone Inventory & Monitoring Network! Andrew is fascinated by aquatic habitats and wetland plants. Learn about his favorite project studying the unique Crater Lake Manzama newt, and discover how he got to be where he is today. Scientist gestures to something in a fishing net as two people in NPS uniform observe. Wildland Fire in Lodgepole Pine The bark of lodgepoles is thin, which does not protect the trunks from scorching by fire. They die easily when a fire passes through. However, the serotinous cones give lodgepole pine a special advantage for spreading seeds for the next generation. Close-up of the needles of a lodgepole pine. Douglas's Squirrel Curious about the Douglas's squirrel in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Medium-sized squirrel with tawny belly, gray back, whitish eye ring, and tufts on ears, in a tree. Scientist Profile: Alice Chung-MacCoubrey, Biologist and I&M Program Manager Meet Alice Chung-MacCoubrey, ecologist and program manager for the Klamath Inventory & Monitoring Network! Discover how Alice followed her passion for wildlife and the outdoors to the National Park Service Inventory & Monitoring Program, and learn about her work studying bats. Biologist holds bat with gloved hands. Listening for Owls: A Multi-agency Collaboration to Preserve Spotted Owl Habitat Across the West For over 25 years, biologists from the National Park Service and several other agencies have collected spotted owl monitoring data to inform forest management that is guided by the multi-agency Northwest Forest Plan. Yet traditional field surveys for spotted owls have become less effective as their numbers have dwindled. Thus in 2021, the Northwest Forest Plan’s spotted owl monitoring design is transitioning to remote acoustic monitoring (also known as passive monitoring). Audio recording unit, with microphones on either side, mounted on a tree trunk. A Century Later: Scientists Study the Impact of Crayfish Introduction at Crater Lake National Park Over a century ago, crayfish were introduced into pristine Crater Lake. Now, they have spread to 95% of the shoreline. Scientific studies show an influence from climate change: warmer water allows more crayfish to survive winter, while longer summers give crayfish more time to spread when water is warm. The studies also show that introduced crayfish reduce the biomass of bottom dwelling insects relied upon by endemic Mazama newts, which are poised to disappear as a result. Person snorkeling, looking between large rocks. The Northwestern Bat Hub: Banding Together for Bat Monitoring Across the West The first detection of white-nose syndrome in the American West in 2016 highlighted an urgent need to better understand the distribution and ecology of around twenty species of bats in Western states. To do this, ecologists in several Inventory & Monitoring Networks and National Parks joined with the USGS and ten other university and agency partners to expand the North American Bat Monitoring Program to sites across the West and develop the Northwestern Bat Hub. Close-up of a western mastiff bat in a gloved hand. Did You Know We Never Hire Women? In 1920, as Ranger Isabelle Bassett Wasson arrived at Yellowstone, Dr. Harold C. Bryant and Dr. Loye Holmes Miller launched the new NPS education program with the Free Nature Guide Service at Yosemite National Park. Female Ranger talks to a crowd The Job is His, Not Yours In the early 1950s, park wives continued to function as they had from the 1920s to the 1940s. The NPS still got Two For the Price of One, relying on women to keep monuments in the Southwest running, to give freely of their time and talents, to build and maintain park communities, and to boost morale among park staffs. With the creation of the Mission 66 Program to improve park facilities, the NPS found new ways to put some park wives to (unpaid) work. Man and woman with telescope Substitute Rangers As the 1940s dawned, the United States was still dealing with the economic woes of the Great Depression and trying not to get drawn in WWII. Even as it continued to manage New Deal Program work in national and state parks, the NPS remained understaffed as a government bureau. The emergency relief workers and about 15 percent of NPS staff enlisted or were drafted during the first couple of years of WWII. Winifred Tada, 1940. (Courtesy of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin) Bigleaf Maple Curious about the bigleaf maple in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Lush ferns and mosses grow on the trunk of a large maple tree. Checking Crater Lake's Vital Signs In 2010, the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network—a small team of NPS scientists—began monitoring natural resources, called "vital signs," in Crater Lake and nearby parks. Vital signs indicate park health and serve as red flags if conditions deteriorate. Results from monitoring these vital signs support park managers’ efforts to make science-based management decisions. Learn about the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Division and its work in Crater Lake National Park. Cliff and yellow shrubbery above a large blue lake. Top Ten Tips for Visiting in Summer Crater Lake National Park crowns of conifer tress frame Crater Lake Vaux's Swift Curious about the Vaux's swift in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. A small, pale brown, cigar-shaped bird with narrow, pointed wings, in flight. Coast Douglas-fir Curious about Douglas-fir in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Six people in front of a very large Douglas-fir at Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve. Pacific Madrone Curious about Pacific madrone in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Close up Pacific madrone bark Oregon Grape Curious about Oregon grape in southern Oregon? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Bright green, shiny leaves of a tall Oregon grape with a cluster of round blue-black berries. Tree Lungwort Curious about tree lungwort in northern California and southern Oregon? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly "Featured Creature," brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Close of of tree lungwort's upper and lower surfaces American Black Bear Curious about the American black bear in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Black-colored black bear with a dandelion in its mouth. Roosevelt Elk Curious about the Roosevelt elk in southern Oregon and northern California? Explore its natural history in this edition of our monthly “Featured Creature,” brought to you by the Klamath Inventory and Monitoring Network. Two bull elk with antlers just beginning to grow face each other.
Crater Lake Crater Lake National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Refections Visitor Guide Summer/Fall 2021 Welcome to Crater Lake! ...Or in many cases, welcome back! Last year at this time many of us were hunkered Craig Ackerman Superintendent down or isolated trying to reduce the spread of the COVID virus and keep our family, friends, and neighbors safe. This year vaccinations and effective protocols are allowing more people to travel and visit our great public lands. We are expecting record visitation to our national parks! While we are more fully staffed than last year, we are still limited in the services and facilities that we can provide, so we ask you to exercise good planning, judgment, and patience while exploring the park and nearby areas. Please review the rules on page 2 to protect yourself from harm and park resources from damage. Be prepared with proper clothing and footwear, food, water, and sunscreen. And pack plenty of consideration and courtesy. Report problems to a ranger and offer help to people you observe who may need assistance. It will make the park a better place for everyone, and you will be rewarded in knowing that you contributed to the protection and enhancement of one of the most special places on Earth. Hours & Seasons The park is open year-round, 24 hours a day. Some roads, however, are closed seasonally due to snow. The park’s North Entrance and Rim Drive close for the season on November 1 (or earlier if there is signifcant snowfall). Crews start plowing these roads in April, but opening dates vary. The North Entrance and West Rim Drive open sometime between midMay and late June. The East Rim Drive opens sometime between mid-June and late July. Highway 62 and the road to Rim Village are plowed year-round. Rotary Plow at Rim Village Exploring Your Park 10 Great Ways to Enhance Your Stay Whether this is your frst visit to the park or your 50th, seeing Crater Lake from the rim of the caldera is likely to be an awe-inspiring experience. But there is also much to see and do here after the initial view. If you’ve been to the park in pre-COVID times, you’ll notice that some services and experiences are not available this summer in the interests of public health. For example, boat tours and trolley tours are not operating, Crater Lake Lodge is open to overnight Lodge guests only, and the park flm is not being shown. Fortunately, the pandemic has not afected the park’s outstanding scenery, hiking trails, roads, overlooks, and other recreational opportunities—many of which are described in this visitor guide. To get you started, here are 10 ideas for making the most of your stay: Circle the Lake Rim Drive is a 33-mile (53-km) paved road around Crater Lake. More than 30 pullouts ofer excellent views of the park’s scenery. Allow 2 to 3 hours (see page 5). Photograph the Pinnacles Formed by the same eruption that gave birth to the lake, these colorful volcanic spires are tucked away in the park’s southeast corner (see page 5). Find the Phantom Ship Anchored near the lake’s south shore is an island that seems to be sailing away. To see it, walk to Sun Notch or drive to the viewpoint named in its honor (see page 5). Have a Picnic The pullouts and picnic areas on the Rim Drive are perfect for outdoor eating. Stop by the Rim Village Café or Mazama Village Store for grab-and-go sandwiches. Visit the Sinnott Overlook Touch the Water Climb a Peak Savor the Sunset Watch for Wildfowers View the Milky Way Perched on a clif at Rim Village, this historic overlook features a dramatic view of the caldera and exhibits that explain its geologic features (see page 3). The summits of Garfeld Peak, Watchman Peak, and Mount Scott each ofer spectacular—and very diferent—views of Crater Lake (see page 4). From late June to early August, fowers line many of the park’s roads and trails. Take a short stroll on the Castle Crest Trail to view the park’s premier display (see page 4). Climate Chart The trail to the lake shore is steep and can be crowded, but the water at the bottom is some of the world’s purest. Swim, fsh, or simply dangle your toes (see page 2). Sunsets in the park can be spectacular— especially from the top of Watchman Peak and from roadside pullouts high on the Rim Drive (see page 2). On moonless nights, the park ofers some of the darkest night skies in America. Look up to see meteors, satellites, planets, and the starry arms of our galaxy. Most days in July, August, and September are warm and sunny. In May, June, and October, clear days alternate with periods of rain and snow. Winters are long. Storms from the Pacifc Ocean dump an average of 42 feet (13 meters) of snow at Park Headquarters! The park’s tremendous snowfall is a result of its position at the crest of the Cascade Mountains. FAHRENHEIT Jan Feb Mar Apr Average Daily High (ºF) 34 35 37 42 Average Daily Low (ºF) 18 18 19 23 Average Snowfall (inches) 100 81 83 45 Avg. Snow Depth (inc
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Refections Visitor Guide Winter/Spring 2019-2020 Rotary plow at Rim Village One Lake, Many Moods Crater Lake is unpredictable. No matter how many times you’ve seen it before, you can never be sure exactly what to expect on your next visit to the rim. The lake’s appearance is ever-changing and often surprising. This is especially true in the winter—perhaps the best time of year to witness Crater Lake at its most wild and beautiful. Keeping the Park Open is “Snow” Easy Task What were you doing at 4:00 am this morning? If you were a member of the Crater Lake roads crew, you might have been reporting for duty! Trying to keep Highway 62 and the road to Rim Village open year-round is no easy task. Each day, the park’s heavy equipment operators work from 4:00 am to 8:00 pm, in two different shifts, clearing snow and sanding roads. During heavy storms, snow removal can become a 24-hour operation, with crews working 12 hours at a time. “It can be a hazardous job,” reports one operator, “especially when it’s dark and white-out conditions are occurring. On a winding mountain road, you never know what’s around the next corner. It could be a tree across the road at windshield level, a car stuck in the snow, or an avalanche.” The lake’s character depends partly on the wind. On many winter days, strong winds whip across the water. The strongest gusts materialize as whitecaps and can be seen marching, like angry armies, across the width of the lake. Calm days in the winter are few and far between, but, when they occur, the scene is entirely diferent. The lake becomes a mirror and refects the sky in perfect symmetry; the air is so quiet you can hear a pine needle drop. The lake’s appearance (and frequent disappearance) also depends on cloud cover. Nearly 50% of the time in the winter and early spring, storms completely hide the lake from view. While disappointing for visitors who have driven hours to get here, it’s during these periods of rain and snow that the lake is replenished. Crater Lake wouldn’t be America’s deepest lake without such wet winters, which dump an average of 43 feet (13 meters) of snow at Park Headquarters. The lake rests inside a caldera formed 7,700 years ago when a 12,000-foot-tall (3,600-meter) volcano collapsed following a major eruption. The eruption may have been the largest in North America in the past 640,000 years. Later eruptions formed Wizard Island, a cinder cone near the southwest shore. With so many variables (and we haven’t even mentioned the color of the water, which can vary from bright blue to slate gray, with hues of red, orange, and purple at sunrise and sunset), Crater Lake is never the same lake twice. And thank goodness! Its unpredictability is one of its fnest attributes, one that makes visiting (and re-visiting) the park such a delightful and rewarding activity. The park is central to the cultural traditions of local American Indian tribes, whose ancestors witnessed the lake’s formation. Today, old-growth forests blanket the volcano’s outer slopes, harboring more than 700 native plant species and a wide variety of animals, including several that are rare or endangered. • • • • • • • Park established: 1902 Size: 183,000 acres (74,060 hectares) Annual visitation: 700,000 people Lake depth: 1,943 feet (592 meters) Lake width: 4.5 to 6 miles (7 to 10 km) Lake volume: 5 trillion gallons (19 tr. liters) Last time the lake froze over: 1949 Snowshoe with a Park Ranger Ranger-led snowshoe walks are a fun way to experience the winter wonderland of Crater Lake National Park. This winter, if staffng and snow conditions allow, they will take place on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays from November 23 through April 26. Walks will also likely be offered daily from December 21 through January 5 (except on Christmas Day) and from March 20 through March 29. Snowshoes are provided free of charge and no previous snowshoeing experience is necessary. The walks start at 1:00 pm, last 2 hours, and cover 1 to 2 miles (1.6–3.2 km) of hilly terrain. The route is up to the ranger, but most walks begin at Rim Village and explore the forests and meadows along the rim of the caldera. Along the way, participants discover how winter affects Crater Lake and the park’s plants and animals. Space on each tour is limited, and advance reservations are recommended. You can sign up at the Steel Visitor Center or by calling 541-594-3100. Participants must be at least 8 years old, healthy enough for a moderate-to-strenuous hike, and have warm clothing and water-resistant footwear. Rangers use a giant “ruler” to measure snow depth at Park Headquarters. They’ve measured snow depth and snowfall at this location since 1931. Most years, as in this photo, the mid-winter snowpack exceeds 10 feet (3 meters) deep, but last winter, it never touched the 4-foot (1.2-meter) mark. The amount of snow moved each winter by the park’s roads crew is astounding. (
Bicycling Pedalling Around Crater Lake Rules and Safety Camping Getting Here by Bicycle Each year, increasing numbers of cyclists come to Crater Lake National Park to ride around the lake on the physically demanding, 33-mile Rim Drive. Steep hills at high elevation may encourage even the most fit riders to pause at many of the road's thirty overlooks and pull-outs. The payoff, however, is spectacular scenery, viewed at a pace that few visitors choose to take enough time for. Cyclists must respect and obey all rules that apply to automobile traffic, including speed limits. Bicycle helmets are required. Riders face many hazards including high speeds on steep downhill sections, rocks, animals and other road hazards as well as heavy traffic volumes. Only cyclists experienced at riding with auto traffic should consider biking at Crater Lake. Park roads seldom have shoulders. Cyclists should use extreme caution, particularly along narrow areas and blind curves. Wear bright, highly-visible clothing to help drivers see you. Cyclists unaccustomed to high altitudes may find that the elevation makes breathing difficult. Bicycles are not permitted on park trails. Rim Drive, during those seasonal periods when the road is snow free and closed to motorvehicles, is open to bicyclists. Please call the park visitor center for current open status. For mountain biking, the Grayback Drive provides eight miles of unpaved, one-way road. Water is available only at Rim Village and the Steel Visitor Center. Cyclists on long tours are welcome to stay at either of the park's two campgrounds. Both charge a fee for camping; call the park for current rates. Mazama Campground, located near Highway 62 at Annie Springs entrance, offers 213 campsites with showers, laundry and a camp store nearby. It is generally open from mid-June to early October. Lost Creek Campground, located three miles off the East Rim Drive, is more isolated. It has 16 campsites for tents only, cold water faucets and toilet facilities. Lost Creek is open from mid-July to mid-September. All routes into the park have long, steep grades. Because road conditions are unfavorable to cyclists most of the year, and because many roads are closed during the long winter, we recommend you plan trips only for the summer months of July, August, and September. Entrance stations provide maps and information during summer daytime hours. Fees to enter the park are $10 by automobile or $5 per bicycle up to a maximum of $10 per family. For more information or current road and weather conditions, please go on-line to www.nps.gov/crla or call (541)594-3100. The Rim Drive The most popular bicycle route at Crater Lake is the 33-mile Rim Drive. This road provides spectacular views of Crater Lake and the surrounding area throughout its length. The road is narrow with long, steep grades. Most cyclists start from the Park Headquarters area and ride around the lake clockwise. This direction puts one of the steepest and longest grades at the beginning of the trip. Altitude, climb, and distance estimates are listed below, assuming a clockwise trip. Waypoints and Distances Map Point 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Point Name Park HQ Rim Village Discovery Point Watchman Trailhead North Junction Cleetwood Cove Wineglass Skell Head Cloudcap Kerr Notch Dutton Ridge Vidae Falls Park HQ Total Mileage 0.0mi 3.0 4.1 6.8 9.1 13.7 16.5 17.9 20.9 24.4 27.0 30.0 33.0 Climb (feet} 0 650 50 400 200 450 350 400 600 0 650 0 150 Distance (from last} 0.0mi 3.0 1.1 2.7 2.3 4.6 2.8 1.4 2.6 3.5 2.6 3.0 3.0 Elevation (feet} 6450 7100 7100 7350 7050 6850 6700 7100 7700 6700 7350 6600 6450 Maps l , ---=::, I To Klamath Falls EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA '" Revised 7/12
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park Fishing The Shores of Crater Lake If you’re willing to work for your fishing opportunity, then try fishing at Crater Lake where the 1.1 mile long Cleetwood Trail drops almost 700 feet down to the shoreline. All waters within Crater Lake National Park are open to fishing unless otherwise indicated below. No fishing license is required within the boundaries of Crater Lake National Park. The fishing season runs from May 20 through October 31 generally. However, there are some special cicumstances so make sure to read the Lake Regulations below. There are also some opportunities to be had in the streams of Crater Lake National Park but state and federal regulations apply, so keep reading. Fishing is only allowed from ½ hour before sunrise to ½ hour after sunset. In all waters of the park, only artificial lures and flies may be used. No organic bait of any kind can be used; including live or dead fish, power bait, and fish eggs or roe. Crater Lake Regulations Limits There are no restrictions to size, number or species taken. Season The lake can be fished year-round except when seasonal limitations prevent safe access. The only access to the lake is by the Cleetwood Trail located on the north side of Crater Lake. This trail is moderately strenuous, dropping nearly 700 feet down from the Rim Drive to the shoreline in just over a mile. Hiking back up can take, on average, 30 to 45 minutes. Where Cleetwood Cove provides about ¼ mile of rocky shoreline for angling. Wizard Island is also open while boat tours are running. Fishing is not allowed within 200 feet of the boat docks. Note Please pack out your catch. Cleaning fish in the lake is prohibited. Boating Private boats or flotation devices are not allowed on Crater Lake. Stream Regulations Closures Fishing is prohibited in Sun Creek and Lost Creek within the boundaries of Crater Lake National Park. Sun and Lost Creeks are protected habitat for the native Bull Trout which is listed under the Endangered Species Act. The park is engaged sustainable population of bull trout. Allowing fishing would jeopardize this species due to take, injury and mortality caused by catching, snagging, injuring while releasing, or keeping bull trout. There are no less restrictive measures that would provide adequate protection to bull trout. Regulations State regulations are enforced for stream fishing in Crater Lake National Park. in a long-term project to eradicate non-native fish species from these creeks and restore Fish in Crater Lake In 1888, William G. Steel, considered the founder of Crater Lake National Park, made the first recorded attempts to stock Crater Lake. National Park Service researchers believe that before that time, Crater Lake contained no fish. William Steel’s motive for stocking the lake was probably to improve the lake’s recreational value. Around the turn of the century, a regular stocking programs was begun. Stocking continued through the early part of the century until creel censuses showed that the fish were naturally reproducing. Six species were introduced to Crater Lake during this time. The last recorded stockings were silver salmon in 1937 and rainbow trout in 1941. Later investigations revealed that the naturally reproducing silver salmon were actually kokanee salmon. Since kokanee were not intentionally introduced, researchers believe that one of the plantings of silver salmon fingerlings was actually Fish in Park Streams kokanee. Of the six species introduced, two remain: Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are a dwarf, landlocked form of sockeye salmon. Kokanee are the most abundant species in the lake, estimated to have a population well in the hundreds of thousands. An average kokanee is about 8 inches long, but some grow to as long as 18 inches. Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are less abundant than the kokanee, but are typically larger. The largest documented rainbow trout from Crater Lake was a 6 ½ pound, 26 inches long specimen caught by the park research team. Most rainbows average 10 to 14 inches. Rainbow trout and kokanee salmon populations are stable in the lake. Researchers believe that this stability is due to each fish species eating different foods. Kokanee feed on zooplankton and rainbows feed on aquatic insects. Although the lake is by far the park’s largest body of water, fish also inhabit many of the small streams within the park. These streams are generally not accessible because of the steep canyons in which they are found. According to stocking records, two species, eastern brook and rainbow trout, were planted in park streams. However, a total of four species have been identified: Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) have been found in almost every park stream. Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were originally planted in large numbers throughout the park. Today, it appears that their numbers are few and scat
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park Checklist of Birds Crater ake National Park is comprised of 183,224 acres of mountains, peaks, evergreen forests, and lake. Elevations range from 4000 feet along the borders of the park to 8,929 feet at Mount Scott. These elevations offer diverse habitats, including ponderosa pine forest in the southern end of the park; mixed pine, fir, and hemlock forest in the 5,000 to 7,500-foot range; and sub-albine environments including whitebark pine above 7,000 feet. Such a diversity of habitats presents the birder with many opportunities to observe bird life. Sp L ns _____ Common oon Su F Abundan e: C Common - likely to see C ocally Common - likely in proper habitat U Uncommon - possible to see in proper habitat R Rare - unlikely to see even in proper habitat Season: Sp Spring Su Summer F Fall W Winter W R R R - Grebes _____ Eared Grebe _____ Pied-billed Grebe - R R R R - Pelicans _____ American White Pelican R R - - _____ Rough-legged Hawk _____ Ferruginous Hawk Sp R - Su R R F R R W - Falc _____ _____ _____ _____ U U R C R U R U R U R U R U C U C U C U C ns American Kestrel Merlin Prairie Falcon Peregrine Falcon C rm rants _____ Double-crested Cormorant U U - - Gr use _____ Ruffed Grouse _____ Blue Grouse Her ns _____ Great Blue Heron U U U U Quail _____ Mountain Quail R R R - Geese, Ducks, and Mergansers _____ White-fronted Goose _____ Canada Goose _____ Wood Duck _____ Mallard _____ Gadwall _____ American Wigeon _____ Northern Pintail _____ Northern Shoveler _____ Blue-winged Teal _____ Cinnamon Teal _____ Canvasback _____ Redhead _____ Ring-necked Duck _____ esser Scaup _____ Barrow’s Goldeneye _____ Common Goldeneye _____ Bufflehead _____ Common Merganser _____ Hooded Merganser _____ Ruddy Duck U U R R R C - R U R R R R R R R R R R R C R R U U R R R R R R R R R - - C ts _____ American Coot R R R - Pl vers _____ Killdeer R R R R Sandpipers _____ Spotted Sandpiper - C C - Gulls _____ Ring-billed Gull _____ California Gull - R C C - Pige ns and D ves _____ Band-tailed Pigeon _____ Mourning Dove R U R U R U - Vultures _____ Turkey Vulture U U U - Ospreys, Eagles, and Hawks _____ Osprey _____ Northern Harrier _____ Golden Eagle _____ Bald Eagle _____ Sharp-shinned Hawk _____ Cooper’s Hawk _____ Northern Goshawk _____ Red-tailed Hawk _____ Swainson’s Hawk R U U U - U R U U U U U C U R U U U U U U U R R - Owls _____ ong-eared Owl _____ Great Horned Owl _____ Barred Owl _____ Great Gray Owl _____ Spotted Owl _____ Western Screech-Owl _____ Flammulated Owl _____ Northern Pygmy-Owl _____ Northern Saw-whet Owl R C R R R R R R R C R R R R R R R R C R R R R R R R C R R R R R R Nighthawks _____ Common Nighthawk _____ Common Poorwill - C R C R - Swifts _____ Vaux’s Swift _____ White-throated Swift - C R C R - Checklist of Birds (continued) Sp Hummingbirds _____ Calliope Hummingbird _____ Rufous Hummingbird Kingfishers _____ Belted Kingfisher W dpeckers _____ White-headed Woodpecker _____ ewis’s Woodpecker _____ Northern Flicker _____ Williamson’s Sapsucker _____ Red-breasted Sapsucker _____ Red-naped Sapsucker _____ Downy Woodpecker _____ Hairy Woodpecker _____ Three-toed Woodpecker _____ Black-backed Woodpecker _____ Pileated Woodpecker Su F W _____ Rock Wren R - U U R U U R R R C R U U R C U U R C U R R R C R U U - U U R U U R R C R U U - - U C R U - Flycatchers _____ Olive-sided Flycatcher _____ Western Wood-Pewee _____ Willow Flycatcher _____ Hammond’s Flycatcher _____ Gray Flycatcher _____ Dusky Flycatcher _____ Pacific-slope Flycatcher _____ Cordilleran Flycatcher C U - C U R U R U U C U U - - Vire s _____ Cassin’s Vireo _____ Warbling Vireo - U U U - Jays and Cr ws _____ Steller’s Jay _____ Gray Jay _____ Clark’s Nutcracker _____ American Crow _____ Common Raven U C C C C C C R C U C C C U C C C Larks _____ Horned - - - ark C Swall ws _____ Tree Swallow _____ Violet-green Swallow _____ Rough-winged Swallow _____ Barn Swallow U - R U R R - - Chickadees _____ Black-capped Chickadee _____ Mountain Chickadee _____ Chestnut-backed Chickadee R C R R C R R C R R C R Bushtits _____ Bushtit - R - - Creepers _____ Brown Creeper C C C C Nuthatchers _____ White-breasted Nuthatch _____ Red-breasted Nuthatch _____ Pygmy Nuthatch U C - U C R U C - U C - Wrens _____ House Wren _____ Winter Wren _____ Bewick’s Wren R C - R C R C - C - EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Dippers _____ American Dipper Kinglets _____ Golden-crowned Kinglet _____ Ruby-crowned Kinglet Sp R Su C C C U U F W C - C C C U U U R - Bluebirds, S litaires, and Thrushes _____ Western Bluebird U _____ Mountain Bluebird U _____ Townsend’s Solitaire U _____ Swainson’s Thrush _____ Hermit Thrush R _____ Varied Thrush C _____ American Robin U C C U C C U C C C U R C U R R Pipits _____ American Pipi
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park Checklist of Mammals A- Abundant LC - Locally Common R - Rare C - Common U - Uncommon P - Present, but not often seen * - federally listed threatened species + - federally listed species of concern Help us out! To further park research, please report any sightings of animals listed as other than abundant or common to a park visitor center. Please report all bear sightings. S W Opossums Virginia Opossum U P Shrews and Moles Marsh Shrew Pacific Shrew Water Shrew Fog Shrew Trowbridge’s Shrew Vagrant Shrew Shrew-mole Broad-footed Mole U U C R U C C U P P P P P P P P Bats California Myotis Long-eared Myotis + Little Brown Myotis Long-legged Myotis + Yuma Myotis + Hoary Bat Silver-haired Bat Big brown Bat Pallid Bat R U C U R C R C R - Pikas, Rabbits, and Hares American Pika Snowshoe Hare White-tailed Jackrabbit C C U P U U U C R U A C LC LC P P P P P P P P A R A C U P R P P P Rodents Mountain Beaver Yellow-pine Chipmunk Least Chipmunk Siskiyou Chipmunk Townsend’s Chipmunk Yellow-bellied Marmot California Ground Squirrel Belding’s Ground Squirrel Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel Western Gray Squirrel Douglas’ Squirrel Northern Flying Squirrel Botta’s Pocket Gopher S C R R A LC U C U LC LC U U U LC R LC LC C W P P R P P P P P P P P P P P R P P P Carnivores Coyote Red Fox Common Gray Fox Black Bear Ringtail Common Raccoon Marten Fisher + Ermine Long-tailed Weasel Mink Wolverine + American Badger Western Spotted Skunk Striped Skunk Northern River Otter Mountain lion Lynx * Bobcat C C U C R R C R R C R R C U LC R R R R C R R P R P LC P P P R R P R R R R R R Deer, Elk, and Pronghorn Elk Mule Deer Pronghorn C C R R R - Western Pocket Gopher Great Basin Pocket Mouse American Beaver Deer Mouse Bushy-tailed Woodrat Dusky-footed Woodrat Western Red-backed Vole Heather Vole Red Tree Vole Long-tailed Vole Montane Vole Creeping Vole Water Vole Townsend’s Vole Common Muskrat Western Jumping Mouse Pacific Jumping Mouse Common Porcupine Please don’t feed the animals! More than fifty mammals make their home at Crater Lake National Park, ranging in size from the little brown bat to the Roosevelt elk. While most visitors to the park hope to see a bear or an elk, you’re more likely to encounter birds, chipmunks, and ground squirrels. These animals live in a harsh volcanic landscape that is buried by snow eight months of the year. Be a gracious guest during your visit—enjoy watching the wild animals, but do not feed them! No matter how much they may beg or plead for your food, feeding animals is not permit­ ted. Here’s why: It’s bad for the animals Animals that learn to depend on human handouts lose their instinctive abilities to find food for them­ selves. Even a single potato chip is bad for wild animals—potato chips do not naturally occur in their diet. Neither do cheese curls, candy, sand­ wiches, or even peanuts or raisins. Animals quickly come to recognize humans as a source of food, and may forget their natural food seeking skills. When winter comes, the easy food supply they’ve come to depend on disappears. They may now starve be­ cause they have lost their self-sufficiency. Wild animals that are fed by humans are soon no longer “wild.” They lose their natural fear of hu­ mans and become vulnerable to other animals that would harm them. Increased territorial behavior and fighting may occur when many animals are crowded into small areas competing for the same food. Every creature plays an important role in natural ecological cycles. Disrupting these cycles may have dramatic consequences. be collecting pine seeds to eat now and to store in winter caches. These caches are also an important food source for larger animals, such as bears. Many of the stored seeds may germinate. They have, in effect, been “planted.” Research indicates that small mammals or birds plant most of the whitebark pines which cling to the rim of the caldera. When these animals rely on us for food and stop gathering pine seeds, whitebark pines cease to be planted. Whitebark pine roots, in turn, play a role in stabilizing the rim of the caldera. The chain has been broken. It’s bad for the ecosystem Wild animals seem to face difficult challenges for survival. It’s natural to want to “help out.” However, this is the life for which they are designed and adapted. Even with good intentions, we may easily disrupt natural processes. Consider the following example: Feeding birds and squirrels is a common practice. However, without our snacks, these animals would Crater Lake National Park receives half a million visitors per year. If each person feeds just one animal just one treat, that still equals half a million instances of feeding every year! It’s dangerous for you All of the animals in the park are wild. Wild animals do, indeed, often bite the hand that feeds them. Wild animals—and the ticks, fleas, and lice they carry—may
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park Reptiles and Amphibians Crater Lake National Park’s Most Tenacious Residents Moist west winds from the Pacific Ocean rise over the remaining slopes of ancient Mt. Mazama, dispersing a deep and long-lasting blanket of snow. It is surprising that animals whose lives are so directly affected by cold temperatures exist under these conditions. Mother Nature has given these creatures an even greater tenacity to carry on the struggle for life, and long winters and short summers have become their lifestyle. Reptiles Reptiles are cold-blooded animals with dry, scale-covered skin. They have claws, if legs are present. Legs, eyelids, and ears are lacking in snakes but are usually present in lizards. Lizards feed on insects, spiders, and other small creatures; garter snakes feed on fish, toads, frogs, tadpoles, worms, and salamanders. Reptiles breed on land, laying eggs or giving birth to young. These four species of reptile are most common in the park: Northern Sagebrush Lizard (Sceloporus graciosus): This species lives on the ground and is infrequently observed in the park. Most observations have been made in open dry areas such as Cleetwood Cove, Wineglass, The Pinnacles, and in the panhandle of the park. Its tail will break off easily if a predator grabs hold of it, allowing the lizard to escape. A new tail will grow back to replace the missing one. The length at maturity is 5 inches. It is gray or brown with blotches or crossbars and light dorsolateral stripes, usually with orange on the neck and sides. The belly has blue patches and the throat is a white-speckled blue, although females may lack the blue altogether. The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is also found in the park. Short-horned Lizard (Phrynosoma douglassii): This infrequently-seen ground-dwelling lizard has been observed in Bear, Sand, and Wheeler Creek drainages. It prefers soft soil in well-exposed sunny areas. It is live-bearing, producing 24 or more young in one litter. It is blue-gray, 4 inches long, with very small horns on the back of its head. It may squirt a small stream of blood from a sinus at the base of its eyes when frightened. Ants are a favorite food. Northern Alligator Lizard (Elgaria coerulea): This secretive lizard is occasionally seen in dense vegetation or rocky areas with sunny exposures. Specimens from the park represent the intergradation of two subspecies: E.c. principis, the northern alligator lizard, and E.c. shastensis, the Shasta alligator lizard. The tail will break off easily if pulled. The color is greenish, heavily blotched or barred with a dusky shading. The adult is 10 inches in length. Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis): This snake has been observed along the lake shore, on Wizard Island, and near other water courses and bog areas of the park. It is black, brownish, or gray with red blotches, with a yellow streak running down its back and on each side. A completely black phase is found within the caldera of Crater Lake and may have evolved as a result of protective coloration against black volcanic rocks. It grows to 3 feet in length. Other Species: Also found within the park, but less common, are the Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata); Southern Aligator Lizard (Elgaria multicarinata); Pine Snake (Pituophis melanoleucus); Rubber Boa (Charina bottae); Western Skink (Eumeces skiltonianus); Northwestern Garter Snake (Thamnophis ordinoides); Western Terrestrial Garter Snake (Thamnophis elegans); and Racer (Coluber constrictor). Amphibians Amphibians are cold-blooded animals with soft, moist skin, devoid of scales or claws. They are usually associated with water or moist areas. Most amphibians return to water to lay eggs. They feed upon insects, worms, spiders, and other small creatures. These eight species are most common in the park: Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile): This salamander has been found in the northwest corner of the park. It is rarely seen except during its breeding season when it travels to ponds, lakes, and streams. The eggs are laid in large jelly-like masses, and the larva usually transforms into an adult the first year but may not do so in cold climates until the second year. Its color is entirely brown or black. It grows to 6 inches in length. There are large glands on the head and along the top of the tail which secrete a sticky white poison, helping to protect it from predators. Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum): This species is found throughout the park, including the shores of Crater Lake. It is common in the spring under rocks and logs. It breeds in ponds, lakes, and quiet streams, sometimes when the water is still covered with ice. The eggs are laid singly in water. The larva may not transform until the second year. It is dusky or black and usually has a broken yellow stripe down its back with white specks on its sides. It grows to 6 inches in
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park Trees Crater Lake National Park was established in 1902, before commercial logging reached the High Cascades. Because of this, Crater Lake National Park's forests are almost entirely old growth forest ecosystems. However, the short growing season and low-nutrient volcanic soils do not sustain extremely large trees. Few trees get over 150 feet (46 meters) in height, and most have diameters under 4 feet (1.2 meters). Forest Zones Park forests are composed mostly of conifers, although a few hardwood species can be found. There are four major forest zones at Crater Lake National Park, each named after its dominant tree species. referred to as “dog’s hair forest” because of the dense, scraggly stands of thin lodgepoles, this zone covers vast areas. Starting in the park’s lower elevations (about 4,500 feet or 1,370 meters), ponderosa pine forest is the first zone seen by visitors who enter on Highway 62 from the south or west entrances. Pines Lodgepole pine Hemlocks Mountain hemlock Mountain hemlocks become dominant at about 6,000 feet (1,830 meters). This zone has the final tall trees in the park and has limited underbrush. The ponderosa zone gives way to lodgepole pine forest at about 5,000 feet (1,520 meters). Sometimes The next zone is almost purely whitebark pines and extends from about 7,500 feet (2,290 meters) to the top of Mt. Scott, the highest point in the park (8,929 feet or 2,721 meters). The whitebark pine zone is more an open woodland than a forest. Pines (genus Pinus) comprise the largest genus in the family Pinaceae. An easy way to identify a pine is by the needles, which grow in characteristic “bundles.” The number of needles per bundle often helps determine a pine’s species. out the lodgepole pine zone. Although the western white is more common, its bundles of five needles make it easy to confuse with the sugar pine; smaller cones on the western white is the most noticeable difference between the two. Whitebark pine (P. albicaulus) is found at higher elevations in the park, particularly on rocky crests. Tolerating the most severe of conditions, whitebark pines are often gnarled and twisted, sometimes appearing more as thick shrubs than trees. An almost pure stand of these trees is found around Cloudcap pullout on East Rim Drive. Sugar pine (P. lambertiana) is interspersed among ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir stands in lower park elevations. It is a relatively uncommon tree and has very large cones that average over a foot long, which can make this an easy tree to identify. Sugar pines are the tallest of all pines, and sometimes exceed 200 feet (60 meters). Lodgepole pine (P. contorta) grows in dense stands of very thin trees in the park’s middle elevations. However, lodgepoles mingle in other forest zones throughout the park. Lodgepole pine is the park’s only pine with bundles of two needles. Ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) is a droughttolerant tree with striking orange bark when mature. Even before maturity, its long needles growing in bundles of three distinguish it from other local species. Southern Cascade ponderosas also have a strong vanilla-like aroma in their bark that is usually associated with their close relative, the Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi, not found in the park). Western white pine (P. monticola) is fairly common at middle elevations, found scattered through- Hemlocks (genus Tsuga), also in the family Pinaceae, are typically characterized by their tops, or leaders. The leader of a hemlock droops down, often aiming back down at the ground. There are two hemlock species in Crater Lake National Park. Mountain hemlock (T. mertensiana) is easily observable around the park headquarters area and ranges up to some of the park’s higher altitudes. With thin branches and small needles, this tree is well-adapted to the heavy snows it is subjected to. Western hemlock (T. hetero-phylla) is more common in the state of Oregon than the mountain hemlock. However, at Crater Lake it is only found in the far southwestern corner of the park, which has an altitude just on the upper edge of its range. Western hemlocks have much smaller cones than the mountain hemlocks. Firs Firs (genus Abies) are represented by five separate species at Crater Lake, although one species, the Pacific silver fir (A. amabilis), has only one known specimen inside park boundaries. Members of the pine family (Pinaceae), firs have stemless needles that leave small circular indentations when pulled from the branch. Whole fir cones are rarely found around the tree because they fall apart after maturing. Shasta red fir (A. magnifica shastensis), a variation of the Sierran species (A. magnifica), is an abundant tree throughout the mountain hemlock zone. A deep reddish-brown bark gives this tree its common name. Its short needles (most less than one inch or 2.5 cm long) curve to point straight up from
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park Introduction to Crater Lake Crater Lake Is Like No Place Else On Earth Crater Lake has inspired its visitors for hundreds of years. No place else on earth combines such a deep, pure lake with sheer surrounding cliffs and a violent volcanic past. Few places on earth are so beautiful, so pristine, or—for these very reasons—so interesting to scientists. An Introduction to Crater Lake Crater Lake is located in Southern Oregon on the crest of the Cascade Mountain range, 100 miles (160 km) east of the Pacific Ocean. It lies inside a caldera, or volcanic basin, created when the 12,000 foot (3,660 meter) high Mount Mazama collapsed 7,700 years ago following a large eruption. Generous amounts of winter snow, averaging 528 inches (1,341 cm) per year, supply the lake with water. There are no inlets or outlets to the lake. Crater Lake, at 1,943 feet (592 meters) deep, is the seventh deepest lake in the world and the deepest in the United States. Evaporation and seepage prevent the lake from becoming any deeper. The lake averages more than five miles (8 km) in diameter, and is surrounded by steep rock walls that rise up to 2000 feet (600 meters) above the lake's surface. Physical Characteristics Color: The color of Crater Lake is the product of its great depth, the purity and clarity of its water, and the way solar radiation interacts with water. Water molecules absorb the longer wavelengths of light better (reds, oranges, yellows, and greens). This energy slowly heats the lake throughout the summer. Shorter wavelengths (blues) are more easily Following the collapse of Mount Mazama, lava poured into the caldera even as the lake began to rise. Today, a small volcanic island, Wizard Island, appears on the west side of the lake. This cinder cone rises 767 feet (234 meters) above the lake and is surrounded by black volcanic lava blocks. A small crater, 300 feet (90 meters) across and 90 feet (27 meters) deep, rests on the summit. The crater is filled by snow during the winter months, but remains dry during the summer. The lake level fluctuates slightly from year to year. The highest level was reached in 1975 when the water level rose to 6,179.34 feet (1,883.47 meters) above sea level. The lowest level was recorded in 1942 when it dropped to 6,163.20 feet (1,878.55 meters). For such a deep lake, the maximum observed variation of 16 feet (5 meters) is minor (less than 1 percent). scattered than absorbed. In the deep lake, some of the scattered blue light is redirected back up to the surface where we can see it. Around the edges where the water is less deep, some of the unabsorbed green sunlight is reflected back up. The color of the lake can vary from day to day depending on wind, cloud cover, and the angle of the sun. Physical Characteristics (continued) Why Is the Lake So Blue? Light Penetration: Sunlight is able to penetrate the waters of Crater Lake to great depths. Researchers often use a reflector called a Secchi disk to determine lake clarity. Readings deeper than 100 feet (30 meters) in most lakes are rare, but they can typically reach 120 feet (37 meters) at Crater Lake. A reading of 142 feet (43.3 meters) was recorded in 1997. beneath the surface remains near 38°F (3°C) all year long. During the hottest time of the summer, the top water layers warm and become less dense than colder water below. This condition of thermal stratification usually continues into September. Temperature: Surface temperatures of the lake water vary between 32°F (0°C) and 66°F (19°C). Summer temperatures typically range between 50°F (10°C) and 60°F (16°C). Water more than 260 feet (80 meters) The lake rarely freezes in winter because of the large amount of heat stored in the lake during the summer, windy surface conditions, and relatively mild air temperatures. The most significant complete freezing event in recent history occurred between January and April in 1949. The lake was mostly covered with ice twice in 1985, in January and again in December. 1) 3) 2) Most of the annual input comes directly from precipitation. No stream or creek flows into the lake carrying dissolved minerals or dust. 4) Seepage removes minerals already dissolved in the lake. Volcanic rocks below the water line are relatively insoluble in cold lake water. Water Circulation The upper 600 feet (180 meters) of lake water appears to be well mixed based upon the degree of oxygen saturation. Studies indicate that some surface water mixes annually to the lake bottom but a total turnover of lake water is incomplete. As many as six years may be necessary to totally exchange lake water at the bottom with oxygenrich surface water. Hydrothermal Springs Lake researchers have discovered two areas on the lake bottom affected by hydrothermal spring water. Mineral-rich water, at a slightly elevated tempera- ture, pools in some locations and leaves iron deposits in
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park National Park Service Historic Photo Collection The National Park System A Dual Purpose: Preservation and Enjoyment “...to promote and regulate the use of the... national parks... which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” - National Park Service Organic Act, 16 U.S.C.1. Establishment of the National Park System On March 1, 1872, Congress established Yellowstone National Park in the Territories of Montana and Wyoming “as a public park or pleasuring ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people” and placed it “under exclusive control of the Secretary of the Interior.” The founding of Yellowstone National Park began a worldwide national park movement. Today more than 100 nations contain some 1,200 national parks or equivalent preserves. In the years following the establishment of Yellowstone, the United States authorized additional national parks and monuments, most of them carved from the federal lands of the West. These, also, were administered by the Department of the Interior, while other monuments and natural and historical areas were administered as separate units by the War Department and the Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture. No single agency provided unified management of the varied federal parklands. An Executive Order in 1933 transferred 63 national monuments and military sites from the Forest Service and the War Department to the National Park Service. This action was a major step in the development of today’s truly national system of parks—a system that includes areas of historical as well as scenic and scientific importance. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed the act creating the National Park Service, a new federal bureau in the Department of the Interior responsible for protecting the 40 national parks and monuments then in existence and those yet to be established. This “Organic Act” states that “the Service thus established shall promote and regulate the use of Federal areas known as national parks, monuments and reservations… by such means and measures as conform to the fundamental purpose of the said parks, monuments and reservations, which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such Establishment of the National Park System (continued) means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” protection in accordance with various acts of Congress. The National Park Service still strives to meet those original goals, while filling many other roles as well: guardian of our diverse cultural and recreational resources; environmental advocate; world leader in the parks and preservation community; and pioneer in the drive to protect America’s open space. Additions to the National Park System are now generally made through acts of Congress, and national parks can be created only through such acts. But the President has authority, under the Antiquities Act of 1906, to proclaim national monuments on lands already under federal jurisdiction. The Secretary of the Interior is usually asked by Congress for recommendations on proposed additions to the System. The Secretary is counseled by the National Park System Advisory Board, composed of private citizens, which advises on possible additions to the System and policies for its management. Today, the National Park System of the United States comprises 378 areas covering more than 83 million acres in 49 States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, Saipan, and the Virgin Islands. These areas are of such national significance as to justify special recognition and America’s First National Parks Park Date est. State Size (acres)* 1. Yellowstone 1872 Wyoming 2,219,791 2. Mackinac Island 1875 Given back to the state of Michigan in 1895. Michigan 3. Sequoia 1890 California 402,482 4. Yosemite 1890 California 761,236 5. General Grant 1890 California 461,901 Originally a small park, General Grant was incorporated into Kings Canyon in 1940. 6. Mount Rainier 1899 Washington 235,613 7. Crater Lake 1902 Oregon 183,224 8. Wind Cave 1903 South Dakota 28,295 9. Sully's Hill 1904 Converted to a game preserve in 1931. North Dakota 10. Mesa Verde Colorado 52,122 11. Platt 1906 Now part of Chickasaw National Recreation Area. Oklahoma 9,889 12. Glacier 1910 Montana 1,013,572 13. Rocky Mountain 1915 Colorado 265,727 14. Hawaii Volcanoes 1916 Hawaii 209,695 15. Lassen Volcanic 1916 California 106,372 1906 * All acreages listed are the parks' current size. Most were much smaller when they we
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park The Crater Lake Lodge “A Project Finally Complete” Crater Lake Lodge was built to encourage tourism to Crater Lake National Park and southwestern Oregon. It opened to guests during the summer of 1915. Its clientele has included people from all over the world. Most guests have had fond remembrances of their stays, even though the lodge was often in an unfinished state. Throughout its history the lodge lacked expected hotel standards for comfort, privacy, and service, and suffered from neglect. Before construction of the lodge began in 1909, William G. Steel and other supporters of a hotel had a difficult time finding a developer that would commit to the project. It was not an easy undertaking to build and operate a major lodging facility on the edge of the caldera overlooking Crater Lake. The harsh climate with severe winter weather for more than eight months of the year was daunting. At the time, the area was not very accessible. A trip to the park was an arduous journey over many miles of unpaved and poorly constructed roads. park. These and other obstacles combined to cause long delays, driving up the cost of the lodge. Steel finally convinced Alfred Parkhurst, a Portland developer, to take on the project. However, Parkhurst had no experience constructing buildings that needed to withstand the weight of 15 foot snow depths that accumulate during Crater Lake’s long winters. Unlike at Portland, construction work was limited to a short three month summer season. Labor and materials had to be brought great distances into the remote and largely undeveloped Although business profits lagged due to high operational costs, Crater Lake Lodge drew large crowds. Early 20th century visitors probably accepted the substandard accommodations because of the rigorous trip needed to reach the park. Though the lodge lacked amenities and atmosphere, visitors were compensated by the magnificent views of Crater Lake and the surrounding peaks of the Cascade Range. Spiraling costs forced Parkhurst to find savings elsewhere in the project. When the lodge opened in the summer of 1915, the furnishings seemed spartan. Exterior walls were clad in tar paper. Interior walls of the guest rooms were finished with thin cardboard-like “beaver board.” There were no private bathrooms, and a small generator provided electricity. When it was enlarged and upgraded from 1922 through 1924, the number of guest rooms more than doubled. Plumbing was expanded, and as a result most of the rooms in the new annex and annex wing had private bathrooms. However, a lack of investment capital plagued the expansion. Many guest rooms were left unfinished. The lodge suffered with the decline in visitation and business during the early 1930s, the worst years of the Great Depression. Little was spent to keep up the facility. It was not until the mid 1930s that guest rooms on the second and third floors of the annexes were finished. The lodge was situated in a barren and very dusty environment. Cars had destroyed most of the surrounding vegetation. One of the great improvements made during the 1930s was the development of a landscape for Rim Village which included plantings around Crater Lake Lodge. In contrast to the privately funded hotel, this publicly funded project was accomplished by the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps. The new landscape included hundreds of indigenous trees and shrubs, and helped to blend the structure into its surroundings. As part of the project, new paved parking areas and walkways were built adjacent to the lodge. This significantly reduced the blowing dust and erosion problems around the building and gave the area a more “natural” appearance. Both the park and Crater Lake Lodge were closed for most of World War II. After the war, park visitation increased dramatically, as did business at the lodge. However, age and many years of neglect took a heavy toll on the building. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the National Park Service continually prodded, with mixed results, the lodge’s owners to upgrade utilities and fire prevention measures. After fifty years of severe winters on the caldera’s edge, the lodge’s inadequate structural system was showing signs of advanced deterioration. Cables stretched between the north and south walls to try to keep them from bowing. Floors and ceilings were sagging, and cracks appeared in the masonry. Only small amounts of money were invested in piecemeal fashion to keep the lodge open every summer. This Band-Aid approach left utility systems and lifesafety measures lagging behind contemporary codes and standards. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA The National Park Service acquired ownership of Crater Lake Lodge in 1967, but the building continued to deteriorate. Despite being listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service felt that it was too expensive to fix
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park Cleetwood survey expedition, 1886 History Crater Lake Has Inspired People for Many Generations Crater Lake has long attracted the wonder and admiration of people all over the world. Its depth of 1,943 feet (592 meters) makes it the deepest lake in the United States, and the seventh deepest in the world. Its fresh water is some of the clearest found anywhere in the world. The interaction of people with this place is traceable at least as far back as the eruption of Mount Mazama. European contact is fairly recent, starting in 1853. Original Visitors A Native American connection with this area has been traced back to before the cataclysmic eruption of Mount Mazama. Archaeologists have found sandals and other artifacts buried under layers of ash, dust, and pumice from this eruption approximately 7,700 years ago. To date, there is little evidence indicating that Mount Mazama was a permanent home to people. However, it was used as a temporary camping site. Accounts of the eruption can be found in stories told by the Klamath Indians, who are the descendants of the Makalak people. The Makalaks lived in an area southeast of the present park. Because information was passed down orally, there are many different versions. The Umpqua people have a similar story, featuring different spirits. The Makalak legend told in the park film, The Crater Lake Story, is as follows: The spirit of the mountain was called Chief of the Below World (Llao). The spirit of the sky was called Chief of the Above World (Skell). Sometimes Llao came up from his home inside the earth and stood on top of Mount Mazama, one of the highest mountains in the region. During one of these visits, he saw the Makalak chief’s beautiful daughter and fell in love with her. He promised her eternal life if she would return with him to his lodge below the mountain. When she refused, he became angry and declared that he would destroy her people with fire. In his rage, he rushed up through the opening of his mountain and stood on top of it and began to hurl fire down upon them. The mighty Skell took pity on the people and stood atop Mount Shasta to defend them. From their mountaintops, the two chiefs waged a furious battle. They hurled red hot rocks as large as hills. They made the earth tremble and caused great landslides of fire. The people fled in terror to the waters of Klamath Lake. Prehistoric sandals found at Fort Rock, Oregon A Legendary Look at Formation Two holy men offered to sacrifice themselves by jumping into the pit of fire on top of Llao’s mountain. Skell was moved by their bravery and drove Llao back into Mount Mazama. When the sun rose next, the great mountain was gone. It had fallen in on Llao. All that remained was a large hole. Rain fell in torrents, filling the hole with water. This is now called Crater Lake. Honoring the Past, Preserving for the Future Pioneers Naming a Natural Wonder A National Park Early settlers and explorers did not hear about Crater ake from the native inhabitants because this place is sacred to most Native Americans of Oregon and northern California. Makalaks (now Klamath Indians) held the belief that this place was so holy that looking upon it would lead to death. There are no stories relating to the crystal blue lake that formed after the eruption, indicating that these people became silent on the issue of Mount Mazama, the mountain that was no longer. In the spring of 1853, eleven miners from Yreka, California stopped for supplies at Isaac Skeeter’s mercantile store in Jacksonville, Oregon (approximately 90 miles southwest of Crater ake). They began bragging that they knew how to find the legendary “ ost Cabin” gold mine. Skeeters quickly gathered up ten other Oregonians and set out, using the information overheard in his store. The trip was financed by John Wesley Hillman, a 21 year old who had recently returned home from a successful trip to the California goldfields. On June 12, three members from this party came upon a large body of water sitting in a huge depression. Hillman exclaimed that it was the bluest water he had ever seen. Skeeters suggested the name “Deep Blue ake.” In 1862, another party of Oregon prospectors explored this area of the Cascade Range, including Crater ake. The leader, Chauncy Nye, later wrote a short article for the Jacksonville Oregon Sentinel. His article stated, “The waters were of a deeply blue color causing us to name it Blue L ke.” This is the first published description of the lake. neyed to see the now-legendary lake. One of the participants, Sergeant Orsen Stearns, was so awestruck by what he saw that he climbed down into the caldera and became the first non-Native American to reach the shore of Crater ake. Captain F.B. Sprague soon joined him and suggested the name “L ke M jesty.” In the 1850s, hostilities between settlers and Native Americans developed in the ar
Crater Lake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Crater Lake National Park Painting by Paul C. Rockwood Geology Crater Lake National Park remains part of a restless landscape The calm beauty of Crater Lake obscures the violent forces that formed it. Crater Lake lies inside the collapsed remnants of an ancient volcano known as Mount Mazama. Its greatest eruption, about 7,700 years ago, was the largest to occur in North America for more than half a million years. Though the mountain has now been dormant for five thousand years, geologists do expect it to reawaken someday. Formation of the Cascade Range Mount Mazama is part of a chain of volcanoes that extends along the crest of the Cascade Range from Lassen Peak in California to Mount Garibaldi in British Columbia. Two other peaks (Mount Rainier and Lassen) are also part of national parks. These volcanoes are the visible evidence of what geologists call “plate tectonics.” The earth's surface, seemingly solid, is actually broken up into many huge plates, all floating on top of the Earth's molten interior. As these plates slowly drift, the continents and adjacent sea floor either move apart or push into one another. Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust and tends to be less yielding. A Cataclysmic Eruption Mount Mazama began to grow half a million years ago. The oldest rocks visible today, 420,000 years old, form Mount Scott on the east side of Crater Lake. Over time, lava flowed from many volcanic vents, overlapping and building an irregularlyshaped mountain. By 8,000 years ago, Mount Mazama may have stood as much as 12,000 feet (3,660 meters) tall. Mount Mazama’s most violent eruption occurred about 7,700 years ago. A column of hot gas and volcanic rock was ejected high into the air. This magma fell to the earth as fragments of frothy white When a plate carrying oceanic crust pushed into what is now the northwestern United States, it was forced under the less-yielding continental plate. Tremendous pressures were exerted on the oceanic plate, causing it to deform and even melt. This melted rock is called magma. It is lighter and more fluid than the surrounding rock and tends to rise. Volcanic eruptions eventually bring the magma back onto the surface of the earth where it is then called lava. This process, over a period of millions of years, formed the Cascade Range. The High Cascade volcanoes we see today, including Mount Mazama, are the most recent results of this process. pumice and volcanic ash. Layers of ash from this eruption may still be found in the soil as far away as Alberta, Canada, more than 1,000 miles away. Explosions on the northeast side of the mountain produced fast-moving flows of hot ash. In all, 12 cubic miles (50 cubic kilometers) of material poured out of the volcano, draining the magma chamber beneath it. As the underlying support for the mountain was lost, the walls of the volcano began to collapse inward. The top of a mountain that was built over hundreds of thousands of years probably “disappeared” in a few days. Sequence of events. Mount Mazama grew for almost half a million years. 7,700 years ago, it erupted violently, then collapsed into itself. Since then, rain and snow have filled Crater Lake, and other eruptions have created features including Wizard Island. Recent Activity What Will Happen Next? After the collapse of Mount Mazama, minor eruptions continued inside the newly formed caldera (a word that comes from the Spanish word for “kettle” or “boiler” and is used by geologists to describe large basin-shaped volcanic depressions). These recent flows created Wizard Island, which projects 764 feet (233 meters) above the lake’s surface, and Merriam Cone, which is submerged. About 5,000 years ago, a small eruption formed a lava dome, just east of Wizard Island, which is also under the surface of the water. "Crater Lake partially fills a 1,200-meter [4,000foot] deep caldera, a depression formed by collapse of ancestral Mount Mazama during the violent eruption of 50 cubic kilometers of magma, or molten rock, about 7,700 years ago... By comparison, Mount St. Helens in 1980 erupted about half a cubic kilometer of new magma. Geological history shows that catastrophic events of this kind can repeat. Are volcanic eruptions likely again at Crater Lake? One of the approaches U.S. Geological Survey scientists are using to answer this important question is to unravel the geologic history of the Crater Lake caldera floor." On the other hand, there is every reason to expect some kind of future volcanic activity in the place where it has been occurring for almost half a million years. Should there be an eruption within the caldera, it would likely happen underwater, increasing the possibility of enhanced explosive power due to the interaction of magma and hot rock with water. - Dr. Hans Nelson and Dr. Charles R. Bacon, U.S. Geological Survey The foremost threat from young calderas is that of renewed
The World's Deepest Lakes At 1,943 feet (592 meters), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States and one of the deepest in the world. The depths were first explored thoroughly in 1886 by a party from the U.S. Geological Survey. Their primitive sounding device consisted of a lead pipe attached to piano wire. After lowering it into the water at 168 locations around the lake, they concluded the deepest part to be 1,996 feet (608 meters). This was only 53 feet (16 meters), or less than 3%, off the official depth measurement recorded with multibeam sidescan sonar in 2000. 1. 2. 3. Name Baikal Tanganyika Caspian Sea 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 16. Vostok O'Higgins-San Martin Malawi Issyk-Kul Great Slave Lake Crater Lake Matano General Carrera Hornindalsvatnet Tahoe Location Russia Tanzania, Burundi, Congo, Zambia Iran, Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan Antarctica Chile, Argentina Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi Kyrgyzstan Canada U.S.A. Indonesia Argentina, Chile Norway U.S.A. Depth 5,369 ft (1,637 m) 4,826 ft (1,471 m) 3,362 ft (1,025 m) at least 2,950 ft (900 m) 2,742 ft (836 m) 2,316 ft (706 m) 2,192 ft (668 m) 2,015 ft (614 m) 1,943 ft (592 m) 1,936 ft (590 m) 1,923 ft (586 m) 1,686 ft (514 m) 1,644 ft (501 m) How Deep is Crater Lake? - ~ Tour Boat. 48 feet long (15 m) Statue of Liberty, 305 feet (93 m) New York City, New York Washington Monument, 555 feet (169 m) Washington D.C. Eiffel Tower, 985 feet (300 m) Paris, France Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States and one of the deepest in the world. Imagine stacking the Eiffel Tower, Washington Monument, and Statue of Liberty on top of each other, then lowering them into Crater Lake at its deepest point. There would still be 100 feet (30 meters) of water covering Lady Liberty's torch!
Crater Lake Crater Lake National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Change at Crater Lake Despite its protected status, Crater Lake National Park is not immune to climate change. Scientists have observed an increase in the lake’s temperature, a decrease in the park’s snowfall, and impacts on species such as the American pika and whitebark pine. Climate change is happening. Most scientists agree that the Earth’s climate is warming due to the burning of fossil fuels. The release of “greenhouse gases” into the atmosphere traps the Earth’s heat. Since 1750 (the start of the Industrial Revolution), carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere has increased by over 40 percent. As a result, the planet’s temperature has risen by more than 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8ºC) since 1880, impacting ecosystems worldwide. Less snow is falling in the park. Snowfall at Crater Lake varies from year to year. Since 1931, however, when rangers first began keeping track, totals have been trending downward, and climate researchers expect the trend to continue. They predict the Pacific Northwest will experience even less snow and warmer temperatures in the decades to come. Most snow that falls in the park eventually leaves the park to nourish the rivers of southern Oregon and northern California. Less snow falling in the park means less water is leaving the park to support cities, ranches, farms, and wildlife downstream. 800 Average Annual Snowfall at Park Headquarters, by Decade: Annual Snowfall, in Inches 700 600 500 600 400 300 700 800 500 400 trend line no data 100 0300 200 200 100 1930 The waters of Crater Lake are getting warmer. 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Since 1965, when monitoring began, the waters of Crater Lake have been getting warmer. Surface temperatures in the summer have risen at an average rate of 1ºF (0.6ºC) per decade, from 54ºF (12ºC) in a typical year in the 1960s to 59ºF (15ºC) today. Similar increases have been seen in other North American lakes, including Lake Tahoe and Lake Superior. It remains to be seen what impacts (if any) this increase will have on the lake’s ecology. 2000 1930s – 614” (1,560 cm) 1940s – 623” (1,582 cm) 1950s – 572” (1,453 cm) 1960s – 507” (1,288 cm) 1970s – 495” (1,257 cm) 1980s – 475” (1,207 cm) 1990s – 493” (1,252 cm) 2000s – 455” (1,156 cm) ’10-13 – 474” (1,204 cm) 2010 Some researchers speculate that it will spur the growth of algae, reducing the water’s clarity. Right now, however, Crater Lake is still one of the clearest and purest bodies of water in the world. In fact, its water is cleaner than the tap water in your home. This is because roughly 83% of it comes from rain and snow falling directly on the lake’s surface, while the rest is runoff from precipitation on the caldera’s inner slopes. No rivers or creeks carry silt, sediment, or pollution into the lake. Climate change puts pikas in peril. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is a small mammal that inhabits rocky slopes from Canada to New Mexico. At Crater Lake, pikas are often seen harvesting wildflowers along the Garfield Peak Trail. © NASIM MANSUROV, MANSUROVS PHOTOGRAPHY Rising temperatures appear to be driving some pika populations extinct. Pikas are not able to tolerate warm weather; their dense fur is not efficient at releasing heat. A few hours in the sun at temperatures as low as 78ºF (26ºC) can be fatal. Climate change also may be altering vegetation patterns and shrinking the food supply of some populations. Many pika populations live high up on isolated peaks. While other mammals might be able to migrate in response to climate change, most pikas cannot. At least three Oregon pika communities southeast of Crater Lake have vanished in recent decades. Climate change threatens whitebark pines. Whitebark pines (Pinus albicaulis) grow on the rocky rim of Crater Lake and atop the park’s tallest peaks. They are considered a “keystone” species, since so many other species depend on them for food, shelter, and survival. Unfortunately, half the park’s whitebark pines are currently dead or dying. The tiny mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), rarely seen, is responsible for much of the damage. Scientists think, however, that the real culprit may be climate change. For millennia, mountain pine beetles have thrived in the forests of western North America. In the past, however, their intolerance of cold weather generally safeguarded high-elevation trees. Lower elevation trees, such as lodgepole pines and ponderosa pines, were the beetles’ main targets. Recently, however, the beetles have turned their attention to whitebark pines. Our warming climate is helping these insects survive the winter at higher latitudes and elevations. More information is available online. NPS Climate Response Program: nps.gov/subjects/climatechange/index.htm NOAA climate change website: climate.gov NASA climate change website: climate.nasa.gov EPA climate change website:

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