"Cannon Firing" by National Park Service , public domain

Civil War Defenses of Washington

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The Civil War Defenses of Washington were a group of Union Army fortifications that protected the federal capital city, Washington, D.C., from invasion by the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The sites of some of these fortifications are within a collection of National Park Service (NPS) properties that the National Register of Historic Places identifies as the Fort Circle. The sites of other such fortifications in the area have become parts of state, county or city parks or are located on privately owned properties. Parts of the earthworks of some such fortifications still exist. Other such fortifications have been completely demolished.

maps

Official visitor map of George Washington Memorial Parkway (MEMPKWY) in Virginia and District of Columbia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).George Washington - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of George Washington Memorial Parkway (MEMPKWY) in Virginia and District of Columbia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Chesapeake & Ohio Canal - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official visitor map of Rock Creek Park in District of Columbia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Rock Creek Park - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Rock Creek Park in District of Columbia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/cwdw/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_War_Defenses_of_Washington The Civil War Defenses of Washington were a group of Union Army fortifications that protected the federal capital city, Washington, D.C., from invasion by the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The sites of some of these fortifications are within a collection of National Park Service (NPS) properties that the National Register of Historic Places identifies as the Fort Circle. The sites of other such fortifications in the area have become parts of state, county or city parks or are located on privately owned properties. Parts of the earthworks of some such fortifications still exist. Other such fortifications have been completely demolished. On forested hills surrounding the nation's capital are the remnants of a complex system of Civil War fortifications. These strategic buttresses transformed the young capital into one of the world's most fortified cities. By 1865, 68 forts and 93 batteries armed with over 800 cannons encircled Washington, DC. Today, you can visit 17 of the original sites now managed by the National Park Service. Please call 202-829-4650. Directions vary based on your preference of site. Civil War Defenses of Washington No camping. Civil War Defenses Of Washington Historic Fort Davis Fort Davis (Fall Day) History at Sunset Park Ranger delivering a program to visitors. History at Sunset at Fort Stevens Park, 2021. Washington DC at War NPS Park Sign for Fort Stevens Fort Stevens Park in Washington DC The Civil War Defenses Then & Now Historic image of Fort Totten on layered on modern image. Fort Totten Then & Now Guarding the Chain Bridge Assistant Secretary of the Interior Thomas Ryan recounted his experiences as captain of the 141st Pennsylvania Volunteers in an article appearing in the Washington Post in 1902. His regiment’s mission was to guard the Chain Bridge from Confederate attack. A view of the Chain Bridge from Battery Martin Scott Pawpaw: Small Tree, Big Impact Pawpaw are small trees that don't grow past 100 feet. Yet they have a big influence-- they're the most commonly observed sapling in our National Capital Region forests. Pawpaw trees are virtually immune to deer browse and also produce the largest edible fruit native to North America! A hand holds a lumpy green pawpaw fruit National Parks and National Cemeteries Currently, the National Park Service manages 14 national cemeteries. These cemeteries represent a continuum of use dating to a period before the establishment of the historical parks of which they are an integral part and are administered to preserve the historic character, uniqueness, and solemn nature of both the cemeteries and the historical parks of which they are a part. Setting sun lights up graves and decorations African Americans and the Civil War Forts of DC The 28th Regiment of U.S. Colored Troops was one of the troops attached to the Defenses of Washington. This regiment of infantry was established on November 30, 1863 by Indiana Governor Oliver P. Morton. Reverend Willis Revels of the African American Episcopal Church was the chief recruiting officer. The recruits trained for three months and on April 25 1863, six companies of the 28th left Indianapolis for Washington, D.C. where they were attached to the capital’s defenses. african american civil war soldiers stand in front of white building Native Peoples of Washington, DC The village of Nacotchtank (from which the name Anacostia is derived) was the largest of the three American Indian villages located in the Washington area and is believed to have been a major trading center. three native americans seated, black and white photo Elizabeth Proctor Thomas Elizabeth Proctor Thomas grew up in the early 1880s in a small community of free African-Americans in northwest Washington, D.C. During the Civil War, Union troops took possession of her land for construction of a fort. After the war, Elizabeth continued to reside near Fort Stevens. She sold some of her property to an influential Washingtonian who planned to preserve the remaining earthworks and establish a park. A woman with a long, dark dress stands beside a door in a wooden structure The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Civil War Defenses of Washington The National Park Service established two camps in October 1933, one at Fort Hunt in Virginia and the other at Fort Dupont in the District of Columbia. Learn a little more about their work and contributions. The Marvel of Big Guns at Fort Foote The sheer immensity of the two Rodman guns at Fort Foote made them objects of curiosity. Visitors frequently come to see them. Close-up view of a Rodman Cannon at Fort Foote The United States Colored Troops and the Defenses of Washington Coming from free states, or straight off of the plantations, freemen or former slaves, thousands of African Americans fought to destroy slavery once and for all with the United States Colored Troops. Despite the skepticism or outright hostility of some whites, these troops played a major role in both defending the Union capital and taking the Confederate one. Flag of the 22nd United States Colored Troops Hispanics and the Civil War The Civil War was an American epic and an American tragedy. The bloodiest war in United States history claimed the lives of more than 620,000 Americans. Hispanics were very much a part of this conflict. They knew hardship, fear, death, and destruction. They experienced victory and defeat. Some performed acts of spectacular gallantry. Others provided steady service that attracted little comment or notice. Painting of the Battle of Glorieta Pass Living Contraband - Former Slaves in the Nation's Capital During the Civil War For thousands of African Americans during the Civil War, Washington, D.C. was a beacon of freedom - and a place where they could work to assist the war effort. There they found themselves digging fortifications, driving wagons, or cooking, but as free men and women selling their services, many for the first time in their lives. Photo of three African American boys in a Union army camp Third System of Coastal Forts How should a country protect its borders? The United States had to consider this question when the War of 1812 ended in 1815. One year later, the federal government believed it had an answer. The nation created a broad national defense strategy that included a new generation of waterfront defenses called the Third System of Coastal Fortifications. Tina Short: Listening to the Community Tina Short was one of the first African American women to serve as a Park Ranger in the National Capital Region. A native of Washington, D.C., Ms. Short spent her career at Fort Dupont Park, the very place she had attended as a day camper and became a Junior Ranger. Short became a well-known figure in the neighborhood, building programs that are still popular to this day. Woman park ranger in uniform Seacoast Ordnance Cannon manufactured for use in Third System forts are called seacoast ordnance. These were some of the largest and heaviest cannon available at the time. Cannon at forts Pickens, McRee, Barrancas, Massachusetts, and Advanced Redoubt fell into three categories: guns, howitzers, and mortars. Each had a specific purpose. A cannon is mounted over a brick wall, an American flag is flying to the left. The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Memorials for the Future Memorials for the Future, is a competition that aims to rethink the way we develop and experience memorials in Washington, D.C. Memorials for the Future Logo President Lincoln Under Fire at Fort Stevens On July 12, 1864, President Lincoln stood atop the parapet of the fort to witness the battle and came under direct fire of Confederate sharpshooters. It is the only time in American history in which a sitting president came under direct fire from an enemy combatant. A demonstration of the battle at Fort Stevens Defeat at Manassas Leads to the Fortification of Washington After a humiliating defeat at Manassas, the Union army realized that the war would be a long struggle and that the fortification of the nation's capital needed to be extended and expedited. The massive construction thus began, establishing a defensive ring around the city that would make Washington, D.C. one of the most fortified cities in the world. The Defenses as a Symbol of the Union Cause Americans were acutely aware that control of the capital city could define a nation. Washington, D.C., therefore, played a significant part in the Union strategy and became a political symbol of the Union during these turbulent years. Explore DC’s national parks with a new, free app Navigate to popular destinations, get up-to-date information and discover lesser-known parks. With nearly 800 points of interest, the app includes the National Mall, President's Park, Rock Creek Park, Anacostia Park, Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens, Wolf Trap, Arlington House, Theodore Roosevelt Island, Frederick Douglass NHS, Mary McLeod Bethune Council House NHS, Carter G. Woodson NHS, and hundreds more. National Park Service logo with Washington Monument and other memorials. Natural Science, History, & Culture in the National Capital Area Learn more about your National Capital Area park through this guide to natural and cultural resource information. Cultural resource staff clean the Theodore Roosevelt memorial statue at Theodore Roosevelt Island. Tina Short and Kym Elder: "The Story of People that Look Like Me" For Tina Short and Kym Elder, African American history is personal. The mother and daughter have expanded the stories the NPS tells while serving their home community. This article was developed from oral history interviews in which they discuss their careers in DC area parks. The interviews contribute to "Telling Our Untold Stories: Civil Rights in the National Park Service Oral History Project" and "Women’s Voices: Women in the National Park Service Oral History Project." Two NPS park rangers in uniform, both African American women, stand in front of a double door DC's Civil War Earthworks Civil War fortifications were based on the European model of the 17th and 18th centuries. Professor Dennis Hart Mahan of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, was the leading authority of fortification engineering. Sea Level Rise in the DC Area Learn about current and projected rates of sea level rise in the greater DC area, based on local water level data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) A tall white cylinder attached to a wooden pier with Hains Point in the background. Causes of Deafness During the Civil War Civil War soldiers faced death on a daily basis. However, they also faced going home with various disabilities. One such disability was partial or complete deafness. Many soldiers were accustomed to temporary deafness from the constant artillery fire in the field. However, illness, the environment, and even the medicine the doctors used on patients could cause a much more permanent hearing loss. 102 Cases of Deafness.Prepared 4 Consideration of senate & house of reps. by Wallace E. Foster.

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