"Reflection Pond" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Denali

National Park & Preserve - Alaska

Denali National Park and Preserve encompasses 6 million acres of Alaska’s interior wilderness. Its centerpiece is 20,310-ft.-high Denali (fka Mount McKinley), North America’s tallest peak. With terrain of tundra, spruce forest and glaciers, the park is home to wildlife including grizzly bears, wolves, moose, caribou and Dall sheep. Popular activities in summer include biking, backpacking, hiking and mountaineering.

maps

Official visitor map of Denali National Park and Preserve (NP & PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Denali - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Denali National Park and Preserve (NP & PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Detail of the official visitor map of Denali National Park and Preserve (NP & PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Denali - Visitor Map Detail

Detail of the official visitor map of Denali National Park and Preserve (NP & PRES) in Alaska. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Travel Map of the 135 miles long Denali Highway in Alaska which connects Paxson on the Richardson Highway with Cantwell Junction on the Parks Highway. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Denali Highway - Travel Map

Travel Map of the 135 miles long Denali Highway in Alaska which connects Paxson on the Richardson Highway with Cantwell Junction on the Parks Highway. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Map of State Moose and Caribou Hunt Restricted Areas in the Game Management Unit 13A (GMU) in Alaska. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).GMU 13 - GMU 13 A - Moose and Caribou Hunt Restrictions

Map of State Moose and Caribou Hunt Restricted Areas in the Game Management Unit 13A (GMU) in Alaska. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

https://www.nps.gov/dena/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denali_National_Park_and_Preserve Denali National Park and Preserve encompasses 6 million acres of Alaska’s interior wilderness. Its centerpiece is 20,310-ft.-high Denali (fka Mount McKinley), North America’s tallest peak. With terrain of tundra, spruce forest and glaciers, the park is home to wildlife including grizzly bears, wolves, moose, caribou and Dall sheep. Popular activities in summer include biking, backpacking, hiking and mountaineering. Denali is six million acres of wild land, bisected by one ribbon of road. Travelers along it see the relatively low-elevation taiga forest give way to high alpine tundra and snowy mountains, culminating in North America's tallest peak, 20,310' Denali. Wild animals large and small roam un-fenced lands, living as they have for ages. Solitude, tranquility and wilderness await. You can drive to Denali from Anchorage or Fairbanks, along Highway 3, which is known as the "George Parks Highway." Fairbanks is about 2 hours north, while Anchorage is 5 hours south of the Denali entrance. You can also reach Denali from either city via the Alaska Railroad, which is operated by the State of Alaska. A small private airstrip is also available near the park entrance for individuals wishing to fly their own small craft to the park. Denali Visitor Center Open in summer only, this is the main visitor center near the park entrance. Here, you can watch the park film; check out a variety of exhibits about the natural and cultural history of the Denali area; and join a variety of ranger walks or talks. Backpackers may also receive their required, free permit to backpack in the park. In fall, winter and spring, the Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) acts as the park's main visitor center. Upon arriving in Denali, travel 1.5 miles down the road until you see signs for the Denali Visitor Center. Eielson Visitor Center Eielson Visitor Center is open in summer only. Located at Mile 66 of the Denali Park Road, Eielson Visitor Center can be reached by most transit buses, and by the Kantishna Experience tour bus. Features include daily ranger-led programs, a small gallery of art inspired by Denali's natural wonders, and, on clear days, amazing views of Denali and the Alaska Range. Eielson is located at Mile 66 of the Denali Park Road, and as such can only be accessed by visitors on certain buses, or visitors who are hiking / biking the road. Indoor Picnic Area A heated building, called the Indoor Picnic Area, is located next door to the Murie Science and Learning Center, which is across the street from the Denali Visitor Center. Starting September 27, 2021, the Indoor Picnic Area will be open 9:30 am to 5 pm daily, except for major holidays. Rangers may be available to answer questions at an outdoor desk at the adjacent Murie Science and Learning Center. Turn off Highway 3 onto the Denali Park Road and drive 1.4 miles til you see signs for the Murie Science & Learning Center. Park at the Murie Center, and walk past it to the Indoor Picnic Area. Murie Science and Learning Center The Murie Science and Learning Center is run by the National Park Service in partnership with Alaska Geographic and other organizations. In 2021-2022, this facility will be open only when local COVID-19 transmission levels are low, as determined by the Alaska Department of Health & Human Services. A heated building, called the Indoor Picnic Area, is located next door to the Center. Starting September 27, 2021, the Indoor Picnic Area will be open 9:30 am to 5 pm daily, except for major holidays. After entering the park, travel 1.4 miles and look for signs to the Murie Science and Learning Center. The Denali Bus Depot This summer facility is operated by our concessionaire rather than by the National Park Service. It is the primary place to buy bus tickets, arrange for stays in park campgrounds, or to check in for an existing reservation. Walter Harper Talkeetna Ranger Station Located in the town of Talkeetna, about 100 miles south of the entrance to Denali National Park and Preserve, this ranger station serves as the center of mountaineering operations. Climbers wishing to attempt Denali or other peaks in the Alaska Range stop here first, for an orientation to the mountain and to acquire their climbing permit. This ranger station also offers some visitor services, particularly in summer. It is open year-round. The Talkeetna Spur Road is at Mile 100 on Highway 3. Drive down the Talkeetna Spur Road its full 15 mile length to the town of Talkeetna and look for the visitor center on B street. Igloo Creek Igloo Creek Campground is at mile 35 on the Park Road. It offers 7 sites, making it the smallest in Denali (along with Sanctuary River Campground, which also has 7 sites). Igloo is tent-only - you will not find any RVs or other vehicles in this campground. It is accessible by camper bus. The bus stop is a short walk from the camp sites - less than 50 yards (meters). Advance reservations are not possible at this campground. Visitors may only book a site upon arriving in the park. Nightly Fee 17.00 This is the cost to stay per night at Igloo Creek Campground. Up to four people may be at a single campsite, in up to 2 tents. Igloo Welcoming Committee two brown bears scratching at a large wooden sign that reads "Igloo Creek Campground" While many visitors do not see bears at Igloo Campground, remember that you are camping in bear country. Camping at Igloo two people sitting in chairs outside of their tent in a forest Igloo Campground is in the middle of Igloo Forest, which is mainly made up of spruce trees. Igloo Creek Campground person sitting near an orange tent Campsites in Igloo Creek have some brush screening between sites. Filling water at Igloo Creek a woman filtering water into a plastic bottle from a shallow creek Igloo Creek has no well or water tap. Water must be gathered from the nearby creek, so bring a filter. Igloo Creek Food Locker a woman placing food into a large metal locker Food lockers at Igloo Creek ensure that wildlife cannot steal your food. Keep all scented items (e.g., deodorant, toothpaste) in the locker, not just your food. Relaxing at Igloo Creek Campground A grizzly on its hind legs leaning on a large wooden sign that reads "Igloo Creek Campground" Keep in mind that bears can be found nearly anywhere in Denali. Keep your food and other scented items stored properly in the campground facilities provided! Covered Shelter picnic tables covered by a wall-less, roofed enclosure in a forest A covered eating area is available at Igloo Creek Campground Restrooms at Igloo wooden building with two doors in a forest Igloo has two pit toilets for campers. Riley Creek Riley Creek is a fairly wooded campground, with some screening between sites whenever possible. Most of the campground sites are open to either tent campers or vehicles / RVs. The proximity of Highway 3 means there is occasional traffic noise, but also means campers have all the conveniences and amenities of the park entrance area, and businesses outside the park, close at hand. Trails leading from the campground connect to the Denali Visitor Center, which is the central hub of trails in the entrance area. Winter - Free 0.00 Camping is free in winter. The winter season begins fifteen days after Labor Day each September, and lasts through early May each year. Summer - Large RV Sites 34.00 Some sites can accommodate RVs up to 40' in length. These sites cost a bit more per night than the smaller sites, which can accommodate vehicles no larger than 30' long. Summer - Small RV Sites 27.00 These sites can accommodate vehicles up to 30' long. If you have a truck and trailer, the total combined length must be less than 30' to use one of these sites. Summer - Tent Only 17.00 The tent-only sites at Riley are first-come, first-served, meaning they cannot be purchased before you physically arrive in the park. These sites do not have parking at them, you must park elsewhere and walk into these sites. Group Site (Tent-only) 49.00 A group site at Riley Creek Campground has space for up to 12 tents. The group site can only be used by non-commercial groups (including groups like Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts of America, etc). There are no fire rings at the site, and tents must be set up on the established tent pads. Riley Creek Campfire a man lighting a campfire, and a woman pulling gear out of a car Up to two vehicles may park at a Riley Creek Campsite, as long as the total vehicle length doesn't exceed the campsite's max (either 30' or 40') Riley Creek Campground an empty campsite in a spruce forest A typical site in Riley Creek Campground. Riley Creek Tent Site two people spreading a tent out on a gravel pad Riley Creek Campground has some tent-only sites, though most sites are open to RVs. RV sites are split into <30' and <40'. Riley Creek Campground three women at a picnic table near a tent Riley Creek is open to RVs and tent campers Sanctuary River Open in summer only (May 20 to mid-September). Sanctuary River is a heavily wooded campground, with screening between most sites. The immediate area is brushy, but nearby mountains offer chances to hike directly from the campground and gain elevation, with views of Denali to the south possible on clear days, after some strenuous up-hill hiking. It's a small, tent-only campground, accessible only by park shuttle bus. Nightly Fee 17.00 This is the cost for a campsite, per night. You may stay up to 14 total nights in a given summer. Two tents and up to four people may use a single site. Sanctuary River a wide, shallow river flowing through a brushy forest The area around Sanctuary River turns shades of yellow, orange and red in fall (mid-August) Savage River Open in summer only (May 20 to mid-September). Savage River campground is located at Mile 13 on the Denali Park Road. It sits in a spruce forest, with moderate screening between sites. On clear days, Denali can be seen from a short walk below the campground. Large RV Sites 34.00 Nightly fee for a site that can accommodate an RV between 30' and 40' long. Small RV / Tent Sites 27.00 Nightly cost for a site that can accommodate an RV that is less than 30' long, as well as any other vehicle or even tent campers without vehicles. Group Site 49.00 Standard sites in Savage can accommodate up to 8 people (in up to 3 tents). Larger groups may rent a group site by calling 866.761.6629. Savage River a braided river flowing through a brushy landscape A short walk southwest of the campground is Savage River, which flows northward from the Alaska Range. Savage River Campground dirt road in a forest with hills in the distance South of the campground, the spruce forest ends and views of the Alaska Range become possible South of Savage River a landscape of spruce trees, rolling hills and distant mountains The view to the south of Savage River Campground, looking toward the Alaska Range Savage River Canyon two marmots sitting on rocks Savage River Canyon is about a mile away from Savage River Campground, and can be a great spot to look for wildlife. Evening Ranger Talk at Savage Campground a crowd of people sitting on wood benches in a forest listen to a park ranger speaking Evening campground talks happen most nights at Savage River Campground during the summer Savage River Campground A wood sign reading Savage River Campground The entrance to Savage River Campground Teklanika River Open in summer only (May 20 to mid-September). Though nearly all private vehicles must turn around at mile 15, Savage River, Tek campers are an exception to that rule. If you wish, you may drive your vehicle / RV to Tek. The trade-off is that you must make, at minimum, a three-night stay, and your vehicle must stay in your campsite for the duration of your stay, while you use transit buses to sightsee. Tent campers using the park bus system to reach Tek are not subject to the 3-night minimum stay. Nightly Fee 29.00 This is the cost, per night, for a campsite at Teklanika Campground. A single site can contain up to eight people. This is the fee for all campers, regardless of whether you have just a tent, or an RV or other vehicle. Tek Pass 60.00 Strongly recommended. The Tek Pass is a bus ticket that lets you use transit buses throughout your stay at Tek. The pass acts like a normal transit ticket for your first trip (i.e., on a specific bus you choose); on subsequent trips, you can board any transit bus for a day-trip farther into the park. You cannot drive your vehicle to/from the campground except at the start and end of your stay, so this is thee only way to sight-see while camping at Tek. (Note: This pass is free for kids 15 and younger). Teklanika Campground two people outside of an RV, one relaxing in a camp chair by a fire while another prepares a meal You can camp at Tek River with an RV (less than 40'), a car, or just a tent. Sites have a grate for cooking over a fire, but bring your own firewood and don't forget to burn or scrape off any food residue from the cooking surface. Teklanika River a wide, braided river flowing past forests and mountains A short walk west of Teklanika (Tek) Campground is Tek River, which flows northward from the Alaska Range. Clean Camping several people in camp chairs around a fire, under a tarp hung from trees Remember to keep a clean camp. Food should only be outside when you're actively preparing and eating a meal. Otherwise, use the food lockers or your hard-sided vehicle to keep your food safe from wildlife. Campers two women sitting near a campfire with a truck and cab-over-camper behind them Teklanika River is the second largest campground in Denali, but is one of the most remote. No electrical or water hookups are available, though bathrooms and potable water taps are available in the campground. Teklanika Amphitheater numerous wooden benches in a spruce forest The Teklanika area is wooded, though less-so than Riley Creek and Savage River Campgrounds Ranger Program at Teklanika Campground a crowd sitting on benches faces a park ranger giving a talk Ranger programs occur most evenings of the summer at Teklanika River Campground. Tent Camping at Teklanika an SUV parked in a forest with a tent behind it Campers may use RVs or tents at Teklanika in most years. Occasional bear incidents may cause restrictions on tent-camping, but such events are rare (and unpredictable). Teklanika Restrooms a small wooden building with two doors Restrooms at Teklanika Tek Campground people sitting by an outdoor fire near an RV, in a sparse forest Campers at Teklanika Wonder Lake Wonder Lake Campground is at mile 85 on the Denali Park Road. It offers 28 sites, which are all tent-only. It is the closest campground to Denali. Though separated by nearly 26 miles, the sheer size of the mountain makes it loom impressively over Wonder Lake Campground. Cloudy skies can obscure views, and mosquitoes can be fierce, but Wonder Lake on a clear day offers views that will last a lifetime. Bear-proof food lockers are available throughout the campground. Reservation Fee 6.50 This is a one-time reservation fee. It applies whether you stay one night or fourteen (or a number in between) at this campground. Park passes do not waive this fee, as it is charged by our concessionaire. Nightly Fee 16.00 This is the cost, per night, to stay at Wonder Lake Campground. Please note that your total cost for the campground is $6 (the one-time reservation fee) + the total nightly cost of your stay. Sitting on a Dock in the Lake a young woman sitting on a dock sticking out into a lake Wonder Lake is too chilly for most swimmers, but can make for a very scenic spot. Denali View a tent in a brushy forest with a vast snowy mountain in the distance The scenery around Wonder Lake Campground features a spectacular view of Denali, when skies are clear Beware of Mosquitoes a man sitting on a rock in a lake wearing long pants, a jacket and a head net Head nets are critical for Wonder Lake from early June through early September. Shelter people sitting at a picnic table in a sheltered area Wonder Lake Campground has a sheltered area for campers to eat out of the rain. Denali and Reflection Pond snowy mountains reflected in a pond Denali is the highest mountain in North America Dall Sheep a white colored sheep standing on a mountainside overlooking a green valley Congress originally created Denali National Park (called Mount McKinley National Park, at the time) to protect wildlife, particularly Dall sheep View from Stony Overlook a vast white mountain looming over a brown landscape Many bus trips into Denali pause at Stony Overlook, which features a great view of Denali when skies are clear Talkeetna View A huge snowy mountain looming over a landscape of forests and water The view of Denali from the south, in Talkeetna, Alaska Transit Driver a man standing next to a green bus Transit buses are a primary way for visitors to sightsee in Denali during summer Alpenglow light turns a snowy mountain shades of pink and purple Alpenglow on North America's tallest peak, Denali Discovery Hike a park ranger leading hikers up a steep mountainside Visitors following a ranger on a Discovery Hike, an off-trail adventure Grizzlies three brown bears walking along a dirt road Grizzlies walking on the park's sole road Caribou Sighting a bus on a gravel road behind a large caribou that is trotting on the road A tour bus pauses to view a caribou as it walks on the Denali Park Road Sled Dog Demonstration a large seated crowd faces a park ranger and a small group of sled dogs A crowd takes in a sled dog demonstration in the Denali Park Kennels Paula Anderson Paula followed the allure of gold to Alaska, arriving in the Kantishna district to mine in 1918. She and her husband found some success through mining, and chose to settle at the north end of Wonder Lake, in what today is part of Denali National Park. woman posing with a rifle near animal pelts and caribou antlers 2010 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2010 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards 2009 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2009 Environmental Achievement Awards Snowshoe Hare Snowshoe hares live in the boreal forests of North America and are active year-round. They gain their curious name from their very large hind feet form a snowshoe, supporting their weight on the surface of the snow. Hares greatly influence the world around them, including the vegetation, predators, and other herbivores and omnivores that live in the same habitats. a white colored hare under a shrub in snow Scavenging and Landscape Use of Mesocarnivores in Denali Phase 2 of a multi-year study looking at the relationships between apex predators (specifically, wolves) and mid-size predators, such as lynx, coyotes, and foxes. a coyote weaves through brush Blackpoll Warbler Migration Read the abstract and link to a recent published paper on Blackpoll Warbler migration: DeLuca, W. V., B. K. Woodworth, S. A. Mackenzie, A. E. M. Newman, H. A. Cooke, L. M. Phillips, N. E. Freeman, A. O. Sutton, L. Tauzer, C. McIntyre, I. J. Stenhouse, S. Weidensaul, P. D. Taylor, and D. R. Norris. 2019. A boreal songbird’s 20,000 km migration across North America and the Atlantic Ocean. Ecology 00(00):e02651. 10.1002/ecy.2651 A Blackpoll Warbler Summer movements of female Golden Eagle 1502 at the northwestern edge of North America. Wrangell St. Elias NPP to Bering Land Bridge NP: summer movements of Golden Eagle 1502. Satellite telemetry is expanding our understanding of Golden Ecology and revealing the stories of non-territorial Golden Eagles in Alaska during the breeding season. USFWS Biologist Stephen Lewis holds Golden Eagle 1502 while extending her right wing. Denali ignites first burn pile of the season Things are heating up in Denali National Park and Preserve as last year's fuels treatment burn pile ignites. A large brush and limb burn pile sits under a blanket of snow. Peregrine Falcon The American peregrine falcon is one of the best known raptors in North America. For years, American peregrine populations declined due to problems with egg-shell thinning caused by persistent organic pollutants such as DDT. The American peregrine is one of three peregrine species found throughout North America, from northern Mexico all the way to Alaska. brown and tan bird perched on a rock World War II Recreation Camps at Denali Though not yet a state, the Alaska Territory served as both America’s home front and front line during World War II. While the Aleutian Islands became a battleground, war-weary soldiers took refuge in the breathtaking landscape beneath America’s tallest mountain. a person skiing, large mountain, and words WWII Cold Weather Training in Denali Though not yet a state, the Alaska Territory served as both America’s home front and front line during World War II. While the Aleutian Islands became a battleground, war-weary soldiers took refuge in the breathtaking landscape beneath America’s tallest mountain. At Denali National Park, then known as Mt. McKinley National Park, the mountainous terrain also provided the ideal place to test soldiers and equipment against the elements. Abandoned Mine Lands in Alaska National Parks—An Overview From the thousands of mining claims that existed at when Congress created most national parks in Alaska, around 750 still remain. These are mainly abandoned sites and features, in various stages of disrepair and failure. Since 1981, the NPS has worked to quantify the number and type of hazards posed by these sites and has pursued a variety of solutions to mitigate the issues, such as visitor safety hazards, presented by relic mining features. dilapidated wood building in a mountainous setting Subsistence The study of subsistence resources in parks has been a mix of long-term work and projects instigated by issues facing the Federal Subsistence Board. Winter hunting is an important subsistence activity in many Alaska communities and park areas. Bull River Prehistoric Upland Hunting Site Science Summary (2011) - Artifacts suggest prehistoric humans hunted throughout upland areas of Denali over 12,000 years ago. Finds like these help researchers test hypotheses about how humans colonized the Americas. people kneeling on a tree-less ridge top Red Fox Despite the name, red foxes come in a variety of colors. They're found throughout the United States and are not uncommon sightings in many national parks. two red foxes A Plane Crashes in WWII-era Denali On September 18, 1944, an Army C-47 left Anchorage for Fairbanks with a civilian pilot from Northwest Airlines, and 18 servicemen on board. The aircraft struck a mountain (now named Mt. Deception) 16 miles east of Mt. McKinley (Denali). Park and concession staff ventured on a dangerous mission to seek reach the wreckage in the hard backcountry of Denali. crashed silver plane in show with men around it Historic and Contemporary Ethnographic Landscapes of Denali National Park The land in and around Denali comprises part of the aboriginal homeland of five Northern Athabascan groups—Dena’ina, Koyukon, Lower Tanana, Upper Kuskokwim, and Western Ahtna. The affiliation of five Alaska Native groups with one national park is unique and illustrates the rich and diverse cultural heritage of the Denali area. black and white image of ten adults and two kids near wooden buildings My Wilderness: Gene Harmon Gene Harmon describes a close-up view of a moose-bear encounter in his essay for "Your Wilderness Stories." vast snowy mountain dominating a hilly landscape 2015 Recipients: George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service Six people and programs received the 2015 Harzog Award for their exceptional volunteer service. Check out their amazing contributions! Young volunteer giving a thumbs up sign Science in Wilderness Marine Reserves ANILCA establishes the largest scientific laboratory...ever! A spawning salmon struggles to get back into the water. Mining in the Parks Resource protection goals, resource data, the study areas and other decisions made in the environmental impact state-ment process held up under public scrutiny and federal appeals court review, and became an integral part of evaluating new mining plans of operations in parks. A semi-truck hauling two trailers filled with ore on a gravel road. Monitoring Denali's Air Quality and other Contaminants Annual Research Update (2015) - While Denali has some of the cleanest air measured in the United States, small amounts of industrial and agricultural contaminants from other continents make their way into the park each year in a recurring seasonal pattern. Learn more about how Denali monitors air quality and other contaminants. clouds sweep over mountains 2016 Science Education Grant Recipients The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2016 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. a photographer takes a picture in the grass while the sun sets When and Where are White Spruce Cloning Themselves? Read the abstract and link to an article recently published in the Canadian Journal of Forest Research: Wuerth, D. G., P. Eusemann, M. Trouillier, A. Burras, A.s Burger, M. Wilmking, C. A. Roland, G. P. Juday, M. Schnittler. 2018. Environment drives spatio-temporal patterns of clonality in white spruce (Picea glauca) in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2018-0234 Whate spruce border a stormy sky. Vegetation Change over the Past Century Read the abstract and link to the recently published article in Ecology about vegetation changes in Denali National Park and Preserve. Brodie, J. F., C. A. Roland, S. E. Stehn, and E. Smirnova. 2019. Variability in the expansion of trees and shrubs in boreal Alaska. Ecology 00(00):e02660. a photo pair showing vegetation changes in Denali from 1960-2016 Summer Temperature Patterns Read the abstract and link to the recent article published in the Journal of Climatology: Sadoti, G., S. A. McAfee, C. A. Roland, E. F. Nicklen, and P. J. Sousanes. 2018. Modelling high-latitude summer temperature patterns using physiographic variables. Journal of Climatology. A weather station in a high-latitude, high-elevation location. DenaliFlora–An Electronic Field Guide for Your Mobile Device Annual Research Updates (2016) - While hiking through six million acres of Alaska's pristine wilderness, it is likely that you may come across a plant or two that you don't know. Learn what it is using Denali's new plant identification app. a man kneels down to examine a small pink flower National Park Service Visitor and Resource Protection Staff Focuses on Week of Leadership Staff from all levels of the National Park Service in law enforcement, United States Park Police, as well as fire and aviation spent a week learning leadership lessons from one another as well as from a diverse group of leaders during the last week of September 2019. A group of women and men on a rocky outcrop in high desert. June: A Month of Milestones The times are a changin’, and there’s no better time to honor those moments of change than in June. Over the course of America’s history, the month of June is filled with cultural changes, and some seasonal ones too. So just before the season changes and summer begins, take some time to visit these parks that commemorate extraordinary moments. Painting of suffragist on a horse Disaster and Scandal: the 1939 Superintendent’s Residence Fire On the morning of October 23rd, 1939, the Superintendent’s Residence caught on fire and was destroyed. Not long after the flames expired, criminal accusations of arson, insurance fraud, and narcotics possession were leveled against Lorraine Been by the park clerk’s wife. The Department of the Interior opened an investigation. a two-story log cabin on fire in a snowy forest Started from the Bottom: A Mission from Death Valley to Denali on Horseback In 1958, Stanley Upton of Riverside, California hatched an ambitious plan. He was determined to trek from the lowest point in North America, in Death Valley, to the highest point on Denali’s summit. Assessing the Risk of Denali's Forests to Spruce Beetle Outbreak Will spruce beetles, an insect native to Alaska, cause widespread spruce die-back in Denali's boreal forest, or will they remain primarily south of the Alaska Range? closeup of spruce needles Monitoring Dall Sheep in Denali Science Summary (2018) - In Denali National Park and Preserve, both ground and aerial surveys are used to monitor Dall sheep population. The results of these surveys inform wildlife management decisions and ensure future park visitors can enjoy observing these incredible mammals. A Dall sheep ewe stands on a hillside In Celebration of ANILCA Former President, Jimmy Carter, offers a sentimental introduction to the 25th Anniversary Edition of Alaska Park Science and the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). Black and white photo of six white men standing in front of an old National Park Service Building. 2010 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients Seven rangers were awarded with a national or regional 2010 Freeman Tilden Award for excellence in interpretation. Learn more about their exciting and innovative projects. Portrait of John Kirkpatrick Morale, Welfare and Recreation in WWII National Parks Wartime NPS Director Newton Drury wrote 'In wartime, the best function of these areas is to prove a place to which members of the armed forces and civilians may retire to restore shattered nerves and to recuperate physically and mentally for the war tasks still ahead of them.' During World War II, parks across the United States supported the morale of troops and sought to become places of healing for those returning from war. B&W; soldiers post in front of large tree Denali Encourages Young Alaska Artists Each summer, Denali's Artist-in-Residence program awards scholarships to two talented Alaska artists -- one each from art programs at the University of Alaska, Anchorage, and the University of Alaska, Fairbanks -- to participate in a three-day landscape painting field course in the park hosted by Alaska Geographic. The instructor is David Mollett, an accomplished painter and a 2003 AiR-program alumnus. Woman standing in front of painting The Day I Hiked Up Stony After a 2011 residency in Denali, writer Carolyn Kremers conjures the excitement - and fear - that comes from hiking off-trail up a mountain in grizzly country in "The Day I Hiked Up Stony," grizzly bear wandering through a field A History of Science in Alaska's National Parks National park units in Alaska precede the establishment of the National Park Service in 1916. The first park unit, Sitka National Monument, was conceived in 1908, and by the mid-1920s four national monuments along with Alaska’s first national park were part of the growing park system. Discover how the early 1900s and observations of a few helped to establish the National Park Service in Alaska. Black and white photo of Arno Cammerer sitting at his desk looking through papers. Old is Getting Older In the last 25 years, persistent archaeological survey and improved scientific techniques have resulted in new data which confirms that Alaska sites are actually much earlier than we once believed. NPS archaeologist works at Amakomanak site in Noatak National Preserve. Composting Human Waste from Denali with Worms Science Summary (2014) - If a bear poops in the woods, then where do mountaineers poop? Not all human waste can be left on Denali. Luckily, some creative thinkers came up with an innovated way to dispose of this waste. a mountaineer climbs up a snowy hill carrying a clean mountain can Medical Research Climbs Denali Four short case studies of medical research at the rooftop of North America -- high on the slopes of Denali. view of tents and people on a glacier, surrounded by steep mountains Mining Legacy in National Parks of Alaska Mining is intrinsically tied to the history of Alaska as a territory and then state of the United States. Thousands of historic and active mining sites exist within national parks across Alaska - some with a rich cultural history and others with disturbed lands and hazardous conditions. gold dust in a pan NPS Alaska Planning and Designs for the Future with Climate Change Alaska’s national parks face new and unexpected planning, design, and maintenance challenges as we enter a new era of climate change. It behooves the NPS to pay attention to these changes and plan and act accordingly cars driving on a road covered in water Preservation of Cultural Resources in an "Untouched Wilderness" Science Summary (2011) - Denali maintains a strong commitment to preserve and interpret not only the expansive natural resources of the park, but also a rich collection of historic and prehistoric sites that provide a record of over 10,000 years of human settlement and activity in an area frequently considered today as an “untouched wilderness." historic black and white image of a log cabin in a forest Composing in the Wilderness In 2012 nine composers from around the globe spent several days at a Denali field camp with Stephen Lias and researcher Davyd Betchykal learning about the soundscapes of Denali. The compositions premiered at the Davis Concert Hall in Fairbanks, Alaska and performed by the Fairbanks Summer Arts Festival orchestra. pink flowers in the foreground of a scenic photo of rivers and mountains Subsistence in Denali Science Summary (2010) - For many rural residents including rural non-Natives utilizing natural resources in and near Denali National Park and Preserve, subsistence ensures more than survival. It sustains a way of life. a man pulls in a fishing net while a boy watches Painted, Fossilized Bison Skull in Denali What might paint on a 42,000 year old bison skull from Denali tell us about the culture of early Alaska Natives? skull with faint reddish paint on part of it No Structures Too Far for NPS Wildland Firefighters The NPS manages approximately 52.5 million acres in Alaska across 24 different NPS units. While much of the NPS land in Alaska is remote and unpopulated, there are nearly 4,000 individual structures spread throughout the parks and preserves in Alaska. Of that total, 2,756 are NPS structures. These structures can range from large groups of road-accessible buildings in headquarters areas to remote backcountry cabins accessible only by aircraft, but that doesn't stop NPS WLF! Two firefighters in bright yellow shirts and blue hardhats survey a tiny cabin amidst tall trees. Howard Luke: Cultural Ambassador A remembrance of Howard Luke, Athabascan elder and an important community member of Interior Alaska. Howard Luke passed away in 2019, in his late 90's. an alaska native elder Fannie Quigley—Not Just Blueberries and Bluster While most who visit and live in Alaska know of Fannie as the legendary pioneer who arrived in the Kantishna Hills during the 1905-06 gold rush, there is another side to Fannie’s extraordinary life that is not as well known—notably, her contributions to science and the local community. a woman holding rhubarb PARKS...IN...SPAAAACE!!! NASA astronauts have quite literally an out-of-this-world view of national parks and take some pretty stellar pictures to share. Travel along with the space station on its journey west to east getting the extreme bird’s eye view of national parks across the country. And one more down-to-earth. View of Denali National Park & Preserve from space Black-Capped Chickadee Black-capped chickadees and boreal chickadees are tiny but tough songbirds that are year-round residents in many parts of Alaska. Ice Patch Archeology Science Summary (2011) - What can archaeologists discover from patches of perennial snow and ice high in the Alaska Range? patch of snow on a mountain top Methods to Estimate Golden Eagle Populations Read the abstract and link to a recently published article on measuring Golden Eagle populations: Mizel, J. D.,C.L. McIntyre, S.B. Lewis, M.S. Lindberg, and J.H. Schmidt. 2018. A multi‐state, time‐removal model for population dynamics of cliff‐nesting raptors. Journal of Wildlife Management 82:1701-1710. Statewide Movements of Non-territorial Golden Eagles in Alaska During the Breeding Season: Information for Developing Effective Conservation Plans Telemetry studies provide new information on the movements of non-territorial (migrating) Golden Eagles in Alaska during the breeding season, expanding our understanding of the ecology of this species. This information should be useful for developing effective management and conservation. Alaska Park Science 17(1), 2018. A Golden Eagle soaring. Monitoring Migratory Golden Eagles Read the abstract and get the link to an article published in the Journal of Raptor Research: McIntyre, C. and S. B. Lewis. 2016. Observations of migrating Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern interior Alaska offer insights on population size and migration monitoring. Journal of Raptor Research 50(3): 254-264. A Golden Eagle flies along a mountain ridge. Fire Ecology Annual Report 2016 - Monitoring and Inventory Monitoring and inventories are utilized by the fire ecology program to provide feedback to the NPS fire management program on activities such as fuels treatments and to continue to gain a better understanding of the effects of wildfire on the landscape. Trees were thinned and limbed to o provide a fuel break in the event of a wildfire. Fire Ecology Annual Report 2016 - Research and Technology The AKR fire ecology program coordinates research and facilitates the use of scientific data, modeling and technology to address the needs of the fire management program. Read on to learn more about the three fire research proposals submitted to NPS in 2016. Researchers from University of Montana collect tree cores from Wrangell-St. Elias. Fire Ecology Annual Report 2016 - References A list of reports, presentations and other forms of communication completed in 2016 for the Fire Ecology Annual Report. Making of "East Fork Wolf" Painting Alaska painter Gail Niebrugge takes readers on a step-by-step journey of creating, and revising, a piece she donated to Denali's Artist-in-Residence Program. Painting of a wolf walking on a gravel along a braided river Kantishna Gold! Gold mining in the American West at the turn of the 20th century will forever be remembered for its sudden and feverish stampedes. In the 1890s, after thousands rushed to Canada’s Klondike goldfields, many miners headed west to try their luck in Alaska. Stampeding became a way of life for many frontier adventurers, and when Alaska’s boomtowns became too crowded or the pay-dirt too scarce, these wanderers followed rumors of gold into Denali's Kantishna region. Land Ownership in National Park System Units in Alaska and Possibilities for Mining and Other Developments There are over 54 million acres of National Park System units in Alaska, which is 65 percent of the entire National Park System. Although most of those lands are in federal ownership and are managed by the NPS, there are over two million acres of non-federally owned lands within those units. These non-federal lands are in private, state, borough, or municipal ownership. The existence of these lands creates the possibility of mining and other developments within the boundaries rustic buildings near a creek, hills and mountains in the distance Landsat 8 Helps Map Fires during Long, Busy Alaska Fire Season The Castle Rocks fire occurred about 100 miles west of Denali park headquarters and 160 miles southwest of Fairbanks. NPS and BLM fire managers conducted visual reconnaissance flights to observe fire behavior and generate maps of the fire’s extent. Fire managers also used the Landsat 8 satellite to safely generate accurate fire perimeter maps for the Castle Rocks fire in a timely and cost-effective manner. Alaska fire managers are glad to have Landsat 8 in their toolkit. A screenshot of a webpage showing satellite imagery and land detail at top Teklanika West: A Late Pleistocene Archaeological Site Learn about a millennia-old archeology site overlooking Denali's Teklanika River. shallow river flowing across a gravel plain Monitoring Off-Road Vehicle Use in a Subsistence Hunting Area Annual Research Updates (2016) - How does off-road vehicle use impact areas that are beyond the extent of already established trails? a researcher collects data about off-road vehicle trails Reynold Jackson Awarded Secretary’s Award for Outstanding Contribution to Aviation Safety For over 25 years Renny has been involved with the Service’s short-haul program used for search and rescue (SAR). His expertise and leadership has made Renny Jackson synonymous with short-haul both nationally and internationally. For his commitment to aviation safety and his life-time of devoted service, Renny Jackson is presented the Secretary’s Award for Outstanding Contribution to Aviation Safety. A smiling group of men and women stand behind a sign and in front of a ranger station. Wolf Monitoring 1986-2016 Science Summary (2017) - Following collared wolves has provided researchers with the opportunity to discover what the life of a wolf looks like. From eating habits to where they den, the almost 20 years of monitoring the park wolves has provided a practically complete picture of these wild creatures. a wolf stands shoulder deep in grass Traleika Glacier is Surging Again After 60 years. Is the Muldrow Glacier Next? Science Summary (2016) - The Muldrow Glacier cascades down a northern slope of Denali in view of visitors to Wonder Lake. While high in the mountains hides the Traleika Glacier, a tributary of the Muldrow. Discover more about these iconic glaciers and their unique surging behaviors. the grass-covered muldrow glacier flows in front of Denali Understanding and Managing Denali's Soundscapes Science Summary (2012) - Just as the protection of “landscapes” is a key component of the National Park Service (NPS) mission, the protection of “soundscapes” and quiet has become an integral part of protecting park resources and experiences for visitors. Find out how Denali is doing just that! a researcher holds up a weather device and a microphone Bear Management and Research Science Summary (2014) - Park managers rely on information collected in research studies to learn about bear populations and behavior, and to help bears and people co-exist safely without conflict in the park. a grizzly bear stands in the grass Carto online map portal The National Park Service, Harpers Ferry Center, is please to announce a new version of the Carto online map portal offering over 1,000 NPS maps free of charge. Remembering the Three Cs of C Camp: The Legacy of the CCC in Denali A short history of Denali's seasonal housing, "C Camp." Built by the CCC during the 1930s, it is emblematic of that program, which brought workers to improve infrastructure in America’s national parks. aerial view of a tent camp near a creek Alaska's Golden Spike Alaska's own "Golden Spike" moment signaled a turning point in the ability of the public to easily visit Mount McKinley National Park (which was the name of Denali National Park and Preserve at the time). man hammering a ceremonial spike on a railroad, surrounded by people John Rumohr and His Very Good Boy Tige: Denali Legends A story of World War I veteran and park ranger John Rumohr being saved by his beloved sled dog Tige during a winter patrol in Mount McKinely National Park (now known as Denali National Park & Preserve). a man and sled dog sitting on a dog house, in a snowy landscape Fire Ecology Annual Report 2018 Fire Season Despite the relatively quiet fire season in Alaska in 2018, the National Park Service saw 24 wildfires spanning over 36,000 acres burning within and adjacent to park boundaries. Six of those fires were in Cape Krusenstern National Monument. An anvil-shaped smoke plume rises above the tree line on the Yukon River. Maintaining the Character of the Denali Park Road Beyond Mile 15 Science Summary (2017) - The Denali Park Road facilitates a unique wilderness experience for visitors. But this 92 mile road crosses through difficult terrain and extreme weather, and needs a hardy, remarkable group of individuals to maintain it. A bus winds around a mountainous dirt road How Values Shape People's Behavior in Parks How do people behave in national parks is influenced by their environmental values. Read an abstract and get the link to the recently published article: van Riper, C., S. Winkler-Schor, L. Foelske, R. Keller, M. Braito, C. Raymond, M. Eriksson, E. Golebie, and D. Johnson. 2019. Integrating multi-level values and pro-environmental behavior in a U.S. protected area. Sustainability Science p1-14. visitors at the visitor center counter Building PIO capacity in Alaska National Park Service Public Information Officers were in short supply last fire season. To help bolster the numbers, NPS Alaska recruits 12 new staff members to assist with all hazard and wildfire incidents. A fire public information officer highlights updates on a fire to members of the public. The Mystery of Ansel Adams’ Denali Photo An answer to the mystery of just when Ansel Adams took this iconic photograph of North America's tallest peak! (<b>Denali and Wonder Lake</b>, Denali National Park, Alaska, 1947, 1948. Photograph by Ansel Adams Collection Center for Creative Photography © 2016 The Ansel Adams Publishing Rights Trust) huge snowy mountain overlooking a calm lake The Original Pipeline Controversy: Morino versus Karstens If you thought pipeline disputes were just a modern issue affecting land management agencies, you would be mistaken. In 1923, Mount McKinley National Park Superintendent Harry Karstens grappled with a pipeline controversy in just the third year of the park’s administration. a shallow creek flowing through a forest Johnnie Busia: “Mayor of Kantishna” Although many miners came and went, Johnnie and Fannie Quigley became the only two who stayed year-round. He mined, trapped, and hunted to survive but became locally famous because of his hospitality, character, and ability to endure in remote Alaska. man and sled dogs Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: So Many Sheldons Perhaps the most famous surname in Denali's modern history! a man standing by a bus Moose Rutting in Denali Visiting the park in late August or September? During autumn, moose become social and their lives change dramatically as the season for mating—also known as rutting—unfolds. Behaviors merge that have been dormant for the past year as moose engage in rituals related solely to reproduction. What kinds of moose rut behaviors have you spotted before? A bull moose stands in the brush Park Air Profiles - Denali National Park & Preserve Air quality profile for Denali National Park & Preserve. Gives park-specific information about air quality and air pollution impacts for Denali NP & Pres as well as the studies and monitoring conducted for Denali NP & Pres. Grizzly bear among fall colors in Denali NP & Pres Avian Soundscape Ecology in Denali National Park It may surprise you to find the National Park Service recognizes and protects these songs as part of the entirety of the natural acoustic environment. An understanding of how the entire acoustic environment affects an observer’s ability to quantify diversity is an important consideration of any auditory-based wildlife survey. a boreal chickadee An Integrated Study of Park Road Capacity In 1986, Denali National Park and Preserve established a limit of 10,512 vehicle trips on the park road during the core summer season. With visitation increasing, the park has been pressured to defend or change this limit. In 2006, Denali managers initiated a scientific study to better understand the impacts of traffic volume and traffic patterns on the park’s physical, biological, and social environment. a green bus travels down a dirt road leaving clouds of dust in its path NPS Alaska Region Fire Ecology Annual Report Summary During the 2016 field season, the Alaska NPS fire ecology program conducted monitoring at the Wrangell-St. Elias McCarthy University Subdivision fuels reduction site, re-measured plots that have burned multiple times in Denali, and assisted with fire research projects at both sites. Two fire ecologists in bright, lime-yellow rain suits, monitor the impacts of multiple fires. Moisture Matters: Fuel Moisture Sampling for Fire Danger and Fire Behavior Predictions Fire managers in Denali sample the moisture of moss and other vegetation ("fuels") to estimate future fire behavior. Data suggest how fast a fire might spread and whether a crown fire might occur. All fuel moisture data are also made available to other fire-fighting agencies throughout Alaska through the National Fuel Moisture Database. man with a notebook by an open field 2011 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients Discover the innovative and exciting programs of the recipients of the national and regional 2011 Freeman Tilden Awards for excellence in interpretation. LIza Stearns Denny Capps - Park Geologist Denny Capps is a park geologist in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Denny Capps standing on a landslide in Denali National Park. Aurora Borealis: A Brief Overview A brief overview of how Northern Lights occur. two ribbons of greenish light in a dark blue sky, over a very dark forest Going for the Gold in Kantishna In 1903, when Judge James Wickersham attempted the first climb of Mount McKinley, the American public knew little about the region. Although unsuccessful in his expedition, he found a little gold along the way and staked four claims. Alaska, having experienced both major and minor gold rushes for the previous twenty years, was primed for another rush. By 1904, prospectors flocked to the region. black and white image of three men standing near a hydraulic pipe spewing water into a creek Discovery of Dinosaur Tracks in Denali Science Summary (2013) - Since the first discovery in 2005, paleontologists continue to find fossilized dinosaur tracks and other evidence of live in Denali 70 million years ago. three-toed fossilized footprint and tape measure Paleoecology of Denali's Dinosaurs Science summary (2011) - What kinds of dinosaurs used to roam the earth in Denali? After the initial discovery of a fossil theropod track in 2005, the field of paleontology in the park was forever changed. Learn about more of the fascinating discoveries scientists have made within the park. Man searches for dinosaur tracks in a rock outcrop Visitor Spending and the Local Economy Are National Parks good or bad for the local economy? Read about how much Denali National Park visitors spend in the local area. Store fronts near Denali National Park Where is all that smoke coming from? Where there is fire, there is smoke—fire is a natural part of Alaska. Learn how smoke travels and why it is so difficult to manage. the sun seen through a smoky sky Denali's Museum Collection Annual Research Update (2016) - Denali's museum collection hold a variety of intriguing items ranging from mountaineering equipment from the first ascent of Denali to the pen that President Woodrow Wilson used to sign the park into existence. Learn more about the items in the collection. a photographer takes a picture of a dinosaur track in a case World War II Plane Crashes in National Parks During WWII, more than 7,100 air crashes involved US Army Air Force (USAAF) aircraft occurred on American soil. Collectively these crashes resulted in the loss of more than 15,599 lives (Mireles 2006). Many of these military aircraft accidents occurred in remote, often mountainous, areas managed by the National Park Service. plane crash at base of grassy hill Practice Safe Bear Spray Use Proper behavior in bear country and understanding bear behavior can help to avoid dangerous situations for people and bears. Bear spray should be used as a last line of defense when dealing with bears- not immediately upon seeing one. This introduction will help cover bear behaviors as well as safe use of bear pepper spray. A black bear stands on a wooden bench. Hunting and Subsistence Use of Dall Sheep Learn about the two ways humans harvest sheep - for subsistence use and in sport hunting. a male sheep Small Mammals as Indicators of Climate, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Change This is a time of rapid environmental changes in Alaska. Species that have evolved within tundra habitats over multiple glacial cycles are not only best adapted to high-latitude and high-elevation environments, but may also respond more slowly to change. Studies of small mammal communities could provide valuable insights to larger ecosystem changes. two marmots perched atop a large boulder 2013 Microgrant Recipients The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Microgrant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Microgrant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2013 Microgrant recipients and their outreach projects. A Ranger stands with two junior rangers 2014 Microgrant Recipients The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Microgrant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Microgrant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2014 Microgrant recipients and their outreach projects. Two students kneel in grassy field taking notes while looking at pink flagged marked locations A Bear, Bacon, and a Dramatic Rescue 120 Years Ago The story of an army lieutenant saved by Telida Village over 100 years ago in interior Alaska. two alaska native men standing side-by-side Early Communication in Mt. McKinley National Park A story of Denali's early effort at making communication possible along the park's sole road. tripod-shaped telephone poles in a tree-less meadow Wolverines Wolverine. The name alone stirs up visions of northern wilderness. Wolverines belong to the mustelidae family along with weasels, mink, marten, and otters. The family mustelidae makes up most of the order Carnivora (carnivores). a wolverine on a snow-covered river digging at something partially buried 2013 Debris Slide Across Denali Park Road Science Summary (2014) - Many areas in Denali are prone to debris slides because they contain steep slopes and frozen sediment or soil layers that can thaw. Sometimes movements are gradual (months or years) and sometimes massive blocks of material can detach and fall from a hillside quickly (minutes or seconds). Thanks to past and ongoing science and engineering efforts to ensure the safety of visitors and staff, relatively few events like a major 2013 slide have occurred. aerial view of a snowy hillside partially collapsed across a snowy road Measuring Earth Movements from the Denali Fault Science Summary (2012) - On November 3, 2002, a magnitude 7.9 earthquake ruptured the Denali Fault in the rugged Alaska Range...the largest ever recorded in the interior of Alaska. What happened afterwards and what will happen next? Temporary GPS unit in front of Wonder Lake and Denali. Paleoseismic Study of the Hines Creek Fault Science Summary (2014) - Prehistoric earthquakes left a mark on the world. Now geologist can evaluate the probability and severity of future earthquakes by examining those marks. researcher points to colored flagging on the wall of a trench Earthquake Monitoring in Denali Science Summary (2012) - With more than 20,000 earthquakes reported annually, Alaska is by far the most seismically active state. Is Denali National Park and Preserve due for a big earthquake soon? a map that shows earthquakes in Denali from 2007 to 2011 Nine Point Two: Denali and the 1964 Earthquake A 2018 earthquake brought back memories of the historically devastating 1964 earthquake that rocked Alaska. damaged buildings and streets Sled Dogs and Science Sled dogs provide a perfect tool for researchers accessing wilderness areas during winter months. This approach helps to minimize use of helicopters and is more aesthetically compatible with the philosophy of wilderness than motorized vehicles. a team of sled dogs in front of a sled where a person is removing equipment Songbird Monitoring Science Summary (2013) - Repeat surveys alert us to any changes in the abundance, distribution, or seasonality of songbirds birds that nest in Denali. small gray bird The Mystery of Mount Margaret The origin of the name "Mount Margaret," which is located in Denali National Park, has long been a mystery. Some have long assumed the mountain was named for the most famous Margaret (arguably) in Alaska’s past: Margaret “Mardy” Murie. Research suggests the answer is not so simple. a woman sitting atop a mountain with a dog The Green Book and Alaska Though remote, Alaskan locations merited inclusion in the Green Book, a travel guide published by and for African Americans who wanted to travel in a time of institutionalized racial discrimination (known as the Jim Crow era). a nondescript two story building 2019 Science Education Grants The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2019 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. a park ranger and kids standing in shallow lake water The Ultimate Triumph and Tragedy: Remembering Walter Harper 100 Years Later In October, 1918, in a tragedy sometimes referred to as “The Unknown Titanic of the West Coast,” the <i>Princess Sophia</i> sank en route from Skagway to Vancouver. All 350-plus people on board perished, including one of the most significant figures in Denali history. Caribou Preferred Habitat Read the abstract and get the link to an article on caribou winter habitat in Denali, published in Ecological Infomatics: Nelson, P. R., K. Joly, C. A. Roland, and B. McCune. 2018. Evaluating relocation extent versus covariate resolution in habitat selection models across spatiotemporal scales. Ecological Infomatics DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoinf.2018.10.001 Caribou grazing in light snow cover. Ground Squirrels and the Greening Arctic Read the abstract and link to this article published in Oecologia: Wheeler, H.C., J. D. Chipperfield, C. Roland, and J. C. Svenning. 2015. How will the greening of the Arctic affect a common ecosystem engineer? Vegetation effects on burrowing networks and activity of arctic ground squirrels. Oecologia 178(3):915-929. An arctic ground squirrel in the tundra. NETN Species Spotlight - Sharp-shinned Hawk About the size of a Blue-Jay, Sharp-shinned Hawks are aerial acrobats and are the smallest of three North American agile hawks known as the accipiters (ah-sip-it-ers). Learn more about this amazing and oft misunderstood hawk. Sharp-shinned Hawk perched on a branch Bat Projects in Parks: Alaska Region Parks Bats in Alaska? Find out! A scenic view of Alaska, mountains in the distance and a grizzly in front of a lake in the front. The Art of Watching During a 2013 residency at Denali, nature writer Kathleen Dean Moore thought and wrote about change, both natural and man-made. mountains partly shrouded in clouds Denali Poems Linda Schandelmeier's seven poems collected in "Denali Poems" reflect her experiences during a 2012 residency at Denali. a white colored ram standing on a rocky mountainside Bear Identification There are a combination of characteristics to look for that can help you identify between black and brown bears. Knowing the difference between the two can help you make safe choices in bear country. Brown bear walking down a beach Protecting Wildlife and Visitor Experience Along the Denali Park Road Science Summary (2017) - The Denali park road presents park managers with a complicated web of intersecting ambitions. To some they might see a solitary dirt road winding through the wilderness but to park managers they have to consider much more including visitor expectations, protecting wildlife populations in an unaltered natural ecosystem, and how the park road may affect wildlife viewability. a grizzly bear looks down at a green bus from a rocky hillside Large Mammals in Denali: How Many Are There? Science Summary (2014) - Check out a yearly update of population estimates for "the Big Five" species of Denali - wolves, caribou, Dall sheep, moose and bears. six sheet in front of a large glacier and mountains 2015 Denali Discovery Camp Inspires Local Kids to Experience Their National Park Denali Discovery Camp is a signature summer education program for the Murie Science and Learning Center. The program started originally as an idea from local parents who had a common goal of wanting their children to be able to go explore and learn about Denali National Park. That idea grew into a partnership program between the park and the Denali Education Center that now caters to campers between 6 and 14 years old. Campers wave and smile while hiking up a mountain Snowshoe Hare and Willow Ptarmigan Cycles Annual Research Update (2016) - What do snowshoe hares and ptarmigan have in common? It may seem like they don't share much, but these two prey species have surprisingly similar population cycles. a group of hares look up from eating Adolph Murie: Wildlife Biologist, Conservationist Science Summary (2014) - Adolph Murie has been called "Denali's Wilderness Conscience." His life's work has profoundly shaped wildlife management policies and wilderness conservation in Denali National Park and Preserve. adolph murie stands in a snowy valley Physical Hazards Abatement: "Look but Don’t Touch & Stay Out, Stay Alive" Given the historical significance of many mining areas, explosives management and mine closure efforts have been coordinated closely with cultural and natural resource managers to identify the best approaches for mitigating often extreme hazards and protecting public and employee safety with cultural sensitivity. A pile of old, abandoned explosives are left on the ground. Abandoned Mineral Land Restoration Activities in Alaska The National Park Service has had an ongoing Abandoned Mineral Land restoration program (AML) since the 1990s. Many mined areas remain to be restored and made safe for public use. Long-Term Golden Eagle Studies Alaska Park Science (2006) - Thanks to results of a long-term monitoring program for golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos), visitors frequently turn their eyes skyward in hopes of seeing one of North America’s largest aerial predators. With an abundance of cliffs and rock outcroppings for nest sites, as well as a diversity of prey, the northern foothills of the towering Alaska Range are well suited for this large aerial predator. a golden eagle in flight Ecology of Golden Eagles in Denali Science Summary (2010) - Early naturalist-scientists in the park, such as Charles Sheldon, Adolph Murie and Joseph Dixon, recognized that golden eagles were an important component of the region’s fauna. Present day researchers continue to observed the natural history of golden eagles in the park. a golden eagle spreads its wings to fly away Logan Hovis Logan Hovis was a Mining Historian and Blasting Officer for the National Park Service for 27 years, recently retiring in 2012. His role was part of the NPS effort to identify, prioritize, and mitigate potential physical hazards associated with historic mines on Alaska landscapes. A man in a red helmet stands with one hand on his hip and one hand against a rock face. Songbird Exposure to Mercury Read the abstract and get the link to a paper published in Ecotoxicology on mercury contamination in subarctic migratory songbirds: Stenhouse, I.J., E.M. Adams, L.M. Phillips, S. Weidensaul, and C.L. McIntyre. 2019. A preliminary assessment of mercury in the feathers of migratory songbirds breeding in the North American subarctic. Ecotoxicology, DOI 10.1007/s10646-019-02105-2. A white-crowned sparrow sings. Public Views: The Backcountry Experience in Denali Discover what a survey of backpackers in Denali tells us about what people want from a wilderness adventure. four people hiking near a mountain top NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Denali National Park & Preserve, Alaska Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] mountains and glacier 2003 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2003 Environmental Achievement Awards Interpreting Denali's Landcover Types with Fabric Combining art and science, Denali Quilters created a quilt (approximately 3.3 meters square) to interpret Denali National Park and Preserve’s landcover types. The central map is a satellite image of 23 land-cover types (13,600 colored fabric pixels). Twenty-two blocks surround the map, each depicting a close-up view of selected plants and animals found in a cover type. The machine quilting outlines the park’s boundary, highlights drainages and topographic lines, and depicts a patchwork quilt Fire Ecology 2018 Annual Report Summary, Monitoring & Inventory During the 2018 field season, the NPS Alaska fire ecology program conducted monitoring in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve. This article provides a brief summary about the Yukon-Charley Rivers results, research projects, and fire ecology program activities. Lichens growing toward the sun years after a wildfire. Tracking Human Waste on Denali Science Summary (2011) - Poop happens. Between 1951 and 2012, climbers have deposited at least 152,000 lbs (~70 metric tons) of human waste in the Kahiltna Glacier. Discover how scientists measure the amount of waste -- and its downstream effects, like e coli -- and how Denali strives to mitigate the issue. three people crouched together on a glacier Back in Time: A Watch and the Story of an Early McKinley Station Resident In summer of 2017, Denali archaeologists working on a Section 106 compliance survey close to the historic McKinley Park Station site discovered a piece of history: a two-inch pocket watch with the inscription “WM ALLMAN MCPARK ALASKA.” Who was WM ALLMAN? man kneeling by a creek National Park Getaway: Denali National Park & Preserve Most visitors only experience the park during summer, and they are very curious about Denali in winter. They've heard it's cold and that the days are short. While both are true, either experience in Denali will be unforgettable. Caribou in a grass field Origins of Soundscape Monitoring in Denali Soundscapes, the combined sounds from natural and non-natural sources, are recognized as an important resource in national parks. In the year 2000, park managers recognized that the natural soundscape of Denali was increasingly affected by non-natural sounds. Because preserving the natural soundscape also helps preserve the associated wilderness values and visitor experiences, a soundscape program was initiated. two microphones in a tree-less meadow near steep, snowy mountains Bottom-Up Ecosystem Drivers Read the abstracts and get the links to two published papers that discuss ecosystem drivers and tropic relationships. Schmidt, J. H. C. L. McIntyre, C. A. Roland, M. C. MacCluskie, and M. J. Flamme. 2018. Bottom-up processes drive reproductive success in an apex predator. Ecology and Evolution 2018:1-9 and Weather-driven change in primary productivity explains variation in the amplitude of two herbivore population cycles in a boreal system. Oecologia. A drawing of ecosystem relationships. Lichens Revealed Read abstracts and link to two articles about lichens: Stehn, S. E., J. K. Walton, P. R. Nelson, C. J. Hampton-Miller, and C. A. Roland. 2016. A lichen species list for Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with comments on several new and noteworthy records. Evansia 32(4):195- 215; and Nonparametric methods reveal nonlinear functional trait variation of lichens along environmental and fire age gradients. Journal of Vegetation Science 26(5):848-865. A diverse community of lichens populate the small space of a hollow tree trunk. How Poplars are Changing with the Climate Read the abstract and link to an article published in Ecosphere: Roland, C. A., S. E. Stehn, J. Schmidt, and B. Houseman. 2016. Proliferating poplars: the leading edge of landscape change in an Alaskan subalpine chronosequence. Ecosphere 7(7):e01398. Poplar trees in different phenological stages--just budding (left) and leafed out (right). Changing Passerine Distributions Read the abstract and get the link to an article published in Ecosphere: Mizel, J. D., J. H. Schmidt, C. L. Mcintyre, and C. A. Roland. 2016. Rapidly shifting elevational distributions of passerine species parallel vegetation change in the subarctic. Ecosphere 7(3):1-15. A Savannah Sparrow perched on a shrub. 2018 Science Education Grants The Murie Science and Learning Center (MSLC) funds numerous outreach projects through the Science Education Grant program. These grants help MSLC partner parks pay for science education outreach projects. Funding for the Science Education grant program is provided by Alaska Geographic. Read about the 2018 Science Education Grant recipients and their outreach projects. an instructor and a camper work on a carving Marking a New Bee-ginning: A New Species of Pollinator found in Denali National Park and Preserve There's a new-bee on the block! Find out how park science made a discovery by chance. Bombus kluanensis Fire Ecology Annual Report 2016 - Communicating Results Communicating results of projects or research is an important aspect the fire ecology program in order to provide information and outreach to fire managers, park staff, and the public. Students in the North for Science program measuring an unburned plot. The Fate of Permafrost At present, permafrost is continuous in Arctic parks and discontinuous in Denali and Wrangell St.-Elias national parks and preserves. We expect the distribution of permafrost will still be continuous in Arctic parks by the 2050s; however, it is very likely that the distribution of permafrost in Denali and Wrangell-St. Elias will become sporadic by then. a person standing next to an eroded hillside Economics of Wilderness: Contribution of Alaska Parks and Wilderness to the Alaska Economy Looking ahead, it is clear that Alaska’s wilderness ecosystems will become increasingly valuable assets in a crowded urban world. If Alaska’s wild lands, wildlife, and ecological integrity are cared for with respect, the contribution of wilderness and conservation lands to the Alaska economy and to people everywhere will be significant, positive, increasing, and enduring. a large cruise ship on the ocean with snowy mountains in the distance CRASH! The Alaskan Bush Hits Climate Change... or Does it? In a personal reflection from over fifty years of living in Bush Alaska, the Collins sisters catalog weather extremes, drying lakes, scanty snowfall, and more. Along the way, they try to reason out if these changes are from natural fluctuations or man-made global changes. a sled and dog team in a forest with thin snow cover on the ground Managing Invasive Plants in Denali Science Summary (2012) - Invasive plants, usually introduced accidentally by people, often crowd out native species and may destroy food sources or habitat for native wildlife. Denali has relatively few non-native plant species (28) compared to parks in the Lower 48 states. By aggressively eradicating invasives now, while their numbers are manageable, we can avoid exotic species compounding the ecological challenges posed by factors like climate change. people pulling up yellow flowers by a roadside Wolf Dispersal in Alaskan Parks Wildlife biologists have long known that wolves occasionally travel enormous distances in search of new mates and ranges. However, the advent of GPS-based wildlife tracking has allowed researchers to follow in the very footsteps of wolves as they travel across vast and wild landscapes. Alaska National Park scientists have witnessed some surprisingly intimate and breathtaking interconnections between wolves, parks and people by using this technology over the last few years. Close up of a wolf standing and facing the camera SMART Collars Reveal the Hidden Lives of Wolves Science Summary (2017) - In recent years, fitness devices and smartphone applications have been sweeping the nation. These gadgets allow users to create their own digital journal of where they go, what they do, and how much energy they use. Now, researchers are using the same technology to discover the hidden lives of wild wolves in Denali. a wolf wearing a collar walks through the snow Monitoring Dust Palliative Use Along the Denali Park Road Annual Research Updates (2016) - To reduce road dust along the Denali park road, maintenance crews apply a solution of calcium chloride to the road surface, and now monitor the possible effects soil, water, and vegetation may experience. a dump truck kicks up dust along the Denali park road Native Seed Collection and Invasive Plant Eradication Annual Research Updates (2016) - Native seed collection is important to help make revegetation projects possible. Learn more about which invasive plants were eradicated and what native seeds were collected over the past few years. a bunch of dandelions Conserving Migratory Golden Eagles in a Rapidly Changing World: What Role Will the NPS Play? Alaska Park Science (2015) - Within just six weeks of fledging, some of Denali’s juvenile eagles fly over 4,000 miles to spend the winter in central Mexico. Here they are in the company of other migratory golden eagles from interior and northern Alaska and northwest Canada, flying back to Alaska in the spring. Changing climate, and changing habitat over those thousands of miles, presents significant challenges to eagles' survivability. a golden eagle in flight in a blue sky Major Discovery in Denali's Microwilderness Science Summary (2016) - Bees and flower flies are two important groups of pollinators in Denali. Without their help in carrying pollen between flowering plants, there would be no wildflowers on the tundra, no blueberries for grizzlies to eat, and no fireweed blazing along the park road. Researchers already knew pollinators are vital to Denali ecosystems, but until recently, the park knew little about the individual species that make up this invaluable group of animals. Close up of new species, Bombus kluanensis Patterns of arthropod diversity and activity along elevational gradients in Denali Annual Research Update (2016) - For the vast majority of Denali’s animals (aka the invertebrates), there is an incomplete picture. Researchers don’t have a good idea about which species live here or how they are distributed across habitats. To be able to track invertebrate responses to effects from climate change, it is necessary to start with a basic understanding of who lives here, now. a blue vane trap on a hillside with Denali in the background Hearing the Difference—monitoring sounds in Alaska's National Parks NPS biologist Davyd Betchkal installs a sound-monitoring station near Triple Lakes in the Denali Park wilderness. Betchkal installs a sound-monitoring station near Triple Lakes in the Denali Park wilderness. Abbie Joseph Born in the late 1800s, Abbie Joseph lived until 1986. Interviews at the end of her life provide a window to the past, putting a personal touch to the traditional subsistence lifestyle Alaska Natives have lived for thousands of years, and which continues today. black and white image of man, woman and two kids in front of a log cabin Lena Howard Visiting in the summer of 1922 with a friend as "just tourists," Lena Howard returned a few years later to experience an Alaskan winter. Visiting Mount McKinley National Park, which Congress later renamed to Denali, Lena fell in love with the area. She chose to live year-round in the area, settling in Healy until her husband's death in 1971. black and white historic image of a woman standing near a bus Stay Curious: Jessica Rykken Entomologist, Jessica Rykken, shows us her collection of bees, tells us why the information from these collections is important for researchers in national parks, and how she first got interested in bugs. boxes of bees and small flies Identifying Fish Presence by their eDNA Read the abstract and get the link for an article on the use of eDNA: Menning, D., T. Simmons, and S. Talbot. 2018. Using redundant primer sets to detect multiple native Alaskan fish species from environmental DNA. Conservation Genetics Resources https://doi.org/10.1007/s12686-018-1071-7. scientist collects data near a stream Fire, Topography, and Climate Drive Variation in Alaska's Boreal Forests Read the abstract and link to the peer-reviewed article about drivers of change in high-latitude boreal forests in Alaska. Roland, Carl A., Joshua H. Schmidt, Samantha G. WInder, Sarah E. Stehn, and E. Fleur Nicklen. 2019. Regional variation in interior Alaskan boreal forests is driven by fire disturbance, topography, and climate. Ecological Monographs. Boreal forest in Alaska; a monitoring plot. Species Variation along a Landscape Gradient Read the abstract and get the link to an article published in Ecosphere: Stehen, S. E. and C. A. Roland. 2018. Concordant community similarity patterns across functional groups in the subarctic plant assemblages. Ecoshere 9(4): e02181. Mosses and lichens growing together. Fannie Quigley Turns 150 2020 marks the 150th year since Fannie Quigley's birth. Fannie is one of Denali's most celebrated historic figures, having arrived in the early 1900's gold rush to Kantishna, and making it her home til her death in 1944. woman sitting on a porch holding a rifle Ron Senungetuk: Alaskan Artist Remembered Ron Senungetuk passed away on January 21, 2020, at the age of 87. His life and extraordinary contributions to Alaska's art scene are worth celebrating. alaska native man in a workshop painting a large wooden piece of art Results of Denali Park Road Vehicle Management Plan (VMP) Monitoring How do hundreds of thousands of people visit a park with just one road and still have a wilderness experience, full of solitude and, hopefully, wildlife? Denali's Vehicle Management Plan (VMP) aims to provide that experience, and park scientists monitor the interactions of buses, visitors, and wildlife to assess how well the plan is being implemented. Read the most recent year's monitoring results. a bus weaves along a mountain road Connecting Taiga to Tropics: Swainson's Thrush as a Model for Nearctic-Neotropical Migration in Alaska Twice a year, the Swainson’s Thrush connects the boreal forests of North America to the tropical forests of Central and South America through its flight across the Western Hemisphere. About 200 bird species, primarily songbirds such as thrushes and warblers, are considered Nearctic-Neotropical migrants that fly thousands of miles annually between breeding and wintering areas. Alaska Park Science 17(1), 2018. A thrush fitted with a geolocator Alpine Tundra Species Richness Read the abstract and link to this article published in Ecosphere: Roland, C. A., S. E. Stehn, and J. H. Schmidt. 2017. Species richness of multiple functional groups peaks in alpine tundra in subarctic Alaska. Ecosphere 8(6):e01848. High-latitude, alpine tundra in Denali. Barbara Washburn's Historic Ascent The Operation White Tower expedition commenced in the spring of 1947 with the goal of mapping and filming the highest mountain in North America. Barbara Polk Washburn was the only female on the team of mountaineers, photographers, scientists, and military men. woman and two men standing in front of a log cabin World War II in Alaska This resource guide is designed to aid students and teachers in researching Alaska’s World War II history. Alaska’s role as battlefield, lend-lease transfer station, and North Pacific stronghold was often overlooked by historians in the post-war decades. Few people know that the only World War II battle fought on U.S. soil took place in Alaska or that Japanese forces occupied two Aleutian Islands for more than a year. Soldiers walk down ramp by ship in full gear. Collared Pika Collared pikas are small mammals within the same order as rabbits and hares, and they resemble small rabbits with very short ears and small limbs. Adapted to thrive at high elevations in Alaska, their habitat is at risk -- climate change may drastically change the fragile environment in which they live. tiny gray rabbit-like creature sitting on a rock Arctic Ground Squirrel The largest of the North American ground squirrels, arctic ground squirrels are burrowing rodents that resemble prairie dogs, with small ears, a flat tail, and a white-spotted back. They are very common throughout much of Denali and live mainly in the alpine tundra. two ground squirrels Dall Sheep Dall sheep are unmistakable, looking like pure-white bighorn sheep. Like bighorn sheep, they have large, curled horns, but Dall sheep horns are longer and skinnier than their southern counterparts. They inhabit mountain ranges in Alaska and Canada and are often visible from quite far away. Close up of sheep face and horns Celebrating Katie John Day Denali National Park and Preserve recognizes and celebrates the important legacy of Katie John, an Ahtna Athabaskan leader who spent her life fighting for subsistence rights and the preservation of her culture. historic photo of an alaska native woman standing in a meadow surrounded by children Eldorado: Treasure, Tragedy, and Triumph in the Kantishna Hills Where legacy mining effects have impaired stream water quality in Alaska parks, the NPS is developing restoration techniques. Understanding the potential for recovery in these streams will help the NPS to prioritize those areas where intervention is needed over those areas that are recovering naturally, where disturbance might do more harm than good. Alaska Park Science 19(1):2020. Researchers discuss a project on the banks of an incised stream. Neversweat Prospect Cultural Landscape The Neversweat Prospect is a 4.3 acre historic site and contains a small collection of historic buildings and structures, small scale features, and landscape features associated with lode mining. It is representative of one of the few active lode mine operations in the Kantishna district whose operation spanned both the pre-WWII era and the post-WWII era. Historic cabin on Neversweat Prospect The Alaska Road Builder Richardson. Steese. Elliott. Taylor. If you travel around the Alaska road system, these names might look familiar. They were former presidents of the Alaska Road Commission (ARC) with highways now named in their honor. ARC was an agency established in 1905, under the War Department, with a mission to build roads in the vast—almost completely road-less—Alaska territory.The final president of the ARC did not get a highway, but he did get a landmark along the Denali Park Road. a dirt road with a bridge spanning a narrow creek Hoary Marmot Hoary marmots are large rodents that live mainly in alpine areas. Their loud, clear warning calls are a common sound in mountainous regions. closeup of a marmot baby Understanding what Drives Plant Diversity in Alaska Read the abstract and get the link to a peer-reviewed article on the environmental conditions that impact plant diversity in Alaska: Roland, Carl A., Giancarlo Sadoti, E. Fleur Nicklen, Stephanie A. McAfee, and Sarah E. Stehn. 2019. A structural equation model linking past and present plant diversity in Alaska: A framework for evaluating future change. Ecosphere 10(8): e02832. An infographic showing the relationships between plant diversity, climate, and physical factors. Estimating Migratory Bird Arrivals and Departures Read the abstract and get the link to an article on phenology and population dynamics of passerines in Denali National Park: Mizel, J. D., Schmidt, J. H., Phillips, L. M. and Mcintyre, C.L., 2019. A binomial N‐mixture model for estimating arrival and departure timing. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 10(7): 1062-1071. A white-crowned sparrow sits on a lichen-covered rock with a worm in its beak. The Flu Pandemic hit Nenana 100 Years Ago One of the great tragedies to strike a Denali gateway community occurred in May, 1920. If you stroll through the Nenana cemetery on the southwest side of town and read the dates on the graves or visit the Mitch Dementieff Tribal Hall on the west side and observe the photographs on the wall, evidence of its magnitude is tangible. a wooden grave marker showing the date may 7, 1920 Counting Alaska's Residents: Good Luck! Imagine it’s 1869. The United States recently acquired a vast territory in the far northwest part of the continent, and must count all the residents for the 1870 census. You are in charge. How will you coordinate this effort and access remote communities scattered around 663,000 square miles using limited technology and infrastructure? Most people you encounter will not speak English. Don't forget, there is very limited time to make the count! hand-written notebook containing a long list of names and demographic data Donald Orth: King of Alaska Place Names “Language, history, geography, all of those things come together” in place names, and "they are "part of the language, part of our psyche.” — Donald Orth Orth’s legacy lives on in the phenomenal dictionary which contributes to our understanding of the great State of Alaska. newspaper with headline reading rename peak? mckinley versus denali Geohazard Risk Reduction along the Denali National Park Road The dramatic landscapes of Denali National Park are largely a result of geologic forces. The park road, the main access to the park for visitors and staff, is especially susceptible to landslides that have blocked access for days. We monitor geohazards in the park and actively reduce risk. Alaska Park Science 18(1), 2019. A researcher measures the amount the park road slipped. Florence Collins Florence Collins found adventure and fulfillment in Alaska. An aviator, geologist and mother, she lived much of her life in the remote Lake Minchumina community, near what eventually became the far northwestern corner of Denali National Park and Preserve. historic image of a young woman standing by a world war two era plane Geoscientists-in-the-Parks: Science Communicator Read about the work Lindsey Taylor did as a Science Communicator in Denali National Park and Preserve as a GIP in 2016. Lindsey Taylor Making the "Toklat Wolf" Sculpture Gina Hollomon, of Anchorage, describes the process she used to create "Toklat Wolf" for Denali's Artist-in-Residence Program. Sculpture of wolf glows in firing kiln Fabric Art Check out fabric artist Ree Nancarrow's work! a woman standing in front of a large quilt depicting a mountainous landscape Weather Impacts on Dall's Sheep Read the abstract and link to a recent paper in Ecosphere on Dall's sheep population impacts from weather events: Rattenbury, K. L., J. H. Schmidt, D. K. Swanson, B. L. Borg, B. A. Mangipane, and P. J. Sousanes. 2018. Delayed spring onset drives declines in abundance and recruitment in a mountain ungulate. Ecosphere 9(11):e02513. 10.1002/ecs2.2513 Dalls sheep lambs and ewes on a rock cliff. Undergraduates Measure Methane Released by Thawing Permafrost Science Summary (2014) - Permafrost soils are one of the great carbon storage zones on Earth, where, over millennia, the organic remains of plants and animals were frozen before they could be decomposed by microorganisms. Now that permafrost is thawing, these frozen remains will begin to decompose, returning long-stored carbon (C) to the atmosphere in the form of greenhouses gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). researchers lean over boxes while sitting in the tundra Abundance and Distribution of Passerines Annual Research Updates (2016) - Passerine birds are a vital sign of the NPS Central Alaska Monitoring Network (CAKN). Since the early 1990s, the National Park Service (NPS) has been collecting data to document changes in abundance and distribution of passerine birds in Denali, resulting in one of the longest running monitoring programs for these species in interior Alaska. a yellow and grey birds sits on a branch Surveying Denali's Pollinators: Bees & Flower Flies Science Summary (2013) - Because they are diverse, abundant, easy to sample, and tightly linked to their host plants, bees may serve as ideal indicators to measure the effects of a changing climate on critical ecosystem services such as pollination. a bee on a tall pink flower Estimating Denali's Visitation Science Summary (2013) - Visitors to Denali National Park enter the park by a variety of means. Many arrive at the front entrance by car, train, or bus while others may travel into the park by plane or dogteam. Since there is no entrance station into the park it is difficult to estimate the number of visitors coming to the park each year. a woman takes a picture of her husband standing by the Denali park entrance sign Permafrost Thaw and the Nitrogen Cycle Science Summary (2012) - Climate warming is causing permafrost to thaw. In and near Denali National Park and Preserve, the temperature of permafrost is just below freezing, so a small amount of warming can have a large impact. Are the stored nutrients in thawing permafrost going to cause changes in Denali? two researchers work in the tundra Permafrost Thaw and Carbon Balance Science Summary (2015) - Subarctic environments such as Denali National Park and Preserve’s tundra and boreal forest, have undergone drastic changes over the past few decades, likely as a result of a changing climate–increasing temperatures. a researcher crouches down to examine a tundra plot Understanding Park Visitor Characteristics Science Summary (2013) - Social science research helps identify how visitors spend their time and rate their experiences, so park managers can ensure high-quality experiences for future park visitors, while protecting park resources. visitors use binoculars to watch for wildlife out of a bus window Rivers and Streams of Denali Science Summary (2012) - Because Denali’s landscapes are rich in rivers and streams, the chances are good you’ll encounter wild flowing waters while visiting Denali National Park and Preserve. Find out more about where the waters come from and what's in them. Braided, glacial river in Denali National Park Caribou in Denali Annual Research Updates (2015, 2016) - The Denali Caribou Herd has been studied consistently since 1984. This long-term study gives insight into the population dynamics and helps determine the status of this herd. a caribou walks across a dirt road Denali's Wolf Viewing Project From 2000 until 2010, the State of Alaska prohibited wolf hunting and trapping in two areas bordering the park. However in 2010, the Board of Game decided to eliminate both closed areas and allow hunting and trapping of wolves in all areas bordering the park. This change coincided with the start of a study to learn more about wolf viewing opportunities along the park road. Has this change impacted viewability of wolves in Denali? a close up of a wolf's face Jeffrey Alan Lockwood Jeffrey Alan Lockwood is a Professor of Natural Sciences & Humanities, and Director of the Creative Writing Program at the University of Wyoming. His work has been honored with a Pushcart Prize, the John Burroughs award and inclusion in the Best American Science and Nature Writing. His current projects are a book on the ways in which the energy industry has censored science, art and education. In front of a chalkboard, a man makes notes while holding a scale model of a grasshopper. Soundscape Inventory and Monitoring Program If a tree falls in the woods and no one is around does it make a sound? Discover what hidden sounds can be heard throughout Denali when no one else is around. two tripods holding sound recording equipment sit on a hillside amidst rocks Are Wolf Viewing Opportunities in Denali at Risk? Each year, 20,000 to 30,000 visitors to Denali National Park and Preserve view wolves along the park road. Denali is recognized as one of the best places in the world for people to see wolves in the wild. However, could this viewing opportunity be at risk? wolf walks down a dirt road Wildlife Observations Along the Denali Park Road Being able to view wildlife is a main draw for visitors to venture to Denali. But how may growing number of visitors influence wildlife viewing along the park road? a bus on a dirt road waits while passengers watch a caribou grazing Glacier-fed Rivers and Climate Change in Alaska Parks Not only are most glaciers shrinking, the rate at which they are changing has accelerated over the last 2-3 decades. Over the last century, mid-latitude and arctic glaciers have generally been shrinking, while some in marginal environments have disappeared. This can have a significant impact on the species that live in glacier-fed rivers. a large glacier feeding a braided river Understanding Visitors’ Commitment to Grizzly Bear Conservation at Denali Denali National Park and Preserve, with more than 400,000 visitors annually, has a unique opportunity to proactively link interpretation and park management to on-site grizzly bear conservation. truck on a dirt road near a grizzly bear Denali's Muldrow Glacier The Muldrow Glacier (Henteel No' Loo') is a long glacier on the north side of the Alaska Range. Long monitored by scientists in Denali, a major surge in the glacier in 2021 prompted significant excitement and research opportunities! a huge snowy mountain with a vast glacier flowing off it Research Fellowship Recipients (2015) Learn about 2015 Research Fellowship recipients a man sitting in a forest Research Fellowship Recipients: 2011 Learn about 2011 research fellowship recipients. Research Fellowship Recipients: 2008 Learn about 2008 fellowship recipients Research Fellowship Recipients: 2009 Learn about 2009 research fellowship recipients Research Fellowships | Discovery Denali (2007) Soundscape Data Browser listing description to be added here A map of denali with markers Monitoring Seasonal and Long-term Climate Changes and Extremes in the Central Alaska Network Climate is a primary driver of ecological change and an important component of the Central Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network (CAKN). By monitoring seasonal and long-term climate patterns in the region, we can correlate climate changes and extremes to other variations in the ecosystem, such as changes in permafrost extent or vegetation composition. rain squall over a mountain landscape Dynamics of Small Mammal Populations in the Rock Creek Watershed of Denali Through a 14 year mark-recapture study, scientists tracked the population dynamics of voles in a watershed near Denali's entrance. In the process, they discovered the date of spring onset most-notably influences their populations. Among other reasons, voles are an important species because their abundance influences carnivore populations higher up the food chain. closeup of a hand, holding a vole Long-Term Air Quality Monitoring in Denali National Park Air quality monitoring in Denali has been ongoing for over three decades. With global pollution projected to increase over time, Denali’s clean air is dependent upon international as well as national efforts to limit emission increases. As a prominent wilderness tourist destination, the park may help inspire global citizens to protect clean air partly because it is an integral part of Denali’s intact ecosystem. clouds brewing over a snowy mountainside My Wilderness Essay: Bette Burt Denali - where in a matter of hours, the terrain changes as you drive inward: from tall woodland forests, to scrub land with trees no taller than 4½ - 6 feet, to tundra with nothing growing over 4½ - 6 inches! vast snow covered mountain dominating a hilly landscape My Wilderness: Joe Horiskey Mountaineer Joe Horiskey recounts one particularly memorable trip, out of over twenty expeditions on Denali, in his essay for "Your Wilderness Stories." vast snowy mountain dominating a hilly landscape My Wilderness: Donna Morefield Campbell Denali...the name stirs up a yearning. From 4,300 miles away, the wilderness calls "come!" vast snowy mountain dominating a hilly landscape My Wilderness: Roxanne Van Gundy For her essay in the "Your Wilderness Stories" series, Roxanne Van Gundy describes her feeling of being at home in the wilderness. vast snowy mountain dominating a hilly landscape My Wilderness: Katherine Koenig Katherine Koenig's essay in the "Your Wilderness Series" shares lessons she has learned from nature and wilderness. vast snowy mountain dominating a hilly landscape Stampede Creek and the Legacy of Mining: Antimony in Stream Water and Sediment Gold may have drawn miners to “them, thar” Kantishna Hills in the early 1900s, but the notoriety of the Kantishna Hills Mining District also extended to antimony lode deposits. Over half of Alaska’s antimony production from the 1940s and 1950s came from this region, and the Stampede Mine (now within Denali National Park and Preserve) is Alaska’s historically largest antimony producer. Man collects sediment from a small creek Melting Glaciers in the Kichatna Mountains Science summary (2011) - Sheer limestone cliffs and granite spires surrounding more than a dozen small mountain glaciers comprise the Kichatna Mountains tucked away in the remote southwestern corner of Denali National Park and Preserve. Most park visitors do not travel to the Kichatna Mountains, yet the results of climate change are visible there as glaciers melt and recede. The Kichatna glaciers, being relatively small, are particularly vulnerable to faster rates of melting. man standing on a glacier in the Kichatna Mountains Restoration of Mined Lands in Kantishna The early stampede of fortune seekers to the Kantishna Mining District in 1905 subsided quickly, yet mining continued intermittently there through 1985. Part of the legacy of Kantishna mining was holes in the hillsides, non-functional floodplains, and streams downcutting and eroding banks and tailing piles. Here's how the park hopes to restore the streams in Kantishna today. an excavator sits in a rocky gravel pit Soil Survey and Ecological Classification in Denali Did you know that soil will have different characteristics depending on where you are in Denali? For six summers, scientists completed a soil survey that mapped soils across the park. They also recorded plant species and photographed the landscape, the plant community, and the soil horizons as revealed in a soil pit. Learn more about what they found. man sits in a green clearing writing in a notebook Implementing Denali's Resource Stewardship Strategy: Achieving desired conditions for park resources Science summary (2009) - The Resource Stewardship Strategy serves as a guide for research, resource management, and resource education programs of the National Park Service (NPS) at Denali over the next 20 years. a Dall's sheep stands in the snow with mountains in the background Soundscapes in Denali What do you hear when you visit Denali National Park and Preserve? Maybe the howls of wolves, thunder of avalanches, roar of rivers, or buzzing mosquitoes? Scientists are studying the soundscape of Denali in order to learn how to best preserve it. a microphone and solar panel sit on a hill with mountains in the background Natural Resource Condition Assessment in Denali Science summary (2010) - The Natural Resource Condition Assessment (NRCA) program is one of the strategies that the Natural Resource Challenge started in 1999. These strategies help national parks use science-based management practices in order to assess the status of natural resources in the parks. aerial view of brown mountains Long-term Monitoring after Restoration of Kantishna's Placer-Mined Streams In the Kantishna Mining District, beyond the end of the park road in Denali National Park and Preserve, placer mining of yesteryear severely disturbed many streams and watersheds—removing vegetation and topsoil, excavating gravel down to bedrock in the stream channels and floodplains, and leaving tailing piles that lack fine sediments and nutrients. Climate-related Vegetation Changes in the Subarctic The vast landscapes of interior Alaska are changing: Large glaciers are melting and rapidly receding up valleys, ancient permafrost is degrading and turning frozen soils into soupy gelatin, woody vegetation is spreading dramatically into open areas, and boreal ponds and wetlands are shrinking. composite of two aerial images of a river, with one containing substantially more trees in the image Air Quality in Denali Science Summary (2011) - Denali’s air quality is usually among the best in the country, as measured by an air quality monitoring program dating back to 1980. This exceptional record shouldn’t be too surprising, considering the park’s remote location in interior Alaska, far from large-scale industrial activities and densely populated urban areas. Alaska Range hidden behind clouds Beringia from a Cretaceous Perspective This article explores fossils and rocks found in the Beringia region and what can be learned from these discoveries. The content and makeup of these rocks and fossils are discussed which leads to drawing conclusions on the ecosystem in Beringia. Map of Beringia with NPS units highlighted in green. Permafrost Landscapes Science Summary (2010) - Permafrost is soil or rock that remains below 32º F (0º C) for at least two consecutive years. North of the Alaska Range, landscapes are dominated by permafrost, but to the south, very little permafrost occurs. The active layer above permafrost experiences annual freezing in winter and thawing in summer. Permafrost is considered fragile if it is within a couple degrees of thawing. aerial view of a tree and lake filled landscape in front of a vast white mountain Population Biology of the Wood Frog Science Summary (2008) - During the summer of 2007, Dr. Robert Newman of the Department of Biology, University of North Dakota set out to get this large geographic-scale picture of how wood frogs may respond to climate change by initiating field studies of wood frogs in wilderness areas of Alaska, including Denali. person standing in a knee deep pond Ecology of Upwelling Areas in the Toklat River Science Summary (2008) - In what seems like a a gravel, sterile environment, high-diversity micro habitats exist around areas of upwelling water. By quantifying and comparing the upwelling channels and the main glacial channel, researchers can determine how the flowpaths influence the biological diversity of the upwelling channels. gravel valley with a shallow river leading up to steep mountains Surveying Dall Sheep in Denali Science Summary (2012) - Whether visitors on a bus into Denali National Park and Preserve spot “white dots with legs” high on the craggy slopes of Igloo or Cathedral Mountain, or experience full-curl rams smacking horns on the rocks of Polychrome, there is no better iconic image for wildlife protection in the park than the Dall sheep. three sheep on a dirt road Mountain Building in the Alaska Range Science Summary (2011) - Alaska is—and has been for millions of years—one of the most geologically active regions of North America. river and forest landscape with mountains in the distance Plants in the Age of Dinosaurs Science Summary (2011) - What did Denali look like during the age of dinosaurs? Through the study of fossils researchers can start to piece together what Denali's past looked like. scenic view of a mountain with layers visible The Social Structure of Dall Sheep Dall sheep employ a sophisticated social structure. A ewe and two lambs stand on a rocky cliff Central Alaska Network Examines Surface Temperature Along an Elevation Gradient Annual Research Update (2016) - It has been observed that treeline, shrubline, and tundraline are higher in Wrangell-St. Elias and Yukon-Charley Rivers than Denali. This difference in vegetation line may be due to warmer temperatures in the eastern, more interior part of the state, but we need more detailed climate data then is currently available to answer this question. rocky mountains that are partially covered by spruce trees Central Alaska Network Aspen Phenology Monitoring Annual Research Update (2016) - The Central Alaska Network monitors phenology because there is considerable evidence from studies around the world that climate change is advancing the timing of flowering and leaf-out and extending the growing season of plants in northern latitudes and high elevations. a forest of spruce and aspen trees Denali Tree Ring Analysis Annual Research Update (2016) - Changing climate is anticipated to alter the boreal forest, and a first step in understanding how tree species distribution may look in the future is to quantify tree growth response to climatic variability. a group of snow-covered spruce trees Park Visitation in Denali Annual Research Update (2016) - Ever wonder how many visitors actually make it to Denali? Discover how visitation is estimated and how the park counts visitors at the Denali Visitor Center. a group of visitors on a bus look out a window with binoculars Grizzly Bear Population Ecology in Denali What have 25+ years of studying grizzly bears in Denali taught us? brown bear sitting on a hillside Archaeology Surveys in Denali The park conducts regular archaeological surveys. This past year two surveys were carried out. One survey was to expand upon current knowledge of traditional human use of the Teklanika valley while the other investigated the archaeology of the Toklat River. a person sketches an archaeological artifact Willow and Rock Ptarmigan Surveys As part of their statewide monitoring program for Rock and Willow Ptarmigan, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) conducts standardized surveys along and near many roadways in interior and southcentral Alaska. Learn more about the status of ptarmigan populations in Alaska. an all-white ptarmigan sits on a branch of a tree Looking Back—A Heady Time for National Park Service Science in Alaska Spurred by Alaska gaining statehood and the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), the 1970s saw a spurt of scientific activity that gave experienced Alaska investigators additional access to remote field study sites and introduced investigators new to Alaska to exciting and challenging opportunities for conducting field study in remote places. mist on forested mountains Louise Gallop Alaskan Students Spend a Week Job-Shadowing in Denali In September 2015, Denali National Park and Preserve offered Denali’s neighboring teens a behind-the-scenes tour of their own backyard. During the Intensives program, 50 8th and 9th grade students from Susitna Valley High School spent three days exploring why Denali is so special. The students shadowed many types of rangers, and in doing so, experienced first-hand the challenges of managing this spectacular and complex place. The Intensives program was developed to celebrate Students use radio telemetry to try to find a wolf collar From the Top of North America to Your Classroom Denali National Park and Preserve is an environment of extreme temperatures, tall mountains, glacial landscapes, and more. As it is difficult, if not impossible, for many teachers and students to come to the park, Denali offers free, interactive, distance learning programs to help classes learn about this special place and enhance existing curricula. students watch a distance learning program and are excited to learn Denali's Bug Bioblitz In July, 2014, seven arthropod researchers from across the United States journeyed to Denali National Park and Preserve to take part in the Park's first ever "Bug Bioblitz". The goals of this citizen science event were to increase our knowledge about insect diversity in Denali and to engage the public in research side-by-side with scientists. a ranger watches on as a student uses a magnifying box Interrelationships of Denali's Large Mammal Community Denali is home to a daily life and death drama for many animals, though the 'big five' mammal species stand out in the minds of many visitors. In addition to the opportunities for viewing or photographing Interior Alaska’s large mammals, Denali is a great natural laboratory to study the species and their interrelationships. Unlike the rest of Interior Alaska, the Denali carnivore/ungulate community has been little affected by human harvests for several decades. a bear looking at a moose and her calf Lake and Snow Ice Study Promotes Elementary School Science Education Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network - ALISON - is a research and science education partnership between students and educators. Starting in 2005-2006, the ALISON site at Denali's Horseshoe Lake provided local students in the Tri-Valley K-12 school a chance to not only help ALISON with its research, but to get hands-on experience at doing quality field science. closeup of cracked ice Ecological Goldmine: The Denali Landcover Map and Denali Soil Inventory with Ecological Site Classification Comprising over 2,200 study sites, an exhaustive field study from 1997 - 2002 laid the (figurative and literal) groundwork for a comprehensive soil and vegetation map of Denali. tiny multi-colored map An Ecological Overview of Denali National Park and Preserve A quick overview of the natural history that formed what we know today as Denali National Park - and glimpses at changes that might happen in the near and distant future. forested landscape with snowy mountains in the distance Monitoring Dall Sheep Discovery how and why scientists monitor Dall sheep in national parks throughout Alaska. A group of three dall sheep walk down a dirt road Dall Sheep and Climate Change How might climate change impact the world's northernmost wild sheep population? ewe and lamb on a rocky outcropping Rutting Behavior of Moose Weighing up to 1,600 pounds each, bull moose spar and sometimes brutally fight for a few weeks each autumn for the right to mate with females. two bulll moose wading in a pond Late Cretaceous Flora in an Ancient Fluvial Environment The Lower Cantwell Formation is a late Cretaceous fluvial deposit that contains dinosaur footprints and plant fossils. steep scree slope of a dark mountain Busing Through Wilderness A vast wilderness park with a road through the middle - how does that work? people standing near a bus, looking at snowy mountains in the distance Treeline Shifts in Denali: Influences of Climate Change and Local Site Conditions Science summary (2011) - How is climate change affecting the treelines in Denali? Warmer temperatures throughout Interior Alaska over the last several decades have resulted in increased glacial melt, permafrost degradation, and the expansion of woody vegetation. If this warming trend continues, it will change Alaska’s ecosystems and drastically alter the physical appearance of Denali’s landscapes for decades. tundra landscape in the fall Monitoring Territory Occupancy and Reproductive Success of Golden Eagles Annual Research Update (2015) - Golden Eagles are a vital sign of the NPS Central Alaska Monitoring Network and have been monitored at 90 nesting territories in the northern foothills of the Alaska Range in Denali. two golden eagles fly at each other with their talons out Studying the Active Boundary of Tectonic Plates Science Summary (2012) - Alaska is well known for its rugged terrain and numerous natural hazards. It is arguably one of the most active and interesting places for geologists and geophysicists to study the Earth’s dynamics, including the processes that control plate tectonics. domed device mounted on a tripod, sittong on a snowy mountain slope Population Dynamics of the Denali Caribou Herd Science Summary (2014) - Even after studying Denali’s caribou for nearly 30 years, Dr. Layne Adams still gets excited with each insight gained—whether it is caribou migrating in droves from the park, or bull caribou that die when least expected. His work continues to provide important understanding of the status and trends of Denali’s wildlife. male caribou Young Scientists Measure Ice and Snow in Denali Science Summary (2012) - Local students are engaged in a special program— Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network, or ALISON. The project was designed as a 10-year research and education program to provide Alaska teachers and students with an opportunity to learn about scientific inquiry in “their own backyard.” Read how elementary school students are capable of doing good science. Young scientist takes measurements at a frozen lake in Denali National Park. Denali's Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council Science Summary (2012) - Flight-seeing around Denali, mountain climbers climbing Denali, hikers in the backcountry: all want a magical experience. What about the noise of a small engine plane to those on the ground? Read about what Park managers and local flight seeing businesses do to avoid conflict. a small airplane flies through clouds near a mountain Glacier Monitoring in Denali Science Summary (2012) - How is a warming climate changing glaciers at the 'roof' of North America? vast glacier flowing past a steep mountain Denali's Climate Change Response - 2012 Science Summary (2012) - Climate change is real. Scientists who observe Earth’s climate have documented a warming trend caused by human activity, and the consensus is that the trend will continue. How is Denali responding to climate change? a solar panel in the tundra Subsistence, Stories, and Place Names of the Upper Kuskokwim River Project The Upper Kuskokwim Athabascans have traditionally used lands, now enclosed in the boundaries of the Park, as hunting, trapping and gathering grounds for thousands of years. Because these people have inhabited this land long before there was a National Park, Denali has awarded a two year grant to help them continue an Upper Kuskokwim River regional place names project. a subsistence user fillets a fish Understanding Change: How Communities Perceive Climate Change How might climate change affect subsistence users? Observations collected from community members help to identify the challenges a changing climate poses to traditional lifestyles . a group of boaters sit back and watch the Alaskan scenery Archaeology Culture Camp and Museum Family Day Outreach and communication is just as important as research. Learn about an exciting archaeology outreach project between Denali and the University of Alaska Museum of the North (UAMN). a girl learns the proper way to throw an atl-atl (wooden spear) Historic American Building Survey documentation of historic structures in the Park What if you could add a building to the Library of Congress. Luckily through the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS), we can. a black and white photo of the Little Annie Mine Dall Sheep in Denali Denali's most well-known mammal, the Dall Sheep, is monitored closely to learn more about herd size and distribution of these regal animals. a dall sheep ram lays in front of a snowy mountain Assessing and Mitigating the Cumulative Effects of Installations in Wilderness Many scientific studies rely on instrumentation to provide valuable information about wilderness resources. However, scientists must be vigilant about preserving the undeveloped quality and wilderness character as a whole. Over time, any effort that succeeds in reducing the incremental effects of a new activity or installation will also reduce cumulative effects. helicopter landing on a rocky island with a lighthouse Scientific Legacy of Denali Denali's rich history as a place for science and research goes back over 100 years. black and white image of a man near a small log cabin Shallow Lakes - Microcosms of Change Changes in shallow lakes throughout central Alaska illustrate the effects of our rapidly changing climate. brush-lined lake reflecting a distant mountain Understanding Moraine Formation Around Denali's Muldrow Glacier To predict future impacts, scientists use clues about how geologic systems responded to past climate changes by examining glacial geologic records. man standing on a boulder Denali Provides Job Shadowing for Local Students In late August, 2014, Denali National Park and Preserve hosted a week-long “Intensive” learning program for all 57 high school students in the Denali Borough.Students spent the week engaged – hands-on – in the complexities of how and why the National Park Service works to preserve and protect Denali. Students watch as a park ranger crouches to show them fur caught on sticks A Baseline Study of Permafrost in Denali's Toklat Basin Learn about a 2003 baseline study of 160,000 acres in the Toklat River basin of Denali. Permafrost was known to exist in the area, but this study provided specific details which will benefit park managers and future scientists. person digging next to a thick wall of ice covered by a thin layer of soil Dinosauria and Fossil Aves Footprints from Denali's Lower Cantwell Formation Denali's Cantwell Formation contains the first record of dinosaurs in the Alaska Range. This record consists of tracks of small, medium, large, and very large-sized theropods, as well as hadrosaurs. three-toed fossilized footprint on a rock Melting Denali: Effects of Climate Change on Glaciers Comparing historic photos of glaciers to modern images provides a springboard for scientists to study the effects of climate change in Denali. comparison photo of glaciers Bear Management in Denali Since a peak of bear-human incidents in 1982, Denali's effective management of food and visitor education aims to keep bears safe from humans, and humans safe from bears. closeup of a drooling bear Boreal Blights—What's Happening to the Forest? The boreal forest is a dynamic place. Disturbances such as fire, flooding, fungal infection, and insect infestation regularly affect individual plant species, or entire plant communities. Learn more about the symptoms of such disturbances, as seen across the Denali landscape. numerous brown, dead spruce trees among comparatively fewer green, healthy spruce Bear Monitoring and Management in Denali Annual Research Update (2016) - For many visitors to Denali, the sight of a grizzly bear is a cherished and exciting moment. But when those bears wander out of site, where do they go? Learn more about grizzly bear monitoring in Denali. a bear walks down a dirt road Glacier Monitoring Annual Research Updates (2016) - Glaciers are the enigmatic sculptors of the mountains. They are a sensitive indicator and powerful symbol of climate change. Almost all glaciers across the globe are thinning and retreating in unison from the warming climate. Denali’s glaciers are no exception. a group of citizen scientist measure ice on a glacier Monitoring Wildlife and Visitor Use During Denali's Winter Road Opening Annual Research Update (2015) - In June 2013, the NPS approved a winter plowing plan to open the Denali Park Road about one month earlier than the traditional opening date. As part of the plan, the road is opened to the Mountain Vista Rest Area by mid-February. During the trial, park staff is monitoring soundscapes, wildlife sightings and behavior, and visitor use levels. a car sits on a snowy road Wilderness Stewardship and Backcountry Management Annual Research Update (2015) - In 2014, the National Park Service celebrated the 50 year anniversary of the Wilderness Act. Learn more about what it means to protect the wilderness character of Denali. two pink flowers stand in front of a lake and Denali Monitoring Backside Lake Annual Research Update (2015) - Backside Lake, a lake located on the south side of the Alaska Range, is the only lake in Denali being utilized for commercial float plane landings. Learn more about how the park manages this lake and how visitation may impact it. clouds hang low over a rocky lake Making of "At Home in High Places" Artist Karin Franzen describes the inspiration for a remarkable fabric art piece, "At Home in High Places," she created for Denali's Artist-in-Residence Program. Biologists in harnesses and helmets examine eagle nest on cliff Moose Surveys Science Summary (2012) - By estimating moose numbers, wildlife managers can understand if the local population of animals can be considered 'natural and healthy.' The information is also used in crafting hunting regulations. Moose populations also indicate the biological integrity of an area. a moose cow and calf in brush Fossil Bird Diversity Science Summary (2012) - The sedimentary rocks of the lower Cantwell Formation in Denali National Park and Preserve harbor a bonanza of fossils from about 70 million years ago. Not only are dinosaur tracks evident, but so are other animals that coexisted with dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous Period. three-toed footprints in rock, outlined to help identify them Learning About Climate Change from Denali's Ice Cores Science Summary (2011) - Deep ice cores can be a proxy for long-term climate records. Find out how scientists select sites and use ice cores to predict climate change. Scientist pulling a sled filled with ice penetrating equipment. Denali's Wildland Fire Ecology Science Summary (2011) - Have you ever wonder what happens to an ecosystem after a fire? Wildland fire is one of the most influential natural processes shaping the boreal ecosystems of Denali National Park and Preserve. bright pink flowers grow between burnt trees Monitoring Climate Change in Denali Science Summary (2007) - Recent climate warming has already affected Denali’s ecosystems in ways that are readily apparent. Explore this article to discover the ways that Denali has been monitoring climate change. a climate station sits on a tundra hillside with Denali in the background Wolf Monitoring in Denali Denali National Park and Preserve's wolves have been studied by researchers since 1939. Discover what modern researchers are finding during this long-term study of one of Denali's most interesting predators. a wolf trots down a dirt road Moose Surveys and Subsistence Users Moose are an important part of life for subsistence users in Alaska and annual moose surveys allow the park to have a greater understanding of these critical creatures. a mother moose and her two calves graze on flowers Mesocarnivore Response to Wolf Presence, Prey Availability, and Snow Pack What happens in an ecosystem when the abundance of an integral species changes? In March of 2012, Denali biologists noticed an apparent increase in the coyote population as the number of wolves – top predators in the park – declined. Were these changes related? And what ripple effects, such as predation of other species like Dall sheep, might occur as a result? coyote standing over a dead animal partly buried in snow Critical Connections: Conserving Migratory Birds in Alaska’s National Parks Conserving migratory species is one of the greatest challenges facing the NPS, particularly as human activities spread across areas used by migratory animals. Migratory birds nesting in NPS areas present unique conservation challenges because they are influenced by conditions and events in more than one part of the world, including along their migration routes and wintering areas that are often thousands of miles away from their protected breeding grounds. black and white bird diving into water Beavers Across Denali’s Hydrologic Landscape Learn more about nature's chief engineer! closeup of a beaver Local Teachers Discover Inquiry-Based Learning During Field Workshop During the summer of 2015, Alaska Geographic hosted a brand new training that invited Denali Borough School District teachers to discover inquiry-based learning during a week of intensive exploration in Denali National Park and Preserve. two teachers use a radio antenna to search for a hidden radio collar What Future for the Wildness of Wilderness in the Anthropocene? Visionary as it was, the Wilderness Act did not anticipate today’s human-driven, global-scale changes. The idea of preserving wild lands challenges us with the irony that such places, untouched by humans, will only continue through our will to keep them that way. A resolute human purpose is needed to maintain the decision to have areas that are free of human purpose. aerial view of wolves moving single-file through a snowy forest Using Ethics Arguments to Preserve Naturalness: A Case Study of Wildlife Harvest Practices on NPS Lands in Alaska The NPS responsibility to maintain natural wildlife populations is inherently challenging. For example, many animals migrate out of parks either seasonally or long-term. Typically, we collect and analyze data, and then publish our work. However, the answer rarely, if ever, lies solely in the data. Often the question is not even one of biology, but one of values. In these cases, nonscientific tools such as rigorous and transparent argument analyses are appropriate. bear eating a fish in shallow water Denali Repeat Photography Project Reveals Dramatic Changes Discover how repeat photographs help scientists study - and share - the effects of a changing climate on the subarctic landscape of Denali National Park and Preserve. two images showing the same glacier, which has shrunk over the last 100 years Reclamation of Mined Lands in Kantishna How to you restore a creek filled with debris and arsenic, legacies of gold mining from nearly a century ago? Find out with this review of the restoration of Denali's Caribou Creek. shallow creek flowing through a rocky valley Science on the Slopes of Denali Learn how scientists, as well as adventurers, made their mark in learning about North America’s highest peak and the conditions that prevail there. aerial view of a vast white mountain with numerous glaciers and smaller mountains Integrated Monitoring of Physical Environment, Plant, and Bird Communities in Denali How can permafrost impact bird populations? owl perched atop a small spruce tree The Hungers of the World: Poems from a Residency Read three of John Morgan's poems from his poetry collection entitled "The Hungers of the World: Poems from a Residency," written after a stay at Denali. closeup of a gray colored wolf A Letter to Ade Murie Read Kim Heacox's short essay, "A Letter to Ade Murie," written after his 2012 residency in Denali. painting of a snow-covered log cabin and surrounding mountain scenery The Questions We Ask: A Tetraptych Four essays comprise Marybeth Holleman's donation, following her 2012 residency at Denali. closeup of a caribou with large antlers Wolf Read Nancy Lord's "Wolf," written after her 2010 residency at Denali. a wolf walking along a dirt road Long-term Vegetation Monitoring of Burnt Plots During the summer of 2013, Denali had 14 fires including several large fires with a total of 104,850 acres burned within the park boundary. Based on the fire perimeters it appeared that several Central Alaska Network Inventory & Monitoring (CAKN) vegetation mini-grids (75 total plots) were burned by three 2013 fires in the park. a wildland firefighter stands in a forest that was burnt 1 year prior to the photo Creating Defensible Space Around Structures to Protect from Fires The National Park Service (NPS) fire management program conducts hazardous fuel reduction projects around infrastructure, values at risk or near communities adjacent to park lands in order to provide defensible space and to mitigate wildfire hazards. a log cabin amidst brush and trees How Are Permafrost Landscapes Changing? Science summary (2010) - As global temperatures rise, natural landscapes are being transformed. Landscapes with permafrost soils (frozen for at least two years), such as those in and near Denali National Park and Preserve, are likely to exhibit dramatic changes because the thawing of ice-rich permafrost physically alters the environment. woman stands in tundra and small shrubs with ground plot and monitoring equipment Denali Wildland Fire Management and Updates Denali National Park and Preserve has 3,359,449 acres (out of a total of 6+ million) that are covered by burnable vegetation. Learn more about fires from the previous year and projects that are planned for the upcoming year. a plume of smoke rises from a wildfire Wildland Fire Risk and Response in Denali: Why are you cutting those trees? While fire is necessary for a healthy ecosystem, "Firewise" techniques are used by Denali fire technicians to protect cabins, homes, offices, and visitor centers in the park. man chainsaws a tree with a log cabin in the background Large Lakes and Landscape Limnology How is climate change affecting the largest lakes in and around Denali? Limnology is the scientific study of inland waters, most commonly lakes. To understand ecosystem processes at landscape scales, limnologists have become increasingly focused on the distribution and function of lakes across large regions. Wonder Lake with Denali in the background Measuring Ecosystem Contaminants in Denali Science summary (2010) - Even though Denali ecosystems are still intact, toxic contaminants enter the park from global sources every year. Over time, these contaminants can accumulate in the environment. two researchers with gloves hold a fish on a table How dry is it? Fuel Moisture Sampling in Denali The amount of moisture in different vegetation can give clues to fire managers to determine how likely it is for a fire to start and how it may behave. fire management staff collect fuel moisture samples Museum Collections: Preserving Denali's Stories Exploring the museum collections at Denali National Park and Preserve is like touching history. Eight disciplines, such as biology, art, and history, are represented by more than 370,000 items in the collection. log cabin museum Monitoring Slope Motion along the Savage River Loop Trail Annual Research Update (2015) - The Savage River day use area is a popular destination for many visitors to Denali National Park. The trails and infrastructure in the area receive significant use and are showing signs of downslope motion, trail erosion, and damage to the wooden hiking bridge at the far end of the Savage River Loop Trail. Using GPS to survey monuments along the trail may aid in decision making about future trail maintenance. a river runs through a valley and under a trail bridge Toklat River Floodplain Monitoring Annual Research Update (2015) - The Denali Gravel Acquisition Plan authorizes gravel to be removed from the Toklat River floodplain to support maintenance needs of the Denali Park Road. This requires an understanding of how sediment moves through the river and how gravel removal may affect the flow of the river. heavy equipment collect gravel on a river bar White Spruce Cone Production and Seed Viability Annual Research Updates (2016) - If you turn your head to the skies while walking through Denali's boreal forest you will see clusters of white spruce cones huddled at the top of trees. But how many of those cones contain viable seeds? two interns use binoculars to count white spruce cones Denali Climate and Weather Monitoring Annual Research Updates (2015, 2016) - Climate is a critical sign used to monitor long-term change across the park. In Denali climate and weather station are used to monitor temperature and precipitation patterns across the park. a climate station stands in the middle of fall-colored tundra Administrative Overflights Monitoring Annual Research Updates (2015) - In 2014, administrative aircraft passing through Denali were tracked in order to determine impact on the park's soundscape. a small plane flies over mountains Snow Surveys in Denali Annual Research Updates (2015, 2016) - When people imagine Denali National Park and Preserve in the wintertime, they imagine deep pristine snow covering the landscape. But how much snow does Denali actually get? a snow covered river Monitoring and Understanding the Active Igloo Debris Slide After a large debris slide covered the Denali park road in 2013, park geoscientists have monitored the area to be aware not only the dynamic nature of the Earth in Denali, but also the concerns associated with natural hazards. people stand next to a large debris slide that covers a snowy road while 2015 Denali Science School Teaches Students about Science in Parks During the fall of 2015, the Murie Science and Learning Center is bringing Alaskan fifth and sixth-grade classes into Denali for three-day, overnight field trips. During Denali Science School, students are immersed in natural systems and stewardship through hands-on activities and journeys into the park. The program is instructed by skilled Park Service and Alaska Geographic educators working in partnership to create an optimal learning experience an instructor holds a digital thermometer for a student to read The Alaska Range and Denali: Geology and Orogeny Denali is the highest point in North America and boasts one of the tallest vertical faces of any mountain in the world. Discover how this mountain rose to such prominence compared to the rest of the Alaska Range. huge white mountain reflected in a lake An Integrated Study of Road Capacity at Denali A sole road provides access to the interior of Denali. Traffic on it is restricted mostly to buses, with a cap on how many total trips can occur in a summer. Though the limit hasn't been reached, visitation increases annually. In order to evaluate the traffic limits and how traffic impacts wildlife, we have designed a multidisciplilnary study. This research will inform decisions about managing traffic to protect resources and maintain quality visitor experiences. two green buses on a grassy hill with people standing outside taking photos Tracking the Movement of Denali's Wolves By tracking the movements of Denali’s wolves for 30 years, large contributions have been made to the study of wolves -- specifically those within the park boundaries. The park’s wolf population is more fluid and dynamic than had been expected, and wolf numbers vary two- or three-fold, depending on food supply; and years of study have shown that wolves demonstrate their intelligence and impressive physical abilities by occasionally doing something that you least expect. closeup of a wolf wearing a collar Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Trumpeter Swans in Denali The increase in the population size of trumpeter swans is often hailed as a success story, yet many questions remain about the future of trumpeter swans. Will populations continue to increase and will their distribution continue to expand across interior Alaska? How will global climate change affect nesting habitat and food supplies of trumpeter swans in Alaska? And, how will changes on the winter range and along migration routes affect trumpeter swans in Alaska? two white birds floating on a lake Effects of Changing Climate on the Kahiltna Glacier The Kahiltna Glacier in Denali National Park and Preserve is best known to mountain climbers as a starting point when summiting Mt. McKinley, the highest peak in North America. Visitors on flightseeing tours are fascinated by its classic moraine stripes and dramatic icefalls. To scientists, however, the Kahiltna Glacier represents a prime opportunity to examine the effects of a warming climate on Alaska glaciers. snowy mountains behind a vast snowy field with people in it Howard Zahniser’s Vision of Wilderness Ed Zahniser describes his father, Howard - principal architect of the Wilderness Act. three men standing on a mountain top Research Fellowship Recipients: 2012 Learn about 2012 Research Fellowship recipients woman in a red shirt and white hat Research Fellowship Recipients | 2014 Learn about 2014 Research Fellowship recipients. woman kneeling in water Research Fellowship Recipients 2013 Read about 2013 fellowship recipients and the studies they chose to conduct throughout Interior and Arctic parks in Alaska. a woman sitting in a muddy field Researchers in Residence (MSLC) Discover the Murie Science and Learning Center's Researchers-in-Residence woman sitting near a computer screen showing a digitally drawn dinosaur The Year Everything Changed: The 1972 Shuttle Bus Decision in Mount McKinley National Park The shuttle system at Denali (formerly known as Mount McKinley National Park) is the longest continuously running shuttle system in the NPS. The origins of this bus system tie directly into the big increase in visitation brought about by the 1971 construction of Highway 3, connecting Anchorage and Fairbanks via a shorter route than ever before—and traveling right past the park entrance. two women stand near a bus on a dirt road 1972 GOP Convention at McKinley Park Hotel The Alaska Republicans' state convention took place at the McKinley Park Hotel in May 1972, in what is now Denali National Park. At the convention, a State Senator from Fort Yukon named Don Young earned the backing of the Republican Party, and become Alaska's Representative in Congress for more than 47 years. a man, woman and two children in parkas with heavy fur ruffs Alaska and Indigenous Peoples Day In 2015, Alaska Governor Bill Walker signed a declaration making the second Monday in October Indigenous Peoples Day. At the time, Alaska became just the second state (after South Dakota) to honor Indigenous people in place of a date traditionally used to recognize Christopher Columbus. a man in kuspuk holding a piece of paper with a family of alaska natives Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits Denali Park Headquarters Historic District Between 1926 and 1941, the expansion of the Headquarters District occurred with the development of master plans designed by Thomas Vint (chief landscape architect of the NPS Western Office of Planning and Design), park labor, Alaska Road Commission (ARC) and the contributions of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). The Headquarters District is architecturally significant due to the site planning and design representative of the NPS philosophy of Rustic style. Denali NPP Headquarters Historic District Alaska Aviation Safety In Alaska, small planes are often the best way to get around but flying has its risks. Aviation safety requires more than just a pilot’s skill–it takes all of us. Learn more about aviation to increase the safety of your next park flight. An NPS pilot in a plane cockpit flying over a turquoise lake Honoring the Unsung Heroes of the 1913 Summit Expedition: Esaias George and John Fredson Learn about two lesser-known, but vital, members of the 1913 expedition that became the first to summit Denali! Esaias George, who was Koyukon, and John Fredson, who was Neets’ai Gwich'in, did not make it to the top of Denali, but they were skilled mushers and hunters who provided the crucial freight and basecamp support that helped the trip succeed. two alaska native men in suits Wolf denning dates stay constant as the climate warms Read the abstract and get the link to an article that looks at wolf denning timing related to the onset of spring and the effects of seasonal weather on den success: Mahoney, P. J. K. Joly, B. L. Borg, M. S. Sorum, T. A. Rinaldi, … B. Mangipane, et al. 2020. Denning phenology and reproductive success of wolves in response to climate signals. Environmental Research Letters 15(12): 125001. An adult wolf with pups. Bridget Borg - Wildlife Biologist Bridget Borg is a wildlife biologist at Denali National Park and Preserve where she leads wolf research. A woman with a tranquilized wolf. Carl Roland - Plant Ecologist Carl Roland is a plant ecologist for Denali Park and Preserve and principal investigator for the Central Alaska Network vegetation monitoring program. Carl Roland in the field. Jessica Rykken - Entomologist Jessica Rykken is an entomologist at Denali National Park and Preserve. A woman stands on an alpine ridge with an insect net The 19th Amendment, Elizabeth Peratrovich, and the Ongoing Fight for Equal Rights In Alaska, women's suffrage passed in 1913—seven years prior to the 19th Amendment—and antidiscrimination legislation passed nearly 20 years prior to the major national civil rights bills of the 1960s. In the 1940s, Elizabeth Peratrovich—a Tlingit woman who was Grand President of the Alaska Native Sisterhood—led the charge to end discrimination against Alaska Natives. gold coin of a raven, a woman's face, and words elizabeth peratrovich anti-discrimination law Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 16 Issue: Science in Alaska's Arctic Parks The National Park Service manages five parks that fall partially or entirely within the Arctic tundra biome. These five parks encompass 19.3 million acres of land and constitute approximately 25% of the land area managed by the National Park Service nationwide. These are undeveloped places, with free-flowing rivers and wilderness at a massive scale. a group of muskox running across a field Series: Dall Sheep in Alaska's National Parks Discover the importance of Dall Sheep in Alaska's National Parks Two sheep rest on a snowy mountain Series: GIP Participants and Project Highlights [8 Articles] Participants selected for the GIP program have a unique opportunity to contribute to the conservation of America's national parks. Participants may assist with research, mapping, GIS analysis, resource monitoring, hazard mitigation, and education. GIP positions can last from 3 months to one-year. Robyn Henderek Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 10 Issue 2: Connections to Natural and Cultural Resource Studies in Alaska’s National Parks In this issue: * Science on the Slopes of Mount McKinley * Brown Bear Activity Patterns in Katmai * Attu, A Lost Village of the Aleutians * Using Scenarios to Prepare for Climate Change ... and more! journal cover showing a brown bear in a field Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 12 Issue 2: Climate Change in Alaska's National Parks In this issue: * Status and Trends of Alaska National Park Glaciers * Tracking Glacial Landscapes: High School Science Gets Real * Climate Change Scenario Planning Lessons from Alaska a hillside overlooking a wide valley filled by a glacier, surrounded by steep mountains Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 13 Issue 2: Mineral and Energy Development There’s no denying that energy and mineral extraction have been and will continue to be important across the North for a long time. Mining and energy-related industries provide direct and indirect employment for thousands of people, taxes and other revenues. Our need is for science, engineering, and scholarly research; to develop safe, effective, and affordable technologies; to protect, preserve, and restore the natural and human environment; and to record and communicate our history. aerial view of buildings and a pier sticking out into the ocean Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 13 Issue 1: Wilderness in Alaska This issue includes: * Economics of Wilderness * Using Ethics Arguments to Preserve Naturalness * Busing Through the Wilderness: "Near-Wilderness" Experiences in Denali ... and more! mountains reflecting into a calm lake, the words 'alaska park science' Series: Climate Change in Nth California and Sth Oregon Discover how climate change is impacting national parks sites as varied as volcanoes, caves, coastline and deserts. Klamath River enters the ocean Series: Denali Fact Sheets: Biology Discover the secret lives of animals in Denali! a beaver Series: The Legacy of ANILCA The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act impacts the National Park Service in many ways. ANILCA stipulates the designation of wilderness, subsistence management, transportation in and across parklands, use of cabins, mining, archaeological sites, scientific research studies and more. Two men drag a harvest seal from icy blue waters across frozen ice. Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Mesozoic Era The Mesozoic Era (251.9 to 66 million years ago) was the "Age of Reptiles." During the Mesozoic, Pangaea began separating into the modern continents, and the modern Rocky Mountains rose. Dinosaurs, crocodiles, and pterosaurs ruled the land and air. As climate changed and rapid plate tectonics resulted in shallow ocean basins, sea levels rose world-wide and seas expanded across the center of North America. fossil dinosaur skull in rock face Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Series: Copper River Basin Symposium - Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve February 2020: With a theme of Tradition, Science, and Stewardship, the two-day symposium included keynote speakers, 26 short presentations, and a poster session. A panel discussion delved into opportunities in working with indigenous communities. Ahtna elders provided wisdom in daily welcomes, and there was a presentation by Copper River Stewardship Youth. Topics ranged widely from fisheries to archaeology to geology. As well as sharing knowledge, participants shared meals, stories, and ideas. Copper River Basin Symposium logo by Lindsay and Elvie Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: HFC's Digital Media Immersive 3D Interactive Tours The NPS preserves some of Americaʻs...and objects in person. Interior view of a saloon. A long white bar with a dark wooden top is to the left of the view. Series: NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Since 2002, the National Park Service (NPS) has awarded Environmental Achievement (EA) Awards to recognize staff and partners in the area of environmental preservation, protection and stewardship. A vehicle charges at an Electric Vehicle charging station at Thomas Edison National Historical Park Series: Denali History Nuggets Little-known episodes from Denali's history! a large dog pulling a woman on a sled Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 19, Issue 1 - Below the Surface: Fish and Our Changing Underwater World Alaska has over three million lakes, 12,000 rivers, and an estimated 6,640 miles of ocean coastline. Below the surface swim some of the world’s most abundant, healthy, all-wild fish, including salmon, halibut, and eulachon. Fish sustained Alaska Natives for millennia and continue to represent food and economic security for many people. Alaska Park Science 19(1): 2020 Red-colored salmon swim in turquoise water. Series: Alaska Park Science, Volume 18, Issue 1, Understanding and Preparing for Alaska's Geohazards Alaska is the most geologically active part of North America. Much of the awe-inspiring landscapes of Alaska's parks are created by geologic processes. But sometimes, these processes can be hazardous. This issue explores the state of the science to understand geohazards in Alaska national parks. Alaska Park Science 18(1): 2019. A man jumps down a dune of volcanic ash. Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 6 Issue 2: Crossing Boundaries in a Changing Environment This issue covers the proceedings of the Central Alaska Park Science Symposium, held in Denali National Park. Topics include climate change monitoring, landscape and wildlife ecology, physical sciences, fisheries, subsistence, and using science as a tool for park management. person in a canoe on a misty lake Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 5 Issue 1: Scientific Studies in Denali This issue includes studies of Denali's moose, wolves, soundscapes, earthquakes, and more! huge snowy mountain reflected in a pond Series: National Park Service Alaska Region Fire Ecology Annual Report Calendar Year 2016 This series offers the summary of the 2016 fire season, inventory and monitoring projects in both Denali and Wrangell-St. Elias National Parks and Preserves, the research and technology involved, and the communication of results. Fire ecologists, wearing bright yellow-lime rain suits, monitor fire impacts in Denali. Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 14 Issue 2: Birds of Alaska's National Parks This issue includes articles exploring birds throughout national parks in Alaska. Particular emphasis is on the changing ways to study birds, and the increasing importance not just on the summer homes of birds in Alaska, but the routes between their wintering and summer breeding grounds. a great horned own and two large owlets in a nest Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 14 Issue 1: Resource Management in a Changing World The following pages describe new approaches to analyzing and presenting resource data to support better informed and more transparent decision making by park managers; first-hand observations of environmental and climate change across widely separated parts of Alaska. They invite our readers to consider the effects of environmental changes, readers to consider the effects of environmental changes, both recent and future. Canoers on a river Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 12 Issue 1: Science, History, and Alaska's Changing Landscapes Science, history and Alaska's changing landscapes. In this issue: * Life and Times of Alaska’s Tundra Plants * Silurian Rocks at Glacier Bay * Using Story to Build Stewardship wide, tree-less valley leading up to a rounded mountain Series: Park Air Profiles Clean air matters for national parks around the country. Photo of clouds above the Grand Canyon, AZ Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 17, Issue 1. Migration: On the Move in Alaska Alaska is home to many amazing animal migrations. In this issue, you will read about caribou, salmon, Golden Eagles, Swainson's Thrushes, beluga whales, and more. Human migrations have also occurred here, from ancient Beringia to the Klondike Gold Rush. You can even read about now-extinct species from the Cretaceous and Pleistocene eras. Enjoy this issue of Alaska Park Science and read about migration. Alaska Park Science 17(1), 2018. Caribou swim across a river. Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 10 Issue 1: Connections to Natural and Cultural Resource Studies in Alaska's National Parks This issue delves into a variety of topics, including: Glaciers in Denali | Prehistoric Tools in Gates of the Arctic | Remnants of WWII battles in the Aleutians | A projection of fire activity based on climate change predictions; and more! caribou wading through a river, words Alaska Park Science Series: Alaska Park Science - Volume 9 Issue 1: Monitoring the "Vital Signs" of Healthy Park Ecosystems This issue explores the "vital signs" of parks. The National Park Service's Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Network studies broad ecological trends throughout parks, and uses those trends, or vital signs, to gauge the health of a park's ecosystem. man standing in a shallow creek Series: Alaska Park Science: Volume 8, Issue 2: Park Science in the Arctic This symposium, the third in a series focused on science and scholarship in and around Alaska’s national parks, is a joint effort with the Beringia Days International Conference. Our theme “Park Science in the Arctic – the Natural and Cultural Heritage of Greater Beringia” is focused on very special places deliberately set aside by nations to preserve their exceptional, natural, cultural, historic, and inspirational significance. dozens of sled dogs curled up in snow near a handful of people talking to each other Consider the source: How to build better ecological models Read the abstract and get the link to a peer-reviewed article on the use of climate models in ecological modeling: Sardoti, G., S. A. McAfee, E. F. Nicklen, P. J. Sousanes, and C. A. Roland. 2020. Evaluating multiple historical climate products in ecological models under current and projected temperatures. Ecological Applications 0(0): e2240. A researcher walks along a steep talus slope. Carol McIntyre - Wildlife Biologist Carol McIntyre is a wildlife biologist at Denali National Park and Preserve. Carol in Denali. Cretaceous Period—145.0 to 66.0 MYA Many now-arid western parks, including Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Mesa Verde National Park, were inundated by the Cretaceous Interior Seaway that bisected North America. Massive dinosaur and other reptile fossils are found in Cretaceous rocks of Big Bend National Park. dinosaur footprint in stone Devonian Period—419.2 to 358.9 MYA The Devonian is part of the “Age of Fishes.” Fish fossils from Death Valley National Park shed light on the early evolution of fish in North America. Tilted Devonian rocks in Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park attest to continued Appalachian Mountain formation. fossil brachiopod Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Mesozoic Era The Mesozoic Era (251.9 to 66 million years ago) was the "Age of Reptiles." During the Mesozoic, Pangaea began separating into the modern continents, and the modern Rocky Mountains rose. Dinosaurs, crocodiles, and pterosaurs ruled the land and air. As climate changed and rapid plate tectonics resulted in shallow ocean basins, sea levels rose world-wide and seas expanded across the center of North America. fossil dinosaur skull in rock face How weather and climate effect songbirds Read the abstract and link to an article that describes the short-term impacts of weather and the long-term impacts of climate on northern songbird species: Mizel, J.D., J. H. Schmidt, and C. L. McIntyre. 2021. Climate and weather have differential effects in a high-latitude passerine community. Oecologia. fox sparrow Bear Events in the Kantishna / Wonder Lake Area of Denali in Summer 2020 The summer of 2020 in Denali National Park and Preserve presented the Wildlife Management team with many challenges, not the least of which was a bear or bears that broke into and damaged properties in numerous locations in the Kantishna and Wonder Lake areas of the park. a large grizzly bear walking to the right in front of a gray culvert trap near several buildings Patterns of Pathogen Exposure in Gray Wolves Read the abstract and link to a new published article on wolf pathogens across North America: Brandell, E. E., P. C. Cross, M. E. Craft, D. W. Smith, E. J. Dubovi, ...B. L. Borg, M. Sorum, ... et al. 2021. Patterns and processes of pathogen exposure in gray wolves across North America. Scientific Reports 11: 3722. Aerial view of a wolf pack in the snow. Bear Events in the Savage River Area of Denali National Park and Preserve in Summer 2020 A bear that frequented Savage River and the Primrose area of Denali posed yet another challenge in the difficult year that was 2020. Starting about mid-June, the bear interacted with visitors and staff on numerous occasions, eventually necessitating a robust response from wildlife management staff. a large brown bear walking on a gravel road Fire in Ecosystems: Boreal Forest The boreal forest, also called taiga, is the largest forested habitat in the world, making up one third of the earth’s total forested area. In North America, the boreal forest spreads from Alaska, across Canada, and into the Great Lakes region of the United States. Boreal forests have burned naturally for thousands of years creating a variety of landscapes, or mosaic, with young and old trees living on the landscape. Aerial view of flaming front in coniferous trees putting off a lot of smoke. John Sackett: The Alaska Native Legislator Who Helped Bring "Denali" Back One of John Sackett's many notable achievements includes being the first person to advocate for officially changing the name of North America's tallest peak from Mount McKinley to Denali. portrait style photo of an alaska native man Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 13, No. 1, Spring 2021 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> park ranger in uniform Following in the footsteps of giants: Dinosaur tracks in Denali National Park and Preserve Dinosaur tracks have been found in the Cretaceous Cantwell Formation of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, since 2005, with new discoveries almost every year. One recently discovered site, “the Coliseum”, shows hundreds of tracks of several kinds of dinosaurs on rocks that are now steeply tilted. hillside bluff with rock layers in overturned beds exposed Two for the Price of One Companion, assistant, confidant, ambassador, host, nurse, cook, secretary, editor, field technician, wildlife wrangler, diplomat, and social director are some of the many roles that people who marry into the NPS perform in support of their spouses and the NPS mission. Although the wives and daughters of park rangers were some of the earliest women rangers in the NPS, many more women served as “park wives” in the 1920s–1940s. Three members of a family Dominance dynamics among scavengers Read the abstract and link to a paper that explores the interactions of wolves, wolverines, coyotes, and foxes for carrion resources: Klauder, K. J., B. L. Borg, K. J. Sivy, and L. R. Prugh. In press, 2021. Gifts of an enemy: Scavenging dynamics in the presence of wolves (Canis lupus). Journal of Mammalogy A wolverine on a carcass in the winter Living arrangements between wolves and coyotes Read a summary and get the link to a published paper that explores how coyote and wolf share territory (or don't): Klauder, K., B. Borg, and L. Prugh. 2021. Living on the edge: Spatial response of coyotes (Canis latrans) to wolves (Canis lupus) in the subarctic. Canadian Journal of Zoology 99: 279-288.  A coyote stands by her den. What determines the likelihood of seeing wolves in Denali? Read a summary and link to a paper that describes the factors related to wolf sightings in Denali: Borg, B. L., S. M. Arthur, J. A. Falke, and L. R. Prugh. 2021. Determinants of gray wolf (Canis lupus) sightings in Denali National Park. Arctic 74(1): 51-66. A tour bus and wolf Competition and dry site conditions amplify white spruce climate sensitivity Read the abstract and link to an article on how drought stress and crowding impact boreal white spruce: Nicklen, E. F., C. A. Roland, A. Z. Csank, M. Wilmking, R. W. Ruess, and L. A. Muldoon. 2018. Stand basal area and solar radiation amplify white spruce climate sensitivity in interior Alaska: Evidence from carbon isotopes and tree rings. Global Change Biology 25(3): 911-926. Monitoring transect in white spruce stand. Sixty Years in the Life of Denali's Muldrow Glacier (1952 to 2010) The Muldrow Glacier is a long, surging glacier that descends thousands of feet on the northeastern slopes of Denali, in Denali National Park, which seems to surge, or rapidly increase its movement, roughly every sixty years. Monitoring of the glacier helps scientists understand the nature of glaciers. huge snowy mountain with two forks of a vast glacier coming together at its toe The High Alpine Tundra is Surprisingly Rich Most theories expect greater plant diversity at lower elevations and less diversity in harsher high-elevation locations. We found the reverse is true--in this case. Learn why: Roland, C. A. and J. H. Schmidt. 2015. A diverse alpine species pool drives a "reversed" plant species richness-elevation relationship in interior Alaska. Journal of Biogeography 42(4): 738-750. A lush green alpine area. Borealization and its Discontents Read the abstract and link to a recently published article on the drivers of biodiversity in high-latitude, high-elevation boreal forests in: Roland, C., J. H. Schmidt, S. E. Stehn, C. J. Hampton-Miller, and E. F. Nicklen. 2021. Borealization and its discontents: Drivers of regional variation in plant diversity across scales in interior Alaska. Ecosphere 12(5): e03485.  boreal forest in Denali Mapping and Monitoring Landscape Changes Using Structure from Motion from Aircraft Aerial SfM is an accessible tool for mapping and monitoring landscape changes for a wide range of applications and disciplines across parks in Alaska. The success of the Alaska Region aerial SfM system during the first four years of testing and deployment has demonstrated its value to park mangers to address rapidly changing park landscapes. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A split image showing two different kinds of remote sensing. An Introduction to Some of the High-flying Technology Used to Study the Movements of Alaska’s Migratory Birds There are many tools available to study the movements of birds and the technology is evolving rapidly. Explore how satellite telemetry, global system for mobile communications telemetry, archival light-level loggers, and GPS data loggers are used in migratory bird research and what we are learning as a result. Alaska Park Science (20)1, 2021 A gyrfalcon perched on a rocky cliff. Repeat Photography: A Visually Compelling Tool for Documenting Natural Resource Change Repeat photography is an effective method to qualitatively and quantitatively assess landscape change over time. From shrinking glaciers to changing vegetation to changes in the built environment, comparing historical and contemporary photos can help us identify specific features or processes that may require more intensive monitoring and research and can serve as a valuable tool for education, outreach, and resource management. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A historic photo overlaid on a modern image. Using Aquatic Invertebrates to Measure the Health of Stream Ecosystems: New Bioassessment Tools for Alaska’s Parklands Aquatic insects are good indicators of stream ecosystem health because they are common, reasonably well understood, easy to collect and analyze, and sensitive to the environment in which they live. We can determine the relative health of a stream by comparing what insects we find to what we would expect to find in a similar healthy stream. This straightforward approach can be used in all kinds of settings and compared across a region. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A man stands with an insect collection net with Denali in the background. Unmanned Aerial Systems as a Tool for Natural Resource Applications The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is rapidly expanding as a tool for resource management. Employing UAS to collect data can result in more accurate mapping, decreased cost, and increased personnel safety. Applications of UAS in Alaska parks are demonstrating the benefits and defining best practices for its continued and enhanced use. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A man in orange waders operates a UAS on a rocky coast. Using GPS Units to Understand Where Backpackers Travel in Denali National Park Visitor use in national parks is dynamic. By examining different aspects of visitor use, such as where people go, managers are better prepared to address issues such as potential resource damage and crowding. But learning where people go in a large wilderness park poses some challenges. When backpacking parties used GPS tracking devices, the data clearly showed where they went, how far they traveled, and how long they stayed. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A backpacker admires a view of Denali. Making Sound Decisions Using Bioacoustics in Alaska’s National Parks Animals are continuously immersed in acoustic signals. Acoustic recording devices allow us to extend our sense of hearing to remote places, times, and even frequencies we normally cannot access. By studying the sounds animals make, and the sounds in their environment, we can better understand their conservation needs. Presented here are examples from bats, birds, frogs, and whales. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A man sets up acoustic recording equipment in the backcountry. Clues from Glacier Debris: Dating and Mapping Glacial Deposits Since the Last Ice Age in the Western Alaska Range Moraines are the footprint of past glacier positions and, if the age of the moraine is known, they can record the timing and rate of glacier change. Carefully reconstructed glacier histories are used as archives of past climate change. Cosmogenic isotope exposure dating is a new technique being used in the Revelation Mountains that could tell us about glacier and climate history of the Alaska Range. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A glacial moraine. High-definition Laser Scanning for Documenting Cultural Resources High-definition laser scanning is a recently adopted technology to collect highly accurate and detailed spatial data that can be processed into a three-dimensional digital model. It is a powerful tool to quickly and accurately document historical buildings and sites, which can facilitate conservation and restoration of these cultural resources. Alaska Park Science 20(1), 2021 A scanned image overlaid on a photo. Series: Alaska Park Science Volume 20 Issue 1 - Parks as Proving Grounds Parks in Alaska pose special challenges to researchers: they are large, remote, and less is known about them. This makes it all the more important that tools and techniques we use here are practical, effective, and impactful. While researchers often focus on sharing the findings from their work, here we shine a light on the devices and approaches used by researchers with attention to the innovation needed to work in Alaska. Alaska Park Science 20 (1), 2021 A scientist uses a probe on the top of a mountain. A Tale of Two Spruce Read the abstract and get a link to a recently published paper: Nicklen, E. F., C. A. Roland, R. W. Ruess, T. Scharnweber, and M. Wilmking. 2021. Divergent responses to permafrost and precipitation reveal mechanisms for the spatial variation of two sympatric spruce. Ecosphere 12(7): e03622. A boreal forest landscape. Exploring & Cataloging Denali's Microwilderness While most visitors don’t come to Denali to see bumble bees or spiders, arthropod species make up more than 90% of wildlife in the park. Grizzly bears, moose, and wolves may get the attention of bus travelers on the park road, but hidden from view in the shrubs, trees, wildflowers, gravel bars, alpine tundra, and snow patches are an amazingly diverse multitude of invertebrate creatures, many of which have yet to be discovered. iridescent green beetle Bumble Bees of Alaska: A Field Guide This field guide to bumble bees will help you identify these abundant and conspicuous pollinators, which are found across most of Alaska. They are well-adapted to cold, harsh climates and live in every habitat where there are flowers offering up pollen and nectar, including forests, shrublands, tundra, wetlands, riparian areas, beaches, and gardens. a bumble bee perched on tiny pink flowers How climate changes the timing of wood frog calls Read the abstract and get the link to a published article on what we learned from monitoring the timing of wood frog calls: Larsen, A. S., J. H. Schmidt, H. Stapleton, H. Kristenson, D. Betchkal, and M. F. McKenna. 2021. Monitoring the phenology of the wood frog breeding season using bioacoustic methods. Ecological Indicators 131: 108142. Wood frog.
Denali Denali National Park and Preserve Alaska National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali means “the High One” for Athabascan Indians north of the Alaska Range To Make a Wild Dream Come True Charles Sheldon had a dream. Standing on a rise in the Kantishna Hills in January 1908, he pulled out his field glasses—more important to him than his hunting rifle—and looked around. Everything his eyes feasted on could one day be a premier national park, the Yellowstone of Alaska, preserved and protected for one reason above all others: to celebrate restraint as an expression of freedom, our rare ability to save a place so it will one day save us. He studied the ocean of land, storm-tossed by mountains and glaciers, waves of rolling tundra, a landscape like no other, vast, intact, winter-white, and holding its breath, so still yet dynamic, epic and epoch in its dimensions, the America that used to be. Such a grand ambition. More than a dream, it was a spark of idealism, a vision. Could Sheldon do it? Could one person with help from a few committed colleagues and friends successfully campaign for the creation of a national park? Thomas Jefferson had said it would take 1,000 years for Americans to civilize their emerging continental nation and build cities on the Pacific coast as they had on the Atlantic. It took 50 years. The so-called “myth of superabundance”—that we would never run out of fish and bison and bears and so much else—was rapidly becoming just that: a myth. A Yale man who preferred to be in the wilderness, Sheldon decided to dedicate himself to the conservation cause of President Theodore Roosevelt. He journeyed to Alaska when the young US territory had no roads and only 30,000 people (fewer than five percent of what it has today), and found his way to the mountains. Due south of him rose the icy granite massif that gold miners in Kantishna and Fairbanks called Mount McKinley but that Sheldon simply called “the mountain,” or “Denali,” the Athabascan name meaning “the high one.” Certainly a mountain like that could take care of itself, being the highest in North America. But what of the magnificent wild animals that embroidered it, the grizzlies, caribou, wolves, moose, Dall sheep, and others that moved over the land with ancient grace? Market hunters were coming into the country with an aim to kill wild game to feed gold miners and railroad workers. It had to stop. Sheldon spent 10 months in the Denali region, then headed back east with one purpose: to make a wild dream come true. Rethinking Wolves, Wilderness, and Wildness “. . . let us be guardians, rather than gardeners.” Adolph Murie had a theory. Wolves were not bad or evil. They were keen predators that helped to maintain healthy populations of prey species by taking out the old, sick, and injured. Wolves, in fact, were beneficial. They made everything around them stronger, healthier, more agile, and alert. This was heresy in the 1930s, when books, films, and legends demonized the wolf, the wild dog that thousands of years ago had refused our obedience training yet remained our four-legged shadow, a ghost of the hunter we used to be. A wildlife biologist who had studied coyotes in Yellowstone, Murie found great inspiration when he came north to Mount McKinley National Park. —Adolph Murie Here was a dream come true, a park signed into law in February 1917 by Woodrow Wilson after nearly 10 years of campaigning by Charles Sheldon and other activists. Here was a once-upon-a-time land, the most accessible wilderness in Alaska, a park to protect wild animals by protecting the place where they lived, the first national park created after the creation of the National Park Service in August 1916. The world was changing and Murie wanted to be part of it. “Ecology” and “wilderness” were beginning to find their way into the American vocabulary. Nature wasn’t a commodity people owned, it was a community they belonged to. Over-civilized people needed nature—big, mysterious, wild—to find themselves and lose themselves and find themselves again, to rewrite the definitions of progress and wealth, and be reminded what it meant to be truly alive. and then jumped in 1972 after a highway was built between Anchorage and Fairbanks. For three years, 1939–41, Murie lived with his family in a cabin on the East Fork of the Toklat River, in the heart of the park, and studied Dall sheep, caribou, and wolves. His young daughter sometimes joined him on the tundra, field glasses in hand, like Charles Sheldon, to watch wolf pups play near their den. A single 90-mile-long road had been built through the park, and while traffic was light, it increased steadily As big as the park was, it wasn’t big enough. Murie and others wanted to protect its ecological integrity. And so they campaigned, and hoped for a president one day who would be as conservation-minded as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Imagine. Here’s a place we did not harvest or plund
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska Official newspaper S u m m e r 2 017 Alpenglow HAPPY B I RT H D AY FEB 26, 1917 DENALI NATIONAL PARK EST. 1917 ™ Wild, Wonderful, Waiting for You Discover the Next 100 PHOTO COURTESY SIERRA WILLOUGHBY Make the most of your time in Denali Two hours Four hours More than a day • Check out all of the cool offerings and exhibits at the Denali Visitor Center, 8 am to 6 pm. The park movie plays each half hour. • Ride a free shuttle to Savage River at Mile 15. Schedules are posted at bus stops. • Reserve a spot on a once-in-a­ lifetime, ranger-led backcountry Discovery Hike. Check fliers for trip descriptions and difficulty ratings. Sign up at the Denali Visitor Center, then buy a bus ticket for an 8 am departure from the Wilderness Access Center. • Drive to Mountain Vista Trailhead at Mile 13 for a possible first glimpse of Denali. • Enjoy a picnic and family play space at the Riley Creek Day Use Area. • Attend a noontime naturalist talk at the Murie Science and Learning Center. • Visit the historic Park Kennels for a Sled Dog Demonstration. During peak season, free shuttles depart the Denali Visitor Center bus depot at 9:20 am, 1:20 pm, and 3:20 pm. You'll be back about 90 minutes later. • Attend a ranger presentation at 7:30 pm at several park campgrounds. Check posted fliers for topics. • Hike trails throughout the entrance area. See maps and descriptions on pages 10-11. • Join a ranger-led walk or talk offered every few hours at the Denali Visitor Center. Check fliers for listings. Full day • Visit the Eielson Visitor Center at Mile 66. Bus tickets and departures are available at the Wilderness Access Center. • Take a day hike in the backcountry. Jump off a transit bus, explore, then wave down another green bus heading your direction. Stay Connected h t t p ://t wi t t er.co m /D e na liN P S www.f aceb o o k.co m /D e na liN P S • Reserve a tent or RV site at the Riley Creek Mercantile for one of six campgrounds throughout the park. • If you plan to bike or backpack overnight in the backcountry, be sure to pick up a free permit at the Backcountry Information Center. This orientation, safety, and planning process usually takes about an hour. As your travels continue, please visit the Walter Harper Talkeetna Ranger Station, on B Street in Talkeetna, and Alaska Public Lands Information Centers in Fairbanks at 101 Dunkel St., and in Anchorage at 605 W 4th Ave. www.i n s t ag r am .co m /D e na liN P S www.f l i ckr.co m /p h o t o s /D e na liN P S www.yo u t u b e.co m /u s er /D e na liN P S Ranger Programs ...................... Page 3 Family Offerings ....................... Page 4 Special Events ........................... Page 5 Tour and Transit Buses ............. Page 6 Entrance Area Trails ............... Page 10 Artist-in-Residence ................... Page 18 Bear Safety Advisories ........... Page 19 Park Regulations ..................... Page 20 Happy 100th Birthday, Denali National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve P.O. Box 9, Denali Park, AK 99755 E-mail DENA_Info@nps.gov Website www.nps.gov/dena Phone 907 683-9532 Bus and campsite reservations 800 622-7275 Nationwide 907 272-7275 International www.reservedenali.com Tip Line to Report Crime 800 478-2724 Emergency Dial 911 We are so proud to be stewards for one of your crown jewels for appropriate development and public use with the need for long-term, sustainable conservation of increasingly fragile resources. by Don Striker Superintendent During such times, we are apt to remember the lessons of the past. Upon reflection, it took many diverse partners to fulfill a vision for setting Denali apart for the public. These partners include visionaries like Charles Sheldon, members of the Boone and Crockett Club as well as experts who had "been there, done that" like Harry Karstens and, of course Belmore Brown and his Campfire Club. But there also was support from the private sector like that of America's railroads, hoteliers and tourism proponents; conservationists attuned to the need to preserve special places; and our government officials, like then Utah Senator Reed Smoot, who sponsored the bill that led to the creation of the National Park Service in 1916. I believe we will be successful, because we will work together and overcome differences of opinion to solve our challenges. I've always taken solace in President Abraham Lincoln’s words, "A house divided against itself cannot stand." The same spirit of cooperation from federal and local governments, private and public stakeholders, and motivated visitors like yourself is at work as you read these words, and WE ARE COMMITTED, TOGETHER, to make Denali better and more sustainable. I tend to be long-winded. But protecting Denali for your grandchildren's grandchildren is a task that lends itself to long windedness. Enjoy your stay! I invit
Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Official newspaper Au tu m n 2 016 to S p r i n g 2 017 Alpenglow PHOTO COURTESY MENNO BOERMANS The "Edge of the World" near the 14,200-foot camp on Denali's popular West Buttress route has a dramatic 5,000-foot drop to the Northeast Fork of the Kahiltna Glacier. Superintendent Greeting The year 2016 was special as the National Park Service marked its 100th birthday. Special events were held in Denali and other parks across the Denali Celebrates its Next Century Park staff and community groups are working together to host events to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the park's establishment on Feb. 26, 1917. country to mark the milestone. The year 2017 will be just as exciting as Denali celebrates its own centennial in February. The park offers year-round activities for people of all ages. I encourage visitors, neighbors and partners to take advantage of the incredibly diverse, wild and amazing landscape that is Denali. As we move into a new century of stewardship, the staff — in conjunction with a host of partners — is planning many events to highlight the park, which is an integral part of the Denali community and the landscape of Alaska. At a Solstice Luminary Stroll, you can ski, snowshoe, or stroll down a trail lit by luminaria (candles) on a snowy winter's night. This family-friendly event begins in the early evening of Wed Dec 21 at the Winter Visitor Center (Murie Science and Learning Center) at Mile 1.4 of the Denali Park Road. Trails are appropriate for all levels of skiing or snowshoeing ability. Hot drinks will be provided afterward. Denali Winterfest 2017 is set for Sat Feb 25 and Sun Feb 26. This community-wide event offers something for all ages, interests, and abilities. Events at the park typically include guided skiing and snowshoe walks, activities for kids, exhibits, guest speakers, dog sled rides, hot drinks and light refreshments. A special relationship exists between Several special events are being planned for that Sunday to commemorate the specific date of the park's 100th birthday. Among the honored guests in attendance is expected to be Charlie Sheldon, a descendant of Charles Sheldon, who was among the leading advocates lobbying Congress to create the park in 1917. More at http://go.nps.gov/Winterfest å February in Anchorage, Talkeetna, Denali Park, and Fairbanks. Please watch for emerging Mark your calendars now for Denali Summerfest on Sat June 10, 2017. The day will feature free events including musical performances, food, children's activities, and more. Learn more about all of Denali's Centennial events and initiatives at http:// go.nps.gov/ Denali100 − stakeholders; remain relevant in camping in the Bear Loop of Riley Creek Park Headquarters (Mile 3.4) in February. our communities; engage and Campground is free on a first-come basis. Weather permitting, access opens to encourage youth; and support our Fees may apply in Spring Mountain Vista (Mile 12) by mid-February, We're Open Year Round Throughout the off-season, partners as we fulfill our mission to preserve and protect. Enjoy your visit. Don Striker Superintendent details on the park website and social media feeds about event locations and times. Narrated by Shelton Johnson, the acclaimed 2015 film sheds light on a complex relationship that "minority majority"populations have with wild places. The documentary features nine AfricanAmerican climbers on a grueling expedition led by the National Outdoor Leadership with future conservationists and we will continue to make connections outreach this winter, the park will host screenings of An American Ascent in the park and its visitors, volunteers and neighbors. As we look to the future, As a highlight of its Centennial % How Far May I Drive? Road crews begin plowing beyond the Savage River (Mile 15) as early as i Winter Visitor Center the first weekend in April, and the Running water, restrooms, a warm Teklanika River (Mile 30) a week or two fireplace, and permits for overnight stays thereafter. May 19 is the last day of off-season in the backcountry are available daily road adventures beyond Mile 15. That's the 9 am to 4:30 pm at the Murie Science day before regular schedules of shuttles and and Learning Center at Mile 1.4 tours begin venturing farther into the park. of the Denali Park Road. School (NOLS) on America's biggest and baddest mountain. Learn more at w w w.anamericanascent.com QUICK CONTENTS Local Services, Tours, Flightseeing ............. 2 Park Rules and Safety Advisories .............. 3 Winter Recreation Opportunities ............. 4 Trails for Skis and Snowshoes .................. 5 Artist-in-Residence Program ..................... 7 Trails for Hiking the Entrance Area ........... 8 Winter Visitor Centers National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve P.O. Box 9 De
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska Official newspaper S u m m e r 2 016 Alpenglow Setting up a safe camp in Denali means making a "golden triangle." Tents must be pitched at least a hundred yards from cooking areas, and another hundred yards from Bear Resistant Food Containers (BRFCs), provided free with your backcountry permit. Learn more on Page 10. Two celebrations mark two park centennials T his year, the National Park Service celebrates the 100th anniversary of its establishment by Congress in 1916. Next year in 2017, Denali National Park and Preserve achieves its own centennial. In 1917, Mount McKinley National Park, as it was known at that time, was the first national park founded following the creation of the new agency. Human Hundred Grab your gear. Mark your map. Start your app, if that's your thing. The park is challenging its visitors and staff to log 100 miles of human-powered travel during 2016 and 2017 to commemorate its centennial birthdays. Walk, bike, run, ski or snowshoe. Watch for rangerled events to help you reach your Human Hundred. ● First-Timer Friendly Denali is working to make it easier for Alaskans with limited hiking or camping experience to visit and explore. The park is partnering with other public land agencies and outdoor gear companies to provide families with the encouragement and resources they need to make their first experiences here easier and more enjoyable. NPS PHOTO / KENT MILLER Welcome to YOUR park You have arrived just in time to join us in celebrating a very special occasion, the centennial of the National Park Service. One hundred years ago the National Park Service was created to care for and protect the nation’s natural and cultural treasures, to preserve its stories, and to create a common ground for all its citizenry to enjoy now and far into the future. In Denali, we are privileged to share the stories of the human connection to a vast and wild landscape. Subsistence hunting, trapping and gathering occur today just as DENA 21956, DENALI NPP MUSEUM COLLECTION Entering the park in June 1939. The park recognizes both milestones as opportunities to engage new generations in its timeless mission to protect and interpret tangible treasures, such as wildlife, wildlands, and waterways, as well as intangibles, such as its cultural accomplishments, lessons, and stories. Looking Good in Green As one of three pilot parks selected for a Subaru Zero Landfill Initiative, Denali is working with partners and surrounding communities to put the park on a path toward 100 percent landfill diversion. Two hybrid buses and 12 propane buses also are joining its shuttle and transit fleet to reduce sound and carbon emissions. Local Services and Amenities ................. 2 Page 5 Stay Connected Follow Denali's growing array of social media feeds listed on Page 16 for details about upcoming events and initiatives. Join the conversation at Fi n d Yo u r Pa r k . co m critical to understanding the effects of climate change on our global community. More than anything else, we hope you celebrate the true ideal of national parks here in Denali, a place that has been set aside to connect people to America’s past, NPS PHOTO / KENT MILLER Entering the park today. Please consult Page 3 for wildlife safety advisories and regulations. Great One Denali, Tenada, Bulshaia Gora, Densmore Peak, Mount McKinley ... all of these and more are names attributed Entrance Area Trail Maps ....................... 9 to the tallest mountain in North America. Everyday Things To Do in Denali ......... 15 Free Courtesy Shuttles .....................…... 16 change. As permafrost thaws, glaciers to care for this living laboratory that is so Tour and Shuttle Buses …....................... 7 Artist-in-Residence Offerings ............... 14 Denali also serves as a barometer for shrink, and tree lines rise, we feel humbled Safety Advisories and Regulations ........ 3 Campgrounds …...................................... 6 they did hundreds of years ago. Park Historian Erik K. Johnson describes key characters and events in a naming debate that spans more than 100 years. Page 12 a place that protects present wildlife and amazing landscapes for your enjoyment and that of future generations, and a place that celebrates the individual’s opportunity Ranger Me Why should kids get to have all the fun with Discovery Packs and Junior Ranger activities? (See Page 11.) Visitors of all ages may tackle two pages of activities to earn distinction as a "Not-So Junior Ranger." Challenges include a crossword, scavenger hunt, "I Spy" and a short essay or drawing. to experience inspiration, reflection, awe, and wonder. It's a big idea, but we believe Denali is big enough for all visitors to find something special in their park. Enjoy your visit. Don Striker Superintendent Park Partners National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Dena
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park & Preserve geology road guide Capps . McLane . Chang . Grover . Strand Denali National Park & Preserve geology road guide Capps . McLane . Chang . Grover . Strand Credits Former Denali geologist Phil Brease initiated this guide for the benefit of countless future staff and visitors. It is the product of multiple years’ worth of efforts by National Park Service (NPS) staff and Geological Society of America (GSA) interns. Authors Denny Capps, NPS Geologist, Denali National Park and Preserve Sierra McLane, NPS Director, Murie Science and Learning Center Lucy Chang, GSA Intern, Geoscientists-in-the-Parks program Layout and Design Ellen Grover, NPS Science Communicator, Denali National Park and Preserve Sarah Strand, GSA Intern, Geoscientists-in-the-Parks program Special Thanks Christina Forbes, GSA Intern, Geoscientists-in-the-Parks program Chad Hults, Don and Sandy Kewman, Jan Tomsen, Kara Lewandowski, Ron Cole, and other contributers and reviewers Cover Photo NPS Photo / Tim Rains How to Cite This Book: Capps, D., McLane, S., and Chang, L. 2016. Denali National Park and Preserve Geology Road Guide. National Park Service, Denali National Park and Preserve, Denali Park, Alaska. Available for free online. This book is a product of the National Park Service Centennial, celebrating 100 years of geologic reasearch and exploration in Denali. Dedication This guide is dedicated to Phil Brease (Denali Park Geologist from 1986 to 2010). Phil’s humor, wisdom, music, and love of adventure and geology will never be forgotten by the many people whose lives he touched. Throughout his years as Denali’s geologist, Phil discovered fossils, monitored glaciers and road hazards, reclaimed mined lands, taught geology, and predicted that if we kept looking in the right places, someday we would find a dinosaur track in the park. Denali geology is no piece of cake, or one should say ‘layer cake,’ as places like the Grand Canyon are often described. In fact, I like to describe the geology of Denali as a mix of several well-known western parks. The recipe is to place the sediments of the Grand Canyon, the plutonic rocks of Yosemite, and the volcanics of Mount Rainier in a blender, and turn it on briefly to ‘chop.’ Then layer as a parfait, and serve with large quantities of ice from the likes of Glacier Bay National Park! —Phil Brease NPS Photo Table of Contents Part 1 From Old Rocks to Young Ice: Entrance Area to Teklanika Part 2 Mount Healy 1 6 Glacial Forces 7 Glacial Erratics Dynamic Denali: Teklanika to Toklat 29 Where Teklanika and Cantwell Formations Meet 32 Teklanika Dikes 33 8 First Dinosaur Footprint Found In Denali 35 Drunken Trees 9 Tattler Creek 36 Hines Creek Fault Expression 10 Igloo Creek Debris Slide 38 Lignite/Dry Creek Terminal Moraine 11 Sable Pass Debris Slide 40 The High One Emerges 12 Coal Mining by the East Fork Toklat 41 Gossan 13 Bear Cave Slump 42 Gravel Ridge 14 Spheroidal Weathering 43 Savage River 16 Polychrome Overlook—Looking South 47 Nenana Gravel 18 Polychrome Overlook—Looking North 48 Double Mountain 19 Building the Park Road 49 Antecedent Stream 23 Effects of Permafrost Thaw 50 Drunken Forest 24 Patterned Ground 51 Kettle Ponds 25 Road-Blocking Debris Flows 52 Teklanika River and Surrounding Area 28 Toklat River 53 Part 3 A Park of Unusual Scale: Toklat to Kantishna Geo Features 54 Rock Types 4 Highway Pass 58 Braided Rivers 15 Bergh Lake 59 Aufeis 22 Denali Unobscured 61 Assembling Alaska: Accreted Terranes 26 Eielson Visitor Center 62 Paleontological Wonders 34 Pillow Basalt 65 Glaciers 44 Muldrow Glacier 66 Why is Denali so Tall? 64 Hines Creek Fault 68 Earthquakes 72 Muldrow Moraines 69 Geologic Timeline 78 Western Kettle Ponds 70 Glossary 79 Wonder Lake 71 References 82 Glaciofluvial Terraces 74 Index 88 Seismic Activity in the Kantishna Hills 75 Kantishna Area Mining Legacy 76 Introduction Denali National Park and Preserve is a place where powerful geologic forces—tectonics, volcanism, and glaciation, among others—have collectively produced a stunning showcase of landscape features. Some features dominate, like the flanks of Denali and the glacially-carved valleys that surround it, while others may only be noticed by the trained eye. This guide highlights some of the most interesting geological phenomena that can be experienced from the Denali Park Road. It stands on the shoulders of several past road guides, including some by the previous park geologist, Phil Brease10,46. Though the text is composed with an east-to-west drive in mind, each feature stands alone, allowing for the guide’s use regardless of where you are or how you got there. If you are new to the field of geology or to Denali, you may want to read the GEOFeatures first, as they cover broad topics such as rock types, how Ala
Featured Trails National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska Horseshoe Lake Ne na Mount Healy Overlook Trail Horseshoe Lake Trail Legend na Ri ve r Denali Bus Depot Parking Mile 1.2 Shuttle Bus Stop Mile 0.7 Bike Path Bike Path Roads Murie Science and Learning Center Trails Rock Creek Trail Riley Creek Mercantile Parks Highway Bike Trail Taiga Trail Railroad Depot 0.3 Kilometers Riley Creek Campground Post Office 0.3 Miles Denali Visitor Center North McKinley Station Trail Spruce Forest Trail Meadow View Trail ree k 0 Mile 0.0 Ri l ey C 0 Mile 1.4 Jonesville Trail Morino Trail Parks Highway Roadside Trail Mile 3.4 Triple Lakes Trail k Nenana River Hin es C ree Rile y Cre e k Alaska Railroad Park Headquarters & Sled Dog Kennels Connections Time Distance Elevation Grade Trail Width Surface Horseshoe Lake Trail From Taiga Trail or Bike Path (0.5 mile shorter) join Horseshoe Lake Trail at railroad tracks (limited parking available). From bus stop, loop is two miles. Two hours roundtrip 3.2 miles 5.1 km 250 feet 5 to 20% 5 feet Native soils with roots and rocks, portions compacted gravel with log checks Taiga Trail Provides access to Rock Creek, Mount Healy Overlook, and Roadside trails. 45 minutes one-way 0.9 miles 1.5 km 75 feet 5 to 15% 2 feet Gravel with open ditches to step across Online Guides Entrance Area Trails Day Hike Resources = http://go.usa.gov/j2XJ McKinley Station Trail From the visitor center to Riley Creek Campground and Riley Creek Mercantile (Access via the Triple Lakes Trail). One hour one-way 1.6 miles 2.6 km 100 feet 8.5% 5 feet Compacted gravel McKinley Station Trail Online tour and video = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c x4 Mount Healy Overlook Trail Take Taiga Trail for 0.5 miles, then look for Mount Healy Overlook Trail junction. Considered strenuous Two hours one-way 2.7 miles 4.3 km 1,700 feet 25% 2 feet Native soils with roots and rocks PDF = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c xk Mount Healy Overlook Trail Video = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c ad Roadside Trail Bike Path Jonesville Trail Parks Highway Bike Trail Rock Creek Trail From the visitor center via Taiga Trail to Park Headquarters and Sled Dog Kennels. One hour one-way 1.8 miles 2.9 km 350 feet From visitor center to Wilderness Access Center, campground, and Park Entrance. To access services in Nenana Canyon via Parks Highway Bike Trail, add 1.0 miles, 30 minutes. 45 minutes one-way 1.7 miles 2.7 km 150 feet From the Bike Path (near the Riley Creek Mercantile), connects to the Parks Highway Bike Trail and services in the Nenana Canyon. 10 minutes one-way 0.3 miles 0.6 km 75 feet A multi-use path that runs parallel to the George Parks High­ way from the Park Entrance to the Nenana River Bridge and hotels, restaurants, shops and businesses in Nenana Canyon beyond. 30 minutes one-way From the visitor center via Taiga Trail to Park Headquarters and Sled Dog Kennels. 15% 5% 3 feet 10 feet Compacted gravel Compacted gravel PDF = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c xP Roadside Trail Video = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c aF PDF = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c xG 10% 4 feet Compacted gravel Rock Creek Trail Video = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B cC 3 PDF = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c x z 1.0 mile 1.6 km 50 feet less than 5% 8 feet Asphalt Savage River Loop Trail Video = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B cC T 1.5 hours one-way 2.4 miles 3.8 km 400 feet 15% 2.5 feet Compacted gravel Triple Lakes Trail Video = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c aW PDF = ht tp: //go.usa.gov/ B c aC A short connector trail between Rock Creek and Roadside trails forms a 1.6 mile/2.6 km loop back to the visitor center. 1.5 hour loop 0.3 miles 0.5 km none Access trails 2.5 feet up to 15% Compacted gravel Triple Lakes Trail Access via the McKinley Station Trail, or a pullout at the north side of the Nenana River Bridge approximately Mile 231.5 of the George Parks Highway . Five hours one-way 9.5 miles 15.3 km 1,000 feet 20% 2 feet Compacted gravel, soils, rocks, roots, wood planks, suspension bridge Morino Trail Take the McKinley Station Trail for 0.4 miles to a short spur trail to historic roadhouse and homestead sites. Turn left at main trail to loop back to visitor center. 15 minutes one-way 0.2 mile 0.3 km none none 5 feet Compacted gravel Spruce Forest Trail For a short accessible loop, take the McKinley Station Trail and turn left at the first junction to return to the visitor center. 20-minute loop 0.15 miles 0.24 km none none 5 feet Compacted gravel Meadow View Trail (Connection for loop) Unless noted, all chart walking times and distances originate at a trailhead behind the Denali Visitor Center. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA TM
Denali Trails National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska McKinley Station TRAIL Welcome to McKinley Station Journey back nearly a century to a time when a raucous and vibrant community existed here, to an era of gold prospectors, trappers, hunters, and pioneer rangers. McKinley Station was typical of Alaska towns of the era, booming overnight then fading into obscurity. Construction of the Alaska Railroad provided the original stimulus for the community and the development of the new park kept it going. Park Road and Entrance Until 1932, the boundary of Mount McKinley National Park lay a few miles to the west of here. Upon its completion in 1938, the Park Road led 92 miles from the railroad depot to the Kantishna Mining District, just outside the park boundary at that time. Much of the road was cut by hand by teams of laborers, at a finished cost of around $1.3 million. Mount McKinley Park Hotel Maurice Morino’s park hotel opened for business on Thanksgiving Day 1921. For almost two decades, people from far and wide gathered at this rustic hotel. Here, dog mushers and trappers mingled with miners and rangers, school teachers and itinerants, and once, a U.S. president. Station Residents The trail here traverses an area where Maurice Morino allowed people to build cabins, trading labor for free rent. Residents included Woodbury Abbey who came to conduct the park’s first boundary survey, school teacher Louise Ann Fairburn, miner Elmer Hosler and his wife, Maud, the postmaster. Go online to learn more about Maurice Morino, Harry Karstens, pioneer scientists, early law enforcement, and a detailed history of each stop along the McKinley Station Trail: http://go.usa.gov/D58 Riley and Hines You are now standing on the south bank of Hines Creek. In the 1920s, your view would have been of a wide, treeless and rocky, flat area with two streams converging nearby. One enduring mystery is the identity of the people for whom these creeks were named. Original Park Headquarters The park’s first ranger, Harry Karstens, arrived in early summer 1921, and began the pioneering work of applying the rule of law in the new park. Karstens began clearing land for his headquarters on the northwest bank of Riley Creek, upstream from the bridge. The location offered an ideal place to monitor people using the trail leading west to the park. Railroad Trestle The steel bridge looming high above you looks much the same as it did upon its completion in early 1922, with one exception. Gone is the football-field-length wooden trestle that originally connected the steel structure to the north bluff. In the 1950s, the railroad hauled hundreds of tons of rock and earth to extend the bluff to the edge of the first concrete and steel support. Photo: Harry Karstens, his family, and a friend, Helen Livingston, await the arrival of a train at the depot. Credit: Henry P. Karstens Collection, 0297, Karstens Library The Hole Denali Visitor Center You are now standing at the northwest corner of Maurice Morino’s original roadhouse. Imagine the isolation here when Morino built his cabin in 1914: no road, no railroad, no easy overland trail, and the Nenana River unfit for navigation. The area below the bridge and at the junction of two trails was known as “the hole,” an area off limits to the local children. The illicit traits of the “Roaring 20s”—bootlegging, alcohol manufacturing, gambling, violence, and prostitution—were centered here. Alaska Road Commission HQ Depot Schoolhouse Arch First Roadhouse Silver Fox Ranch Until the 1920s, fox farming was a burgeoning industry. The cold, long winters here offered near ideal conditions for breeding foxes with luxurious fur. Silver foxes, an almost black color phase of red fox, were especially valuable and in high demand both in the U.S. and abroad. This is the former site of Duke and Elizabeth Stubbs’ Mount McKinley Silver Fox Ranch, a business that sold furs both to tourists and fur buyers, and supplied breeding pairs of foxes to fur farms across Alaska. Riley Hines Credit: H.G. Kaiser, Alaska Railroad Collection; Anchorage Museum, AEC.G1444. Railroad Construction Camp Please stay on established trails. Do not disturb historic artifacts. The community gathers for a summer party in 1926. Henry P. Karstens Collection, 0636, Karstens Library. Morino’s second business concern, the Mount McKinley Park Hotel, hosted a visit by President Warren Harding and a 65-person Congressional delega­ tion in July 1923. Henry P. Karstens Collection, 1486, Karstens Library. Denali Trails | McKinley Station Trail Moderate 1.6 miles/2.6 km, 1 hr one way Please stay on trails. Creek Creek End of an Era On March 19, 1932, President Herbert Hoover signed an act expanding the park, moving the eastern boundary to the “natural boundary” of the Nenana River. The move placed the entire community within park boundaries. Conservationists hailed the extension a
Denali Trails National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska Mount Healy Overlook TRAIL Wild CHALLENGE Hiking the Mount Healy Overlook Trail can involve both mental and physical challenges, but the rewards are worth it. Take time to reflect as you climb this steep trail. The challenges can be compared to those experienced in the park’s creation and management. What does this language mean to you, and how would you uphold it? “…to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.”— The National Park Service Organic Act, 1916 As you enjoy the initial meanderings along this trail today, and cross a creek on a wooden bridge, imagine this setting in the park’s infancy. Funding AN IDEA The FIRST JOB What are the immediate challenges to providing for the protection and preservation of this place? Congratulations, you are the first superintendent. How will you establish this park? When the former Mount McKinley National Park was founded by Congress in 1917, no funds were provided to establish it, much less attend to its operation. As construction of the Alaska Railroad approached the park’s unenforced boundaries, pressure increased from early advocates to stave off indiscriminate slaughter of wild game populations here. In March 1921, the park received $8,000 to hire a superintendent to institute and enforce regulations. You may notice a stretch of trail that widens, flattens, and curves broadly before it narrows and turns uphill. Here you are walking what remains of a service road from early park days. In 1921, Harry Karstens became superintendent. His job was to mark and patrol park boundaries, to foster a community presence, and to eliminate poaching. He earned $10 a year. There were no amenities. Supplies and comforts were freighted in, or created locally. Watch for a set of log benches in a dense thicket of alder. Here you are standing in what remains of a recreational ski area created for soldiers during World War II. Mt. Hea ly O ver loo k Park Road Taiga Trail Tra il y hwa s Hig Park rge Geo MURIE SCIENCE AND LEARNING CENTER DENALI VISITOR CENTER Taiga Trail Rock Creek Trail RAILROAD DEPOT CLOSING the Park How do you continue the park mission with the park closed to the public? In 1942, the War Department declared Alaska off-limits to tourist travel. The park operated with minimal staff and budget, and became a destination for rest and relaxation trips. Soldiers used the newly built Yanert Lakes Trail (now Triple Lakes), the Horseshoe Lake Trail, as well as a ski tow here on the shoulder of Mount Healy. Denali National Park and Preserve Abruptly, the character of the trail shifts to a series of steep switchbacks. As you catch your breath, consider the challenges of maintaining a difficult balance between conserving park resources, and providing access and appropriate services for more than 400,000 visitors each year. kW l na io at ss ne er ild Par N Wild RIDE A Way of LIFE How does the character of a road affect the wilderness experience? How would you allow for subsistence use on new park lands? In the early 1960s, a nationwide initiative provided funds to improve park facilities and visitor experience. Here, plans were made to widen and pave the full length of the Park Road to allow for modern travel. Park biologist Adolph Murie spoke up. Murie by this time had published landmark research on wolves and their prey that revolutionized wildlife management across the National Park System. He argued that a completely paved road here would negatively affect the wilderness character of the park, and diminish a more deliberate, immersive experience that traveling a narrower unpaved road commands. His view prevailed, and held further sway in 1972, when access to vehicle traffic on the Park Road was restricted beyond the Savage River at Mile 15. As you climb above treeline, take advantage of your widening perspective to note where people have left their mark on this vast landscape. Imagine how things might have looked in earlier times, and how they might change further, farther into the future. In 1980, with the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, the name of the park changed, its original area of roughly two million acres became legally designated Wilderness, and its boundaries expanded to include another four million acres of new park and preserve lands. With ANILCA, Congress formally recognized the social and cultural importance of ongoing subsistence use of these new park and preserve lands by Native and rural residents. (Hunting remains prohibited in the park’s core Wilderness area.) While much of the guidance within ANILCA has functioned well here for more than 30 years, some contentious issues remain related to spec
Denali Trails National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska Roadside TRAIL An Environment of Extremes The boreal forest of Denali is a subarctic ecosystem consisting of a patchwork of coniferous and deciduous tree stands interspersed with lakes, wetlands, and tundra. Boreal forests support relatively few plant species, mainly white and black spruce and a small number of deciduous trees and shrubs. Boreal forests in Denali are underlain by discontinuous permafrost, inorganic soils that are frozen for all or most of the year. Summers are short, wet, and moderately warm, while winters are long, extremely cold, and dry. Explore the boreal forest and discover the strategies that plants use to survive the extremes of the subarctic environment. LONG DAY Short Summer When the tilt of the Earth’s axis orients the northern hemisphere toward the sun, days are long, with almost 24 hours of daylight peaking in mid-June. White Spruce Picea glauca Evergreen Leafs: 1-2.5 cm long, 4 sided. Bark: Loose ashy brown scales. Average Height: 20-65 ft (7-20 m). Fast and Expensive Deciduous trees and shrubs, like aspen, birch and willow, put their energy into producing new leaves annually. Their large leaves photosynthesize throughout the long daylight hours, fueling rapid growth. Aspen also produce chlorophyll in their bark, allowing the tree to begin photosynthesizing before leaves have emerged. Slow and Frugal Conifers such as black and white spruce put their energy into producing needles that will stay on the tree for multiple seasons. This requires a larger investment upfront and slows overall growth, but allows the tree to photosynthesize whenever temperatures allow. Alaska Paper Birch Betula papyrifera neoalaskana Deciduous Leafs: Egg to diamond shaped, sharp pointed, edges finely double-toothed. 4 -8.5 cm long. Bark: White to yellowish copper brown, peels in papery strips. Average Height: Up to 49 ft (50 m). Photosynthesis Almost all life on Earth depends on food produced by organisms that photosynthesize. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harness the sun’s energy to create carbohydrates that fuel growth. The green pigment, chlorophyll, visible in leaves and in the bark of aspen, absorbs the energy from sunlight. This triggers the chemical reaction that produces sugars and starches used by the plant to grow. Oxygen is released into the atmosphere as a by-product of this reaction. SHORT DAY Long Winter When the northern hemisphere noticeably tilts away from the sun days are short. The sun barely crests the horizon, and winter temperatures can stay well below zero for sustained periods. Warm Above, Cold Below Along the trail, you will find open boggy areas with a few, spindly trees. This could be evidence of permafrost, which prevents rain and runoff from penetrating into the soil. During the summer an insulating layer of moss keeps the permafrost cool. Cold Above, Warm Below Low-growing herbaceous plants, such as low-bush cranberries, lingonberries and crowberries, benefit from being covered by snow in the wintertime. While the temperature above the snow can be -40° F, the temperature beneath the snow can be much warmer, even close to the freezing point at 32° F, because the layer of snow acts like an insulating blanket. Cold Hardening Trees of the boreal forest undergo a unique change in order to survive winter. In the fall, a series of chemical signals, triggered by shortening day lengths, stops the growth process. At this time, water inside the cells is transported outside of the cells, leaving behind a sticky fluid of concentrated carbohydrates that has a lower freezing temperature than water. This “hardening” process allows plants to tolerate cold temperatures without their cells rupturing due to the water inside expanding when it freezes. Quaking Aspen Heavy Load Spruce trees are structurally different from deciduous trees. Spruce branches grow downward instead of upward like deciduous trees. Snow pushes spruce branches down until the snow sloughs off, allowing the branches to spring up to their former position. An entire hillside on the trail features bent-over aspen and birch, reminders of a snowstorm in September 1993. Still with leaves, the trees caught the falling snow, which accumulated until they bent over due to the weight. Populus tremuloides Deciduous Leafs: Edges are finely round-toothed. Leaf stalks flattened. 3 – 7.5 cm long. Bark: Greenish white, becomes blackish and roughened on lower trunk and near base of branches. Average Height: Up to 65 ft (20 m). Denali Trails | Roadside Trail Moderately strenuous 1.8 miles/2.9 km, 1 hr one way Please stay on trails. Black Spuce Picea mariana Evergreen Leafs: Short. 1-2 cm long, 4 sided Bark: Scaly, dark brown to reddish. Average Height: 20 – 30 ft (7- 10 m). This trail guide was produced in partnership by the National Park Service and the Alaska Geographic Association. NPS Photo/Tim
Denali Trails National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska Rock Creek TRAIL An Environment of Competition The boreal forest of Denali is a subarctic ecosystem consisting of a patchwork of coniferous and deciduous trees stands interspersed with lakes, wetlands, and tundra. Boreal forests support relatively few plant species, mainly white and black spruce and a small number of deciduous trees and shrubs. Boreal forests in Denali are underlain by discontinuous permafrost, inorganic soils that are frozen for all or most of the year. Explore the boreal forest and discover the competitive strategies that plants use to survive the short subarctic summer. walk along the trail, pay attention to the OPEN Asforestyoucanopy—the layer of forest formed by Closed the tops of trees. Note if the canopy is open, where sunlight streams through to hit the forest floor; or closed, where the branches of the trees block the sunlight casting the forest floor into shadow. The presence or absence of sunlight determines what trees and plants can survive. Fire Fire in the boreal forest plays an integral role in the reproduction of black spruce. The tree needs fire to open its cones. The seeds then fall to the forest floor. A wildfire occurred in this area in 1924, and many of the black spruce today are attributed to that event. FAST Compared to evergreen needles, the leaves of deciduous plants have a large surface area to gather energy from the sun. This creates an advantage of speed for growth during the warm, sun-rich summer months or when a hole develops in the forest canopy. However, the autumn light triggers these leaves to fall to the forest floor where they are broken down by insects and bacteria and their nutrients recycled into soil for the next growing season. The advantage then goes to the evergreen trees, which continue photosynthesizing when temps allow. Slow Black Spuce Picea mariana Evergreen Leafs: Short. 1-2 cm long, 4 sided Bark: Scaly, dark brown to reddish. Average Height: 20 -30 ft (7- 10 m). Alder Alnus glutinosa Deciduous Leafs: Oval to broad. Finely double toothed. 4-8 cm long. Bark: Smooth reddish brown. Average Height: 3.2 - 10 ft (1-3 m). distinctive classes of organisms YOURS Two have adapted to low-light conditions in Mine the boreal forest understory by obtaining their energy without directly harvesting it from the sun—parasitic plants and saprophytic fungi. For example, unlike green plants that photosynthesize groundcones obtain most of their nutrients from the roots of living alder shrubs. of the plants in the boreal DEFENSE Many forest produce alleleochemicals, Offense toxins that adversely affect potential browsers. Willow produces a chemical that snowshoe hare cannot process, aspen leaves produce a chemical that deters porcupines, and spruce bark and needles contain terpene, which is difficult for most wildlife to digest. DISPERSAL Plants use a large amount of energy to reproduce. An effective seed dispersal agent can provide that extra advantage to survival. Plants such as fireweed use wind to carry their seeds, while other plants produce edible berries. Blueberries, crowberries, soapberries and low-bush cranberries mature when wildlife like bears are fattening up for winter and when birds are migrating south. For these plants, this means widespread dispersal combined with a nutrient-rich scat that will fertilize the seed as it grows. Crowberry Empetrum nigrum Leafs: Needle-like, 3-8mm long. Bark: Juicy berry-like drupes, edible. Average Height: Up to 15cm tall. Witches Broom Spruce broom rust, a fungus, alternates between two hosts to complete its life cycle beginning on the leaves of common bearberry. Once the spores of the rust are released, they infect developing spruce needles. A hormonal response to the parasite causes the formation of witch’s broom, a dense mass of shoots with discolored needles growing from a single point in the branches of the spruce. Occasionally witch’s broom causes reduced growth or top-kill. Denali Trails | Rock Creek Trail Moderately strenuous 2.4 miles/3.8 km, 2 hrs one way Please stay on trails. Bebb Willow Salix bebbiana Deciduous Leafs: Elliptic to narrowly egg shaped. Smooth edged. 2-5 cm long. Bark: Dull grayish to reddish brown. Average Height: Up to 32 ft (10 m). This trail guide was produced in partnership by the National Park Service and the Alaska Geographic Association. NPS Photo/Tim Rains
Denali Trails National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska Triple Lakes TRAIL The Value of WILDERNESS Denali’s six million acres includes North America’s highest mountain, an international biosphere reserve, and two million acres of legally designated Wilderness. In 1964, the Wilderness Act created a national preservation system with the idea that we could preserve this natural state of wildness and create a place where humans have no lasting impression. A few steps into the trail and you enter the legally designated Wilderness of Denali. As you hike, contemplate the different ways to value wilderness and find what this special place means to you. Wild LANDS Wildlands offer an opportunity for Alaska Natives to continue their subsistence way of life, central to their heritage for many millenia. For others it provides an opportunity to experience the unaltered landscape of a wilderness and imagine what it was like to come into the country during the pioneering days of Alaska. Today, wildlands offer a chance to test our spirit and define who we are. By hiking a trail in bear country, rafting a river or climbing Mount McKinley, we discover what we are capable of—our strengths and our weaknesses. We can be forever changed by our experiences and revelations. Wild RESOURCES We have long valued wild resources for possible economic gain, such as the value of a tree made into lumber or a wolf pelt made into a winter parka. Aspirin was first discovered in willow before being synthesized in a laboratory. Maintaining a diversity of plant life in wild places preserves opportunities to prospect for new natural compounds. Ecologically sensitive tourism provides a strong economic incentive to preserve wild places intact to be enjoyed for generations with minimal disruption to the landscape and its inhabitants. Aesthetic Value Geology The appealing views along the trail are due in part to the Nenana Glacier that flowed through the Triple Lakes Valley, 9 to 25 million years ago, sculpting these deep, wide, u-shaped valleys. The glacier left behind exceptionally large boulders, including the two that stand out on a distant hill west of the trail, visible from various points along the ridge. Wild SCIENCE Rock Creek Trail Whether viewing the drama of the Alaska Range, the rich volcanic colors of exposed rock at Polychrome or listening to the lofty trill of the white-crowned sparrow, often we are drawn to the natural aesthetic qualities of wildlands and continue to surround ourselves with these pleasing patterns of nature. For some, wildlands are an escape from a bustling world and take advantage of the therapeutic qualities that wilderness can offer, like quiet and solitude. There is an enriched quality to this wilderness that draws people here to find that spiritual connection to natural space. Denali’s wilderness is a setting that can provide solitude, space, and time for reflection. It is a place to immerse oneself in a landscape of extremes that remains as wild as our primitive roots. Railroad Depot McKinley Station Trail Roadside Trail Nenana River ail s Tr ake le L Trip Wild SPIRIT Denali Visitor Center k Riley Cree Intact ecosystems are becoming rare on the planet. Wild places like Denali provide the opportunity to study natural functions, such as the ebb of glaciers, the influence of fire on the landscape, and the migration patterns of caribou. Such scientific studies can provide a baseline from which we can look at disturbed ecosystems and better understand how we interact with the land and its inhabitants. In their ecological function, wildlands make life on Earth possible: plant photosynthesis produces oxygen; water pools underground to create chemical-free aquifers for our water sources; undisturbed permafrost prevents vegetation from decaying and releasing carbon into the atmosphere. The continuation of life on Earth requires countless natural cycles to remain intact. Park Road Ge org eP ark sH igh wa y MP 230 McKinley Village Recreational Value World War II During World War II, the U.S. War Department found value in taking advantage of the recreational opportunities the park provided. From 1942-1953, some of the first hikers on this trail (then called the Yanert Lakes Trail) were servicemen on a weeklong rest and relaxation trip in the park after a tour in Alaska. Spiritual Value White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophyrs Triple Lakes Trail Strenuous 9.3 miles/14.9 km, 5 hrs one way Please stay on trails. Athabascan Balance Athabascans believe that natural entities are endowed with spirits that affect human behavior. They follow a set of guidelines out of respect for these spirits and value these lands as an opportunity to find that spiritual balance. For example, the gray jay is associated with cold weather. Because they nest in early spring, children are warned away from gray jay nests as disturbing them will bring on another bout of fr
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Denali National Park and Preserve Backcountry Camping Guide Michael Larson Photo Getting a Permit Getting Started This brochure contains information vital to the success of your backcountry trip in Denali National Park and Preserve. The following paragraphs will outline the Denali backcountry permit system, the steps required to obtain your permit, and some important tips for a safe and memorable wilderness experience. Denali’s Trailless Wilderness Traveling and camping in this expansive terrain is special. The lack of developed trails, bridges, or campsites means that you are free to determine your own route and discover Denali for yourself. How­ ever, with this freedom comes responsibility – responsibility for your­ self and for the wilderness. Self-reliance is paramount. You must be prepared to travel cross-country through remote terrain in harsh weather, and rescue yourself in the event of problems. It is also your responsibility to help protect the special resources and opportuni­ ties that are present at Denali by carefully following the principles of Leave No Trace so that your travels do not diminish the experience of those who follow you. Backcountry Unit System The 6 million acres of Denali National Park and Preserve is divided into 87 separate backcountry units (see map on reverse side). Fortytwo units within the Denali Wilderness have a limit on the number of individual people that can camp in each unit per night. During peak summer visitation many of these units are heavily used, so please come to the Backcountry Information Center with several alternative trip itineraries. Don’t become discouraged if your first choice is not available. Remember, there are 6 million acres to choose from, and all of the units offer excellent wilderness trips! Pay attention to the following requirements when planning a trek through Denali’s backcountry: Leave No Trace and Safety Permits are available at the Backcountry Information Center (BIC) located adjacent to the Wilderness Access Center (WAC). Allow approximately one hour for the permit process, which consists of five basic steps: Step 1: Plan Your Itinerary recognition that you understand all backcountry rules and regu­ lations. Violations of the conditions of the permit may result in adverse impacts to park resources and legal consequences. Visit www.nps.gov/dena/planyourvisit/backcountry, and use this guide, maps, as well as other available references to pre­ plan several alternative itineraries prior to your arrival in the park. Building flexibility into your plans is very important because certain units may be unavailable at the time you wish to obtain your permit. Remember to be conservative when predicting your daily mileage. There are no trails, and travel can be slow and difficult in brushy areas or when fording glacier rivers. Upon your arrival at the Backcountry Information Center, several additional resources such as unit description guides, local maps, and knowledgeable staff will be available to assist you in planning your trip. Step 2: Watch Backcountry Video This informative 30-minute video is presented at the BIC and before and after BIC hours at the WAC and answers many ques­ tions you might have about negotiating the Denali backcountry. It covers topics such as campsite selection, bear and wildlife encounters, river crossings, Leave No Trace principles, Bear Resistant Food Containers (BRFCs), and much more. All mem­ bers of your party must view this program. Step 3: Attend Safety Talk Following the video, all party members must be present for a brief safety talk to receive the backcountry permit and BRFC required for proper food storage. You must sign your permit in • Forty-two backcountry units within the Denali Wilderness have a specific quota. • Unit availability determines where you may camp each night and you must camp in the unit for which you have a permit. • Maximum 7 consecutive nights in a single unit. • Maximum 30 nights in the backcountry (various units). • Permits are issued only in person (no telephone reserva­ tions), and no more than 24 hours in advance of the first day of your trip. • Gravel River Bars: these flat, rocky surfaces characterize most major rivers in the park and provide good travel routes. • All party members must be present to receive a permit. • • Permits are not required for day hiking in the backcountry. Wet Tundra: this terrain is marshy and interspersed with hummocks. Travel can be slow and tiring. • Dry Tundra: dry tundra generally exists at higher elevations and affords good, solid footing and limited brush. • Brushy Tundra: typically occurs in bands or thickets between 2500-3500 ft, and often limits visibility and travel speed. • Glacial Moraine: located at the base of glaciers and often denoted on maps by stippled areas, a moraine consists of ice covered with dirt and debris. Travel is rough and timeconsu
Denali with Kids Family Fun Travel Guide Denali National Park and Preserve Denali with Kids Credits Family Fun Travel Guide Author: Kris Capps Denali National Park and Preserve Editors: Jill Bruebaker, Ellen Grover and Sierra Mclane Layout and Design: Ellen Grover and Debbie Whitecar Inspiration and Oversight: Christie Denzel Anastasia, Kristen Friesen, Philip Hooge, Shelli Huls, Sierra McLane, Ingrid Nixon and Lisa Oakley Many thanks to the families who provided photographs, quotes, and inspiration for sharing Denali with others. May children everywhere get to experience special outdoor places. Front Cover: Family Photo This guide was produced by the National Park Service and Alaska Geographic working in partnership though the Murie Science and Learning Center. NPS Photo Produced in 2015 Contents How To Use This Book 6 Entrance Area, Trails, and Park Road 8 Planning Your Trip 12 Before You Go 12 Frequently Asked Questions 14 Parent Information 16 Experience Denali: Information 19 Experience Denali: Camping 23 Backcountry Camping 25 Leave No Trace 27 Experience Denali: Hiking 29 Hiking Checklist 29 Bear Safety 31 Experience Denali: Biking 33 Biking Checklist 33 Experience Denali: By Bus 35 Bus Checklist 35 Which Bus? 36 Bus Etiquette 37 Car Seat 38 4 Family Fun in the Entrance Area 41 Denali Visitor Center 41 Murie Science and Learning Center 44 Denali Sled Dog Kennel 46 Camping in the Entrance Area 48 Hiking in the Entrance Area 50 Biking in the Entrance Area 56 Family Fun in the Savage River Area 58 Camping in the Savage River Area 58 Hiking in the Savage River Area 60 Biking in the Savage River Area 62 Family Fun Beyond Mile 15 65 Camping Beyond Mile 15 65 Hiking Beyond Mile 15 66 Biking Beyond Mile 15 68 Family Fun at Eielson 71 Eielson Visitor Center 71 Hiking at Eielson 72 Family Fun at Wonder Lake 75 Camping at Wonder Lake 75 Extending your Visit 79 Visit Talkeetna 81 Staying Connected 82 How To Use This Book There are also Parent Information sections featured throughout the guide, offering tips on everything from bathroom breaks to food and picnic areas. Explore the resources listed in the Extending Your Visit and Staying Connected sections at the back of the book where you’ll find ideas to keep your Denali adventure alive after you arrive home. Whether you’ve already reached the park or you’re dreaming about a trip, we’ve compiled some important tips to consider as you prepare to explore Denali with your kids. The first two sections of the book focus on trip planning and should be read before you arrive. • • Planning Your Trip answers many of the most frequently asked questions and offers important parental details to consider before you arrive. Experience Denali presents a good overview of the park and what to expect if you plan to camp, hike, bike or ride the bus while you are here. The second part of the book leads you to the Family Fun you can have in Denali. This is where you’ll learn where to camp, the best trails for hiking or biking, and what to see and do in each area of the park. The section is divided into five areas, moving further into the park as you go: the Entrance Area, Savage River, Beyond Mile 15, Eielson, and Wonder Lake. We want you to travel smart and have fun. To enhance your experience, take this book along with you so you won’t forget to talk about the special call-out features. Science facts so you can learn all about the park. Fun facts that kids will love. Specially written with kids in mind. Hint Important tips for adults traveling with kids. 6 NPS Photo / Nathan Kostegian Entrance Area, Trails, and Park Road 8 9 D enali National Park and Preserve is a vast wilderness in the Alaskan Interior. Here, visitors are encouraged to forge their own paths through wilderness and to make their own discoveries. The only thing more exciting than seeing a grizzly bear or moose in the wild is being there when your child experiences that special moment. Whether your child is five or twelve, the memories made here will linger forever. Spending time in the wilderness is an experience that can shape the life of a child and a family. Today’s children spend more time in front of televisions and computer screens than in their backyards. In a groundbreaking book called Last Child in the Woods, author Richard Louv describes how our children are less connected to the natural world than at any other time in history. The implications of this, particularly for their physical and mental health, are immense. Exposure to nature is essential to healthy childhood development. the chance to unplug and explore a vast wilderness offering endless opportunities. Denali with Kids is intended for anyone responsible for planning activities in and around Denali fo

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