"Twisted Rock under a summer sky." by NPS/Michael Thomas , public domain

Dinosaur

National Monument - CO, UT

Dinosaur National Monument is located on the southeast flank of the Uinta Mountains on the border between Colorado and Utah at the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers.

maps

Official visitor map of Dinosaur National Monument (NM) in Colorado and Utah. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Dinosaur - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Dinosaur National Monument (NM) in Colorado and Utah. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/dino/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur_National_Monument Dinosaur National Monument is located on the southeast flank of the Uinta Mountains on the border between Colorado and Utah at the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers. Dinosaurs once roamed here. Their fantastic remains are still visibly embedded in the rocks. Today, the mountains, desert, and untamed rivers flowing in deep canyons support an array of life. Petroglyphs hint at earlier cultures. Later, homesteaders and outlaws found refuge here. Whether your passion is science, adventure, history or scenery, Dinosaur offers much to explore. Dinosaur National Monument is located on the Colorado and Utah border with a parts of the monument in both states. Dinosaur fossils are not visible in the Colorado portion of the monument - only on the Utah side. The Quarry Visitor Center and Exhibit Hall (where you see the dinosaur fossils) are located approximately 7 miles north of Jensen, Utah. Canyon Visitor Center Located near Dinosaur, Colorado, at the base of the Harpers Corner Road, the Canyon Visitor Center is the gateway to the monument's mountains and river canyons. Exhibits orient visitors to the monument's facilities. An Intermountain Natural History Association bookstore sells items that will further enhance your experience. Staff are available to answer questions and a park film is shown throughout the day. Restrooms and water are available seasonally. Dinosaur fossils are not found in this area. Located on US Hwy 40, two miles east of Dinosaur, CO. Quarry Exhibit Hall The Quarry Exhibit Hall is where you can see a wall of approximately 1,500 dinosaur bones. This includes the remains of numerous species including Allosaurus, Apatosaurus, Camarasaurus, Diplodicus, and Stegosaurus. Exhibits, including an 80-foot long mural, reveal the story of these animals and many others that lived in the Morrison environment during the late Jurassic. Quarry Visitor Center Located 7 miles north of Jensen, Utah off Highway 149, the Quarry Visitor Center is the gateway to the Quarry Exhibit Hall and the wall of dinosaur bones. Exhibits at the visitor center introduce the variety of resources and places to explore within the monument. This facility features a staffed information desk, a sales area for the Intermountain Natural History Association and a theater with a twelve-minute park film. During the summer, shuttle buses depart from here for the Quarry Exhibit Hall. From US Highway 40 in Jensen, Utah, take Utah State Highway 149 7 miles north into the monument. The turn to the visitor center parking lot is just past the entrance station. Deerlodge Park Campground Deerlodge Park Campground is located 53 miles east of the Canyon Visitor Center. It is located on the Yampa River at the boat ramp at the head of Yampa Canyon. It has seven shady sites suitable for tents. The sites have tables and fire pits. There is drinking water and vault toilets available seasonally, but no showers. Deerlodge Park Campground is open year-round, but winter access can be very difficult due to snow. When the Yampa River exceeds 18,000 cfs, the campground will flood. Summer Fee when water is available 10.00 Summer fee Campground Off Season fee when water is not available 6.00 Campground Off Season fee when water is not available Deerlodge Park Campground Sign with Walk In Campsites in front of grassy field surrounded by tall trees Entrance to walk in campsites at Deerlodge Park Campground Campsite at Deerlodge Park Campground A dirt path leads to a campsite with picnic table underneath tall trees. A shaded campsite at the Deerlodge Park Campground Echo Park Campground Situated along the Green River at the base of towering cliffs, the Echo Park Campground provides a unique camping experience in Dinosaur National Monument. Steamboat Rock dominates the view. Fremont petroglyphs are located on the canyon walls. Bighorn sheep and mule deer frequently roam through the campground. Unimproved hiking trails lead to the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers or to Mitten Park. The campground is located 38 miles north of the Canyon Visitor Center. Summer Camping Fee 10.00 Summer fee when water is available. Winter Camping Fee 6.00 Camping Fee when water is not available Group Site 15.00 One reservable group site is located at Echo Park Campground. Reservations can be made at Recreation.gov. Echo Park Campground A blue tent sits in an open field with a pinnacle of rock in the background Campsites in Echo Park provide views of the surrounding scenery. Gates of Lodore Campground Gates of Lodore Campground is located on the Green River at the boat ramp at the head of Lodore Canyon. The campground is 106 miles north of the Canyon Visitor Center. The campground is popular with river rafters who often stay here before launching on the Green River. There are 19 sites, some with shade. The sites have tables and fire pits. During the summer, there is running water and vault toilets, but no showers. The campsites can accommodate tents and RVs (but there are no hook-ups). Standard Campground Fee - Peak Season 10.00 This is the fee collected when water is available in the campground. Campground Fee for Senior and Access Pass Holders - Peak Season 5.00 Campground fee for holders of a valid Senior or Access Pass Campground Fee - Low Use Season 6.00 This is the standard fee during the off season when water is not available. Campground Fee for Senior and Access Pass Holders - Low Use Season 3.00 Campground fee when water is not available for holders of valid Senior and Access Passes Gates of Lodore on the Green River River flowing towards mountains The Green River flows towards the entrance to the Canyon of the Lodore which is a short distance down the river from the Gates of Lodore Campground Gates of Lodore Campground Campsite 19 campsite with picnic table and tree Campsite 19 in the Gates of Lodore Campground Gates of Lodore Campground - Campsite 5 Picnic table and tree in campsite Campsite 5 in the Gates of Lodore Campground Gates of Lodore Campground Map Map showing the Gates of Lodore Campround Gates of Lodore Campground Map Green River Campground The Green River Campground is located along the banks of the Green River in a grove of cottonwood trees at an elevation of 4795 feet. The highly eroded Split Mountain towers to the north of the campground. The famous dinosaur quarry, where you can see 150 million year old dinosaur bones still encased in the rock is approximately five miles from the campground. Also nearby is the Split Mountain Boat Ramp where river rafters come off the Green River after trips through Dinosaur National Monument's canyons. Campsite Fee 18.00 Fee per site, per night. A maximum of 8 people are allowed in each site. Campsite Fee - Senior or Access Pass Holder 9.00 Senior or Access Pass Holders qualify for a 50% discount off of the regular campsite fee Fall in the Green River Campground Trees with yellow leaves stand above campsites with a rocky mountain in the background. Fall brings a hint of color to the cottonwood trees in the Green River Campground Visitor in Green River Campground A woman sitting in a chair in front of a tent The Green River Campground provides views of Split Mountain. Enjoying Peace in Green River Campground A woman reads a book in a chair in front of a yellow tent Situated in a cottonwood grove, many sites provide shady respites in the Green River Campground. Green River Campground Map map showing the layout of campsites in the campground A map showing the layout of the Green River Campground Rainbow Park Campground Rainbow Park Campground is 28 miles from the Quarry Visitor Center in the Utah portion of the monument. It is located on a dirt road that is impassable when wet. The campground is located on the Green River near the Rainbow Park Boat Ramp at the head of Split Mountain Canyon. Rainbow Park Campground is open year-round, but there is no winter maintenance on the unpaved road. Rainbow Park Camping Fee 6.00 Year round camping fee for Rainbow Park Campground Rainbow Park Campsite Picnic table and tent at a campsite with a river in the background. Campsite at Rainbow Park Campground Split Mountain Group Campground The Split Mountain Group Campground is located along the banks of the Green River at an elevation of 4800 feet near the foot of Split Mountain. The campground is five miles from the dinosaur quarry, where you can see 150 million year old dinosaur bones still encased in the rock. Beside the campground is the Split Mountain Boat Ramp where rafters and boaters come off the Green River. During the off season, when the Green River Campground is closed, the Split Mountain Campground is open to all campers. Group Site Fee - Main Season 40.00 Fee per site, per night for Split Mountain Group Campground. No discount for Senior or Access Passes. Split Mountain Camping Fee - Off-season 6.00 Camping fee during the winter when water is not available and the Green River Campground is closed View of the Split Mountain Group Campground view of a campground along a river Located along the Green River at the foot of Split Mountain, the Split Mountain Group Campground provides a stunning setting for camping. Split Mountain Campground Map Map showing the layout of the Split Mountain Campground and area features. Map for the Split Mountain Campground Camarasaurus Skull the fossilized skull of camarasaurus dinosaur Over 1500 fossilized bones of various dinosaurs are still embedded in the cliff face including a skull and several neck vertebrae of a camarasaurus Camarasaurus Hump Specimen Large bones resembling legs, ribs and the vertebrae of a neck embed grayish brown rock. Fossils from a camarasaurus dinosaur display the well articulated specimens still found in the rock in the Quarry Exhibit Hall. Steamboat Rock and the Green River in Echo Park the rocky pinnacle of Steamboat Rock rises over the Green River Steamboat Rock rises above the Green River in Echo Park McKee Springs Petroglyphs Fremont rock art at McKee Springs The Fremont people left petroglyphs on many of the rock cliffs within Dinosaur National Monument including those at McKee Springs Mitten Park from Harpers Corner view of a river flowing through a deep canyon Hikers arriving at the end of the Harpers Corner Trail are rewarded with a view of the Mitten Park Fault, Green River and the Yampa River Canyons Night Sky over Tent the star filled sky above a tent Dinosaur's dark skies provides dramatic views of the Milky Way Galaxy Rocky Mountain Bighorns A bighorn sheep lamb stands in front of a bighorn ewe. Visitors to Dinosaur may also see its diversity of wildlife including Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. Floating Rapids A green rubber raft floats over a rapid on a brown colored river in front of multi-colored mountains Rapids like those in Split Mountain Canyon challenge and thrill rafters on the Green River. National Park Service Visitor and Resource Protection Staff Focuses on Week of Leadership Staff from all levels of the National Park Service in law enforcement, United States Park Police, as well as fire and aviation spent a week learning leadership lessons from one another as well as from a diverse group of leaders during the last week of September 2019. A group of women and men on a rocky outcrop in high desert. Desert Varnish Ever wondered what those dark lines were on the rock walls of canyon country? These black, brown, and red streaks are called desert varnish. streaks of black desert varnish on a red rock wall Interagency Cooperation is Key to Wildland Fire Response in Northern Colorado and Utah Aerial photo of the DINO HQ Fire Aerial photo of the DINO HQ Fire Landbird Monitoring in Northern Colorado Plateau Network Parks, 2018 Because birds can be sensitive to habitat change, they are good indicators of ecosystem integrity. The Northern Colorado Plateau Network partners with the University of Delaware to assess breeding-bird species trends in three different habitats: low-elevation riparian, pinyon-juniper, and sage shrubland. Find out which species were increasing and declining at network parks as of 2018. Small, bright-orange bird with yellowish underfeathers. Predicting Vegetation and Topographic Change in Response to Altered River Flows on the Northern Colorado Plateau Lots of things can impact the quality of your raft trip. Weather. Water levels. Packing the right (or wrong) gear. But would you expect plants to play a role? Riparian plants influence the shape and character of rivers—and river flow helps determine what grows where. This model can help river managers predict the downstream effects of shifts in flow, and respond accordingly. The model was tested in Dinosaur National Monument. A person stands near four rafts pulled up onshore near a river camp. Traits, Tradeoffs, and Pivot Points: How Climate, Plant, and Soil Properties Affect Vegetation Growth on the Northern Colorado Plateau As the northern Colorado Plateau heads into a hotter, drier future, there will be ecological winners and losers. Figuring out how different vegetation communities will fare is tricky. A recent study aimed to identify which vegetation communities might come out ahead, which might lag behind, and what might make the difference. Desert grassland in red rock setting. Pink wildflowers grow in foreground as storm brews in the sky. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. fossils in quarry wall 2002 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Recipients of the 2002 NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Northern Colorado Plateau Park Waters Pesticides, antibiotics, and personal care products are all being found in streams and rivers. But would you expect to find them in a national park? On the northern Colorado Plateau, scientists found that even in isolated areas, these "contaminants of emerging concern" are not uncommon. Find out what we found where--and how you can help. Ripples in cave water Geoscientists-in-the-Parks: Quarry Mapping interns Read about the work Thea Kinyon Boodhoo (GIP), Elliott Smith (GIP), Marie Jimenez (Mosaics in Science intern), and Trinity Stirling (GIP) did at Dinosaur National Monument, Utah as GIPs in 2015. 4 interns on large quarry wall in visitor center Preventative Conservation of an 'Allosaurus' skull from Dinosaur National Monument Collaboration between professional paleontology staff in two national parks helped with restoration of an important dinosaur specimen. The skull of 'Allosaurus fragilis' from Dinosaur National Monument, Utah, was recently sent to Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, for professional conservation by the curatorial staff. two people working on a fossil Park Paleontologist Retires After 38 years serving as the paleontologist at Dinosaur National Monument, Dan Chure retires from the National Park Service in 2017. Dan is recognized for his many contributions to the paleontology at Dinosaur National Monument and for the National Park Service. Dan will continue to conduct research and publish during his retirement. dan chure giving a presentation Dinosaur National Monument unites CSU’s ‘range’ of expertise In addition to its wealth of namesake fossils, Dinosaur National Monument also contains more than 200,000 acres of rangeland ecosystems that surround canyons carved by the Yampa and Green Rivers. The NPS/CSU partnership involves a team of CSU alumni, faculty, researchers and students evaluating Dinosaur National Monument’s rangeland health to create a snapshot of current land conditions. Pronghorn antelope in a field of sagebrush Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits What We’re Learning and Why it Matters: Long-Term Monitoring on the Northern Colorado Plateau Knowing which key natural resources are found in the national parks, and whether they're stable or changing, helps decisionmakers make sound choices. The Northern Colorado Plateau Network is building that knowledge. After more than ten years of monitoring, we've learned a lot about park ecosystems, how they're changing, and what they may look like in the days to come. Find out what we’ve learned and how it’s being used to help managers plan for the future. Man stands in a stream, looking down at a handheld gauge. Landbird Population Trends in the Northern Colorado Plateau Network, 2019 Because birds can be sensitive to habitat change, they are good indicators of ecosystem integrity. The Northern Colorado Plateau Network partners with the University of Delaware to assess breeding-bird species trends in three different habitats: low-elevation riparian, pinyon-juniper, and sage shrubland. Find out which species were increasing and declining at network parks as of 2019. Bald eagle Water Quality in the Northern Colorado Plateau Network: Water Years 2016–2018 Once a month, ecologists collect water samples at dozens of monitoring sites in and near ten National Park Service units across Utah and Colorado. This consistent, long-term monitoring helps alert managers to existing and potential problems. Find out the results for 2016-2018 in this brief from the Northern Colorado Plateau Network. A monitoring crew of three samples a clear river flowing over brown rock and sand A Closer Look at When Grasses Need a Drink: Soils, Precipitation, and Desert Grasses The results of a recent study may help land managers to prioritize grassland conservation and restoration efforts. Park managers can’t do much about climate, but with the right information, they can make choices based on how different grassland communities behave in different soil types. In this study, cool-season grasses showed more resilience to drought than warm-season grasses. A field crew member takes measurements on a grassland transect. Invasive Exotic Plants and River Regulation at Dinosaur National Monument At Dinosaur National Monument, the Northern Colorado Plateau Network investigated whether riparian areas of regulated rivers have more invasive plants than those of unregulated rivers. We found that while flow regulation does enhance invasion, it doesn’t tell the whole story. Raft on river below massive canyon wall The Science of Conserving Native Fish: Mitigating Potential Effects of Flow Experiments along the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument On the Green River, scientists are helping ensure that solving one problem doesn’t cause another for native fish. Analyzing long-term monitoring data collected in Dinosaur National Monument allowed them to suggest modifications to proposed experimental flows from Flaming Gorge Dam. The modifications may provide long-term benefits to Colorado pikeminnow. River camp and canyon wall Series: GIP Participants and Project Highlights [8 Articles] Participants selected for the GIP program have a unique opportunity to contribute to the conservation of America's national parks. Participants may assist with research, mapping, GIS analysis, resource monitoring, hazard mitigation, and education. GIP positions can last from 3 months to one-year. Robyn Henderek Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Mesozoic Era The Mesozoic Era (251.9 to 66 million years ago) was the "Age of Reptiles." During the Mesozoic, Pangaea began separating into the modern continents, and the modern Rocky Mountains rose. Dinosaurs, crocodiles, and pterosaurs ruled the land and air. As climate changed and rapid plate tectonics resulted in shallow ocean basins, sea levels rose world-wide and seas expanded across the center of North America. fossil dinosaur skull in rock face Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring 2020 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> two people standing outdoors near a fossil tree base Series: NPS Environmental Achievement Awards Since 2002, the National Park Service (NPS) has awarded Environmental Achievement (EA) Awards to recognize staff and partners in the area of environmental preservation, protection and stewardship. A vehicle charges at an Electric Vehicle charging station at Thomas Edison National Historical Park Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 09, No. 2, Fall 2017 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> skull on the lawn at the national mall Permian Period—298.9 to 251.9 MYA The massive cliffs of El Capitan in Guadalupe Mountains National Park represent a Permian-age reef along the supercontinent Pangaea. The uppermost rocks of Grand Canyon National Park are also Permian. flat-top mountain Pennsylvanian Period—323.2 to 298.9 MYA Rocks in Cumberland Gap National Historical Park represent vast Pennsylvanian-age swamps. Plant life in those swamps later became coal found in the eastern United States. fossil tracks on sandstone slab Triassic Period—251.9 to 201.3 MYA The brightly colored Triassic rocks of Petrified Forest National Park yield not only the petrified trees but many other plant and animal fossils. fossil footprint on stone Jurassic Period—201.3 to 145.0 MYA Dinosaur National Monument is home to thousands of dinosaur fossils making it a true “Jurassic Park.” A vast desert covered Southwest North America in the Jurassic, and ancient sand dunes now form tall cliffs in many parks including Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. dinosaur skull in rock face Mississippian Period—358.9 to 323.2 MYA The extensive caves of Mammoth Cave and Wind Cave national parks developed in limestone deposited during the Mississippian. Warm, shallow seas covered much of North America, which was close to the equator. fossil crinoid Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Mesozoic Era The Mesozoic Era (251.9 to 66 million years ago) was the "Age of Reptiles." During the Mesozoic, Pangaea began separating into the modern continents, and the modern Rocky Mountains rose. Dinosaurs, crocodiles, and pterosaurs ruled the land and air. As climate changed and rapid plate tectonics resulted in shallow ocean basins, sea levels rose world-wide and seas expanded across the center of North America. fossil dinosaur skull in rock face Landbird Population Trends in the Northern Colorado Plateau Network, 2020 Because birds can be sensitive to habitat change, they are good indicators of ecosystem integrity. The Northern Colorado Plateau Network partners with the University of Delaware to assess breeding-bird species trends in three different habitats: low-elevation riparian, pinyon-juniper, and sage shrubland. Find out which species were increasing and declining at network parks as of 2020. Small beige bird with black beak and feet, brown back. Monitoring From Space: Using Satellite Imagery to Measure Landscape Conditions on the Ground Scientists from the Northern Colorado Plateau Network travel thousands of miles each year to collect data on plants, soils, and water across network parks. But it would be impossible to cover every square inch of the Northern Colorado Plateau with boots on the ground. Instead, we simultaneously monitor the parks with boots in space—satellite data that provide information at a much broader scale. Satellite and Earth in space Plan Like a Park Ranger - Top Tips For Visiting Dinosaur Plan like a Park Ranger - top tips for visiting Dinosaur National Monument. Dinosaur models sit on a rock with a ranger hat Localized Drought Impacts on Northern Colorado Plateau Landbirds Birds of the desert southwest, a climate-change hotspot, are among the most vulnerable groups in the US. To help park managers plan for those changes, scientists evaluated the influence of water deficit on landbird communities at 11 national parks in Utah and Colorado. The results will help land managers to focus conservation efforts on places where certain species are most vulnerable to projected climate changes. A man wearing a clipboard looks through binoculars at dawn in field of sagebrush Fantastic Camarasauruses (from Dinosaur National Monument) and Where to Find Them Paleontologist Rebecca Hunt-Foster shares scientific and historical information about one of the iconic dinosaurs from the Dinosaur National Monument quarry. fossil skeleton on display
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Dinosaur National Monument Hiking Trails Overlooking the maze-like terrain along the Yampa River Canyon Hiking is a great way to appreciate the monument’s intriguing history and rugged scenery. Elevations range from 5,000 feet at river level to over 8,000 feet. Before you begin any hike, be prepared for changing conditions in this desert environment. Most trails are exposed to full sun. In the summer, bring at least one liter of water per person for each hour hiking. Sturdy hiking shoes are recommended on all trails. For overnight or extended backpacking trips, stop by any monument visitor center for a free permit. Maps and trail guides are available for purchase. Pets are only allowed on two designated trails and are not allowed into the backcountry. Quarry Visitor Center & Cub Creek Road (Utah) Tilted layers of rock characterize this area of the monument. This is also the only area of the monument where you can see dinosaur fossils. While the dinosaur fossils Trail Name Trailhead may be the most popular hiking destination, take time to discover Josie Morris’s cabin, secluded box canyons, and numerous petroglyphs and pictographs. Distance Difficulty Highlights (round trip) A. Fossil Discovery * Quarry Visitor Center or Exhibit Hall 2.4 mi 3.2 km moderate tilted rock layers that expose a variety of geology and fossils, including dinosaur bones B. Sound of Silence * Stop 2 along Cub Creek Road 3.0 mi 4.8 km moderatedifficult interesting geology; joins Desert Voices Trail via a ¼ mile connector trail C. Desert Voices ** Split Mountain Boat Ramp 1.5 mi 2.4 km moderate Split Mountain views and desert habitats; joins Sound of Silence Trail via a ¼ mile connector trail D. River Green River and Split Mountain Campgrounds 3.0 mi 4.8 km easymoderate trail follows the Green River, connecting Green River and Split Mountain Campgrounds E. Petroglyphs Stop 14 along Cub Creek Road 0.2 mi 0.4 km moderate (short but steep) numerous petroglyphs, including several lizard figures F. Box Canyon End of Cub Creek Road 0.2 mi 0.4 km easy shady box canyon once used as a natural animal corral by Josie Morris G. Hog Canyon End of Cub Creek Road 1.5 mi 2.4 km easy scenic, partly shaded canyon with spring-fed creek. Watch out for poison ivy! * = trail guide available ** = waysides along trail Harpers Corner Road / Canyon Visitor Center Area (Colorado) Harpers Corner Road is the gateway to Dinosaur National Monument’s canyon county. The trails in this area offer a look into desert shrub communities and outstanding Trail Name Trailhead views into the Uinta Basin and Green and Yampa River canyons. While most parks do not allow pets on trails or in the backcountry, pets on leash are allowed on two trails here. Distance Difficulty Highlights (round trip) H. Cold Desert Canyon Visitor Center 0.5 mi 0.8 km easy short trail that introduces many common plants in the desert shrub community; pets on leash allowed I. Plug Hat Butte ** Plug Hat pull-out along Harpers Corner Road 0.25 mi 0.4 km easy level paved trail through pinyon/juniper forest, affording excellent overlooks of a colorful landscape; pets on leash allowed J. Ruple Point Island Park Overlook along Harpers Corner Road 9.2 mi 14.8 km moderatedifficult due to length and elevation (7,700’) rolling terrain of sagebrush and juniper with a view into Split Mountain Canyon 2.0 mi 3.2 km easy views into Green and Yampa River canyons, Echo Park and the Mitten Park Fault K. Harpers Corner * End of Harpers Corner Road Other Areas These areas of the monument are “off the beaten path,” but the scenery rewards for the distance you have to drive to reach them. In addition to these trails, Dinosaur has a vast backcountry for you to explore. Trail Name Trailhead Distance Difficulty Highlights L. Jones Hole (Utah) Jones Hole Fish Hatchery 8.5 mi 13.6 km moderate shady hike along spring-fed Jones Hole Creek; panel of pictographs M. Gates of Lodore * (Colorado) Lodore Campground 0.2 mi 0.4 km easy scenic view of the entrance to Lodore Canyon N. Bull Canyon (Colorado) Yampa Bench Road 3.0 mi 4.8 km difficult steep hike from the Yampa Bench Road down to Harding Hole on the Yampa River * = trail guide available ** = waysides along trail UTAH 191 44 COLORADO Trail Locator Map L Vernal A To Salt Lake City J Visitor Center M Gates of Lodore 318 K To Craig and Denver Dinosaur National Monument N 40 Maybell B-G Jensen Elk Springs 40 H I Visitor Center Dinosaur 64 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Revised 2013
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Dinosaur National Monument Fossil Discovery Trail The Fossil Discovery Trail winds through numerous titled rock layers Travel through millions of years of history on the Fossil Discovery Trail. Long ago, dynamic forces pushed and tilted these layers of rock upward. Later, erosion exposed the layers as colorful ridges. Erosion also revealed remnants of ancient ecosystems including now-extinct animals that inhabited landscapes quite different from what we see today. Discover more about several of these ancient ecosystems. Getting Started Trail Trivia Length: 1.5 mi/2 km one-way Elevation change: 150 ft/46 m Time to hike: about 1 hour Rock layers exposed: Stump Formation Morrison Formation Cedar Mountain Formation Dakota Sandstone Mowry Shale Frontier Sandstone Mancos Shale Geologic time exposed: Jurassic to Cretaceous This guide describes the trail as hiked downhill from the Quarry Exhibit Hall to the visitor center. Follow the guardrail down the right side of the road from the exhibit hall parking lot to find the trailhead. (You may also hike uphill from the trailhead located behind the visitor center.) Restrooms and drinking fountains are available during business hours near both trailheads. Restricted Access Road SHUTTLES ONLY (in Summer) RANGER-GUIDED (Fall - Spring) Prepare for this rocky, sun-exposed trail by wearing good hiking shoes and dress for the weather. In summer, that means bringing plenty of water, sunscreen, and a sun hat. The trail is very slippery when wet. Please stay on the established trail and leave all plants, rocks and fossils in place for the next hikers to discover. Quarry Exhibit Hall Dinosaur fossils Check with a ranger at the visitor center for more information Stump Formation Clam fossils Morrison Formation Dinosaur fossils Quarry Visitor Center P To 40 and Jensen, Utah Cu b C ree k Fo s s i l Di Ro s c o v er y T r ai l Mowry Formation Fish scales ad Open To All Vehicles Authorized Vehicles Only Jo To sie M r or is Ca bi n North Fossil Discovery Trail Split Mountain Anticline The same tectonic forces responsible for the uplift of the Uinta and Rocky Mountains caused rocks in this area to wrinkle like a rug pushed across a hard wood floor. The trail travels through the edge of an arch, or anticline, where layers are tilted steeply to the south. On the other side of Split Mountain, the same layers tilt to the north. As you begin your hike, take a moment to look at the rock layers that are dramatically uplifted and tilted around you. These were once horizontal layers of sediment that eventually turned into flat-lying sedimentary rock. So how did they end up tilted? 80 million years ago 60 million years ago About 60 million years ago, rocks here were pushed up like an arch. Since then, erosion exposed stronger sandstone and limestone as ridges while shale formed softer mounds. Thanks to the tilt, more rock layers are exposed in a shorter, less steep hike. 30 million years ago 3 million years ago Morrison Formation How Old? One of the more accurate ways to determine the age of a geologic layer is to examine the ratio of potassium to argon gasses trapped in crystals of volcanic ash. Unstable potassium turns into argon at a stable rate. By looking at crystals in ash that contain both potassium and argon, the ratio of the two elements gives geologists an estimate of the age of a rock layer. Each step leads you through rock layers with different colors, textures, and fossils. Sometimes these differences are subtle, sometimes striking. Most of the Morrison Formation is mudstone and clay, but watch for the trail spur that hugs a sandstone cliff. This part of the Morrison Formation is made up of river-deposited sand and gravel. Based on potassium-argon dating of volcanic ash, in older and younger layers on either side of the sandstone wall, this layer is estimated to be about 149 million years old. Fossil fragments of dinosaurs are embedded in the cliff along with impressions of freshwater clams. The Morrison Formation trail spur follows the same sandstone layer that is exposed in the Quarry Exhibit Hall. However, this cliff has not been worked on by paleontologists to make the bones easier to see. The first fossils along the spur are fragments that are somewhat shiny and dark orange in color. Some have a spongy-looking interior which contained bone marrow. Their texture is generally smooth and their size ranges from ½ inch to 10 inches in diameter. Find the fossil vertebrae about 10 feet above the trail. As you hike along the cliff, the quality and size of the fossil bones increase. Just past the mid-point of the spur, the trail dips a few feet. After the dip, look up on the cliff face to see eight vertebrae. Keep hiking and look around waist level for the end of a humerus. Saving the best for last, a large femur rests at the end of the spur. Sharp eyes can find more bones, depending on the angle o
Dinosaur National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Dinosaur National Monument Petroglyphs and Pictographs Petroglyphs at Cub Creek About 1,000 years ago, the Fremont people lived in this area and left evidence of their presence in the form of petroglyphs and pictographs. Several areas in the monument allow visitors to easily access these designs and ponder the mystery of why they were created. The Fremont Culture Archaeologists first studied and named the Fremont culture along the Fremont River in south-central Utah and have since traced it through much of the Green and Colorado River drainages. The lifestyle of the Fremont people varied considerably throughout that area, reflecting the diverse environments that they inhabited. In general, they lived in small bands or family groups, grew crops to supplement native foods, and did not build large permanent dwellings. In the Dinosaur National Monument area, archaeological evidence of the Fremont dates from about 200 A.D. to about 1300 A.D. While few actual houses remain, known dwelling places ranged from natural shelters (such as rock overhangs or shallow caves) to small “villages” in open areas. Archeological evidence suggests many dwelling sites were occupied only seasonally, as the people moved into and out of an area according to the availability of water and food. The Fremont relied heavily on native plant foods, such as piñon nuts, berries, and cactus fruits, and on wild game, including mule deer, bighorn sheep, smaller mammals, and birds. However, they also grew corn, beans, and squash, sometimes using irrigation techniques. This horticulture gave them, at least seasonally, a more settled life than a purely Pictographs at Deluge Shelter hunting-and-gathering existence, which in turn may have given them the time needed to create elaborate rock designs. The fate of the Fremont culture is unclear. Recent theories suggest that the Fremont’s lifestyle may have changed resulting from drought or other climatic factors, dwindling natural resources, or the influence of other neighboring cultures. Whatever the case, it is difficult to trace the Fremont as a distinct culture in the archaeological record after about 1200 A.D., but the Fremont petroglyphs and pictographs survive as a vivid reminder of these ancient people. Petroglyphs at Cub Creek Designs in the Rock Fremont designs include both petroglyphs (patterns chipped or carved into the rock) and pictographs (patterns painted on the rock). Pictographs are relatively rare here, perhaps because they are more easily weathered. Some petroglyphs show traces of pigment, possibly indicating that many designs originally included both carved and painted areas. Many sandstone cliffs darkened with desert varnish, a naturally formed stain of iron and manganese oxides, provided an ideal canvas for carving petroglyphs. Most of these designs are outlines, but some are completely pecked to form solid figures, and a few consist of small holes in closely-spaced rows. The style and content of Fremont designs vary throughout the region. The “Classic Vernal Style” predominates in Dinosaur National Monument. This style is characterized by human-like figures, animal- Many designs in the monument are fairly easy to access and allow up-close viewing. These designs are very fragile. Touching the petroglyphs and pictographs can damage the designs by leaving oils UTAH 191 44 COLORADO Viewing Designs 5 4 Why did the Fremont create these designs and what did they mean? Perhaps the designs served some ceremonial or religious purpose, related to hunting activities, identified clans, or simply expressed the artist’s imagination – or perhaps all or none of these. Attempts to interpret the designs by comparing them with recent Native American groups may provide clues, but the true meaning remains a mystery. behind that abrade the rock. Tracing and rubbings can damage the soft sandstone designs. For these reasons, please do not touch the designs. Gates of Ladore 3 Visitor Center like figures, and abstract designs. Human figures typically have trapezoidal bodies, which may or may not include arms, legs, fingers, and toes. Elaborate decorations on the bodies suggest headdresses, earrings, necklaces, shields, or other objects. The animal figures include recognizable bighorn sheep, birds, snakes, and lizards, as well as more abstract animal-like shapes. Purely abstract or geometric designs, such as circles, spirals, and various combinations of lines, are common. To Craig and Denver 318 Dinosaur National Monument 40 Vernal Maybell 1 2 To Salt Lake City Jensen Elk Springs 40 Visitor Center Dinosaur 64 1. Swelter Shelter Easily accessed and only a mile from the visitor information station, near Jensen, Utah, Swelter Shelter displays a variety of both petroglyphs and pictographs designs. 5. Pool Creek Another remote site, Pool Creek, near Echo Park, includes a panel of unusual dot-pattern designs high above the cree
Dinosaur National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Dinosaur National Monument Josie Bassett Morris Wild and dangerous, romantic and adventurous, the American West is for most people today an almost mythological world, one separated from ours by time, technology, and civilization. Yet, for Josie Bassett Morris, the Wild West was a stark reality. Josie lived most of her 90 years of life in this austere, yet beautiful, landscape in a time simpler than today, when people depended directly on the bounty of the land for survival and “neighbors” for companionship. Embracing the Freedom of the Frontier In 1862, the United States Congress passed the Homestead Act in an effort to move people into their newly acquired territory of the American West. Born in Arkansas around 1874 to educated and wealthy parents, Josie was only three years old when she and her mother–ambitious, independent, strong-willed Elizabeth–and her mild-mannered father, Herb, packed their belongings and made the journey west by wagon. They homesteaded in an area called Brown’s Park, only 40 miles from the Cub Creek site that Josie homesteaded independently later in life. A Progressive Style of Womanhood The women of Josie’s family were not only pioneers of the west, but also represented a progressive style of womanhood. Josie married five times and she divorced four husbands, in a time when divorce was almost unheard of. For this, Josie, with her strong will, charm, and independence, garnered rumors about her throughout most of her life. Josie was universally admired, however. Living such a remote and rugged lifestyle, women were respected if they could work alongside the cowhands and run an efficient ranch, in addition to being feminine. With no money to buy property, Josie decided in 1913 to homestead again – this time in Cub Creek. Here she built her own cabin and lived for over 50 years. She shared her home with her son Crawford and his wife for a time; grandchildren spent summers working and playing alongside Josie. Written by Alida Bus, 2007 As a child in Brown’s Park, Josie contributed her part of the household and ranch chores. Once these duties were complete, young Josie was free to play in the surrounding wilderness with her four siblings. The children grew up having an intimacy with and dependence on the natural environment, forming values based on hard work and resourcefulness. Josie’s family hosted many guests in their home, including some outlaws like Butch Cassidy, which fostered in Josie a strong sense of hospitality, generosity and community. The Pioneer West in the Modern Age Raised on the frontier, Josie lived into the modern era of electronics. For friends and acquaintances in the 1950s, Josie was a link to a world past. During Prohibition in the 1920s and into the 1930s, Josie brewed apricot brandy and chokecherry wine. After a lifetime of dressing in skirts, she switched to wearing pants in her later years. She was tried and acquitted twice for cattle rustling when she was in her 60s. At the age of 71, in an ambitious move to revive a profitable cattle business, she deeded her land away and lost all but the five acres where her cabin still stands. In December of 1963 the legendary Josie suffered a broken hip while in her cabin; she died of complications in May of 1964. Josie’s Homesite Today Today Josie’s cabin would be considered a modest structure. It is hard to imagine this place as a hub of activity, a site where one individual poured heart and soul into endless hours of chopping wood, cooking meals, milking cows, entertaining guests, and tending the chicken coop and vegetable garden. Look closer at the walls and envision a bed where Josie slept through bitter cold nights. Breathe in and imagine the rich aroma of Josie’s homebrewed coffee and homemade biscuits. Envision how it would have been to be a guest at the generous hostess’ table. Take a moment to sit in the shade of the trees surrounding Josie’s cabin – trees she carefully planted to provide the shade and fruit necessary for survival in a harsh environment. Walk the short trail to the box canyon where Josie penned her livestock; the wooden fence still stands. Imagine living in this place without plumbing, electricity, or neighbors for over fifty years. Relax and let the stillness enchant you; it is this same peacefulness that Josie may also have felt here. Trail to Box Canyon n ai it pl t un o M S Sp Root Cellar lit M ou nt X X X X X X X X X X X irrigation X Chicken Coop X X X X n X X X X X ai X X Outhouse X Vegetable Garden Site X X Cabin Animal Shed X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Fruit Orchard X Tack Shed X X X X X Key: incline foot path existing structure road stream site of former structure pond fence tree / shrub X X X spring EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Trail to Hog Canyon
Dinosaur National Monument National Park Service US Department of the Interior Boating in the Monument 2017 Information and Regulations Warm Springs Camp Photo by Jacob W Frank Whitewater rafting is a popular way to experience the remote canyons in Dinosaur National Monument, but the Green and Yampa rivers should never be mistaken for placid rivers. When John Wesley Powell floated the river in 1869, the scenery enthralled his group, but the rapids caused them great anguish as boats overturned, men were hurt, and supplies were lost. Even today, many boats end up pinned on rocks, their boatmen bruised and battered. For that reason, permit holders and trip leaders must have previous experience on comparable rivers. Depending on the water level, some rapids are rated as high as Class 4. Boating permits are limited to protect the natural and cultural resources and to leave the river canyons unimpaired for future boaters. The following rules and regulations have been put in place to assure that all travelers on the river will have a safe, peaceful, and memorable trip. The permit holder must know the rules and regulations described in this booklet, and assure that all persons participating in your boating trip are aware of them. You are accountable not only for yourself, but for all the members of your group. Violators may receive a citation and/or become ineligible for future permits. Contents Page Topic 3 4 5–8 9 9–11 12–13 14 15 16 17 18 19–21 22–23 24 What’s New, Definition of a Noncommercial River Trip, Forms of Payment Fees and Deposits Requirements and Regulations Play Permits Required Equipment Checklist Map of the Green and Yampa Rivers Watercraft Types Quick Reference Guide, Watercraft Capacities Camping Regulations Emergency Information and Incident Reports Safety Recommendations Launch Ramp and Take-Out Procedures, Shuttle Companies Environmental Protection and Sanitation Requirements Definitions River Mileages and Camping Areas, Contact the River Office 2 Boating Booklet What’s New! Current and Upcoming Changes for 2017 Effective Immediately: 1. ALL group members are REQUIRED to watch the “River and Safety Information” video at the following link: www.nps.gov/dino/planyourvisit/non-commercial-river-trips.htm 2. River permit management and issuance for permit holders is located on recreation.gov. Please contact the River Office (970)374-2468 with questions. 3. Lottery applications will only be accepted via recreation.gov. Definition of a Noncommercial River Trip Noncommercial boating permits will be allocated to individuals or organizations whose proposed trip meets the following criteria: 1. There is a bona fide sharing of cost where no part of the fees are: a. collected in excess of actual costs of the trip, b. for salary or financial gain in any manner for any of the group, its leaders, or sponsors, c. for capital increase of the major equipment or facilities used on the trip. 2. Boatmen and other crew may not be paid in ANY manner. Any or all goods, activities, services, agreements, or anything offered to park visitors and/or the general public for recreational purposes, which use park resources, and is undertaken for or results in compensation, monetary gain, benefit, or profit to an individual, organization, or corporation, is considered a commercial enterprise. 3. There is no media or direct mail advertising or soliciting for trip participants. Forms of Payment All fees must be paid at the time of reservation through recreation.gov. Entering Island Park Photo by Amanda Wilson Dinosaur National Monument 3 Fees and Deposits All fees and deposits, except overlength fees, are nonrefundable. Application Fee A $15 application fee must be submitted with the lottery application. The $15 application fee must be paid immediately upon booking a trip by nonlottery participants for either one-day or multiday trips. See page 3 for how to pay. Multiday Trips The permit fee for a multiday trip is $185. See page 3 for how to pay. One-Day Trips Split Mountain trips are available for booking through recreation.gov. The permit fee for a one-day trip is $20, which is due at the time of booking. See page 3 for how to pay. Overlength Trip Fee The overlength trip fee is $35, which is due at the time of booking. Overlength trip requests cannot be approved or itineraries assigned until campsites are assigned for all other permits, and it is determined that there are adequate campsite openings for an overlength trip. See page 3 for how to pay. See page 6 for more information on trip lengths. Entrance Fees Park entrance fees are NOT included in your permit. The entrance fee is $20 per vehicle, unless you have a valid federal park passes. Campground Fees Boating permit fees do NOT include camping fees when you are at the Gates of Lodore, Deerlodge Park, Green River, or Split Mountain campgrounds prior to putting on the river or after taking off. Camping at Gates of Lodore, Deerlodge Park, or Rainbow
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Guide to Important Fish Species in Dinosaur National Monument This pamphlet is a joint project by the National Park Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, both agencies of the Department of the Interior. For questions please contact: Tildon Jones U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Vernal, Utah tildon_jones@fws.gov or Tamara Naumann Dinosaur National Monument tamara_naumann@nps.gov Reports of captured burbot can be given to any Dinosaur National Monument ranger. (Please include information on the specific location.) June 2014 ON THE COVER Sam Sewell holding a Colorado pikeminnow caught in the Green River, ca. 1928 Dinosaur National Monument Archives Why are these fish “important?” Native species Introduced species Most of the native fish species described in this guide are unique to the Colorado River Basin, which includes the Green and Yampa rivers in Dinosaur National Monument. Others may occur in additional river systems, but represent important contributors to the river ecosystems in Dinosaur National Monument. There are more introduced fish species in Dinosaur National Monument’s rivers than described in this guide, but those included are of particular concern for their contribution to the decline of native fish populations in the Colorado River Basin. The natives found only in the Colorado River Basin have evolved specialized traits to survive in the difficult natural environments found in these rivers, which include highly variable seasonal flows and heavy sediment loads. With the dramatic changes that dams and water diversions have made in the hydrology of these rivers during the 20th century, most of these species are now severely reduced in range and population numbers. Some, such as the bonytail, are very close to extinction. All of these native fish represent a unique and irreplaceable natural heritage. Fishermen can aid in the recovery of native fish species by IMMEDIATELY RELEASING unharmed any native fish caught in Dinosaur National Monument. Most of these introduced species are voracious predators on native species. The catfish can have a different impact on the Colorado pikeminnow (itself a predator) because of its spiny fins. There have been many reports of pikeminnow found choked to death, with catfish wedged in their throats. The introduction of these nonnative species to the basin’s river environments has occasionally been by accident, but more frequently has been deliberate—often through misguided attempts to “improve” the fish populations in these rivers. Although nonnative fish cannot be legally stocked in Dinosaur National Monument, many have arrived here from up- or downstream. Please DO NOT RELEASE any of the introduced species discussed in this guide back into the rivers, unless specifically required to do so by state regulations. Fishermen are reminded that all fishing within Dinosaur National Monument is subject to state fishing regulations, including the possession of a current fishing license from the appropriate state. Bonytail Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Native • Federally listed as Endangered • Relatively small eye and mouth for its overall size • May have a small hump behind its head, or more often the head appears compressed • Very thin tail fin attachment for the overall body size • Please RELEASE UNHARMED immediately The bonytail has experienced the most abrupt decline of all the large native fish species of the Colorado River Basin. After the construction of Hoover Dam on the lower Colorado River, the bonytail quickly disappeared from the lower Colorado River Basin. Today the bonytail is extremely rare in the upper Colorado River Basin, and reproduction in wild populations is generally unsuccessful. Present populations are being maintained by restoration stocking programs. Colorado Pikeminnow M.T. Jones, USFWS Native • Federally listed as Endangered • Most that are caught in Dinosaur National Monument are large (12–36 inches in length) • Cylinder-shaped, silvery white body with gold flecks • Large, fleshy lips with a split above the upper lip • A compressed, somewhat flattened head with no teeth • Single dorsal (top) fin is behind the midpoint of the body length • Please RELEASE UNHARMED immediately The Colorado pikeminnow is the largest minnow in North America. In the early 1900s it was known as a big, aggressive, and easily caught “sport” fish. In those times the Colorado pikeminnow was the top fish predator in the upper Colorado River Basin. Historical accounts include descriptions of pikeminnows up to six feet long and weighing 80 pounds. Many earlier settlers also considered pikeminnows to be an abundant and valuable food source. Other common names for the species have included “whitefish,” “white salmon,” and “squawfish.” The Colorado pikeminnow is known for its long-distance spawning migrations of up to 200 miles. Today the

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