El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

National Historic Trail - NM,TX

The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (English: Royal Road of the Interior Land) was an historic 2,560-kilometre-long (1,590 mi) trade route between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo (Ohkay Owingeh), New Mexico, USA, from 1598 to 1882. It was the northernmost of the four major "royal roads" that linked Mexico City to its major tributaries during and after the Spanish colonial era. The 404-mile (650 km) section of the route within the United States was proclaimed as National Historic Trail on October 13, 2000.

maps

Visitor Map of Stallion Wilderness Study Area (WSA) in New Mexico. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Stallion - Visitor Map

Visitor Map of Stallion Wilderness Study Area (WSA) in New Mexico. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Visitor Map of Jornada del Muerto Wilderness Study Area (WSA) in New Mexico. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Jornada del Muerto - Visitor Map

Visitor Map of Jornada del Muerto Wilderness Study Area (WSA) in New Mexico. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Visitor Map of Antelope Wilderness Study Area (WSA) in New Mexico. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Antelope - Visitor Map

Visitor Map of Antelope Wilderness Study Area (WSA) in New Mexico. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Visitor Map of Devil's Backbone Wilderness Study Area (WSA) in New Mexico. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Devil's Backbone - Visitor Map

Visitor Map of Devil's Backbone Wilderness Study Area (WSA) in New Mexico. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Pocket Guide Map of Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gila NF - Pocket Guide Map

Pocket Guide Map of Gila National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

brochures

Brochure of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - Brochure

Brochure of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Rack Card of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - Rack Card

Rack Card of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure The Royal Road - El Camino Real for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - The Royal Road - El Camino Real

Brochure The Royal Road - El Camino Real for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Yost Escarpment for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - Yost Escarpment

Brochure Yost Escarpment for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Finding the Trail - Encontrando el sendero for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - Finding the Trail - Encontrando el sendero

Brochure Finding the Trail - Encontrando el sendero for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Walking the Ancient Road - Andando por el antiguo camino for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - Walking the Ancient Road - Andando por el antiguo camino

Brochure Walking the Ancient Road - Andando por el antiguo camino for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Stories in the Dust - Historias en el polvo for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - Stories in the Dust - Historias en el polvo

Brochure Stories in the Dust - Historias en el polvo for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure The Dead Man of the Jornada - El Hombre Muerto de La Jornada for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - The Dead Man of the Jornada - El Hombre Muerto de La Jornada

Brochure The Dead Man of the Jornada - El Hombre Muerto de La Jornada for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Moving the Goods - Transportando las mercancías for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro - Moving the Goods - Transportando las mercancías

Brochure Moving the Goods - Transportando las mercancías for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail (NHT) in New Mexico and Texas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail route across Iowa. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).NHT Auto Tour Guides - Iowa

The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail route across Iowa. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

The National Historic Trail route from Western Missouri through Northeastern Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).NHT Auto Tour Guides - Missouri and Kansas

The National Historic Trail route from Western Missouri through Northeastern Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

The National Historic Trail route from Nebraska through Northeastern Colorado. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).NHT Auto Tour Guides - Nebraska and Colorado

The National Historic Trail route from Nebraska through Northeastern Colorado. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

The National Historic Trail route along the Snake River through Idaho. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).NHT Auto Tour Guides - Idaho

The National Historic Trail route along the Snake River through Idaho. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

The National Historic Trail route across Wyoming. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).NHT Auto Tour Guides - Wyoming

The National Historic Trail route across Wyoming. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

The National Historic Trail route across Utah. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).NHT Auto Tour Guides - Utah

The National Historic Trail route across Utah. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

The National Historic Trail route across Nevada. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).NHT Auto Tour Guides - Nevada

The National Historic Trail route across Nevada. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/elca/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camino_Real_de_Tierra_Adentro The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (English: Royal Road of the Interior Land) was an historic 2,560-kilometre-long (1,590 mi) trade route between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo (Ohkay Owingeh), New Mexico, USA, from 1598 to 1882. It was the northernmost of the four major "royal roads" that linked Mexico City to its major tributaries during and after the Spanish colonial era. The 404-mile (650 km) section of the route within the United States was proclaimed as National Historic Trail on October 13, 2000. Travel along El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail to experience and learn from a complicated legacy of 300 years of conflict, cooperation, and cultural exchange between a variety of empires—European and non-European alike. You can visit many sites along El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail over the 404-mile U.S. historic route (with thousands of additional miles in Mexico) that crosses New Mexico and Texas. Kuaua Ruin in Coronado Historic Site, Bernalillo, New Mexico tan-colored pueblo Indian ruins with blue sky and three people The Tiwa pueblo of Kuaua lies in ruin at Coronado Historic Site. The site includes a rebuilt kiva that displays reproductions of original murals adorning its walls. Be sure to go to the visitor center where some of the original murals are displayed. El Rancho de las Golondrinas, La Cienega, New Mexico adobe buildings including two beehive-looking ovens with people in a courtyard El Rancho de las Golondrinas was a historic paraje (stopping place) along El Camino Real. “The ranch of the swallows” dates from the early 1700s, and is now being used as a living history museum. Jornada del Muerto, County Roads A013 & E070, Sierra & Doña Ana Counties, New Mexico shrubby desert scene with people walking under a cloud-filled sky Walk in the footsteps of settlers from the 1600s who had to walk along this dreaded yet unavoidable section of El Camino Real: Jornada del Muerto or Dead Man’s Journey. Fort Selden Historic Site, Radium Springs, New Mexico fort ruins in the sunlight with cottonwood trees on the left Fort Selden was built near the town of Las Cruces in 1865 and housed troops for 25 years. The visitor center offers exhibits on frontier military life during the fort’s heyday and the grounds are self-guided. Presidio Chapel of San Elizario, Mission Trail, El Paso, Texas large white chapel under blue sky Spanish troops built a presidio (fort) and chapel at this site during the 1780s to protect settlements in the lower Río Grande Valley downstream from El Paso, Texas. The Lands of the Overland Trails: Protests against the Mexican American War Almost every movement in American history has a corresponding counter movement. The Mexican American War (1846-48), which resulted in Mexico ceding much of the modern-day American Southwest to the United States, is a good example. With the stroke of a pen, parts of the Santa Fe, California, Oregon, Pony Express, Mormon Pioneer, and Old Spanish trails, as well as El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, suddenly became American territory. A dirt road snakes down a steep cliff face in the desert. Comanches and Horses Historians often cite the importation of large horse herds as one of the Spanish empire's biggest impacts on the Americas. Ironically, these very herds helped transform Comanches into Spain's most formidable rival. Two wild horses stand in a large open area. Project Ideas- Communication & National Historic Trails: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Communication was an essential aspect of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. Here are a few examples and questions to get you thinking about potential research projects. Desert shrubs leads to a distant shallow creek and distant mountains. The First Printing Press in New Mexico From moveable hand-carved woodblocks in Dunhuang, China, during the Tang Dynasty of 618-906 to adjustable type developed by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany, around 1450, print has played a vital role in the transfer of knowledge and ideas, communication, and the arts. It was not until July of 1834, 13 years after the establishment of the Santa Fe Trail with the beginning of legal international trade with Mexico, that the first printing press arrived in New Mexico. A historical picture of an old printed book cover. What Happened to the Bison? Crossing the Southern Plains in 1806, Zebulon Pike described herds of bison that “exceeded imagination.” Yet by the 1850s, many of the Native nations that relied on bison for sustenance—such as the Kiowas, Comanches, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes—were seeing fewer bison than ever before. What happened? A bison stands and eats grass. The Civil War Fought Along El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro NHT Soon after the Civil War broke out, Confederate political and military leaders hatched a plan for Western conquest. They would raise a force in Texas, march up the Rio Grande (along El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro), take Santa Fe, turn northeast on the Santa Fe Trail, capture the federal supplies at Fort Union, head up to Colorado, capture the gold fields, and then turn west to take California. All three states had populations loyal to the Confederacy. A man stands in a Union Army uniform. Hike on a National Historic Trail Hiking a National Historic Trail isn't always what people expect. Like the National Scenic Trails, the historic trails pass through multiple states and travel across a variety of land ownership. Unlike the National Scenic Trails, the historic trails can't be traversed on one long walking trail. You can plan a weekend adventure or an afternoon outing on a National Historic Trail. The following trips will give you the opportunity to hike pieces of the historic trail routes. A brown trail sign stands next to a trail that leads through the forest. Series: National History Day National Historic Trails are full of topics waiting to be researched! From the Pony Express to the forced removal of American Indian tribes from their homelands, National Historic Trails tell stories of communication, movement, conflict, perseverance, and change. A covered wagon sits in front of a large sandstone bluff. Become a Junior Ranger for National Historic Trails Learn about the National Historic Trails and earn junior ranger badges! These activities can be completed virtually or after visiting a site along the National Historic Trails. Booklets can be submitted either electronically or by mail. Take a look and start exploring the trails today! small photos of different trail sites with junior ranger badges. Color the National Historic Trails Express yourself and learn more about the trails with these coloring sheets! Download, print, color, and then share with us! Do you want to know what pioneers thought about bison? Elk? Salmon? Pick an animal, learn more, and download your coloring sheet today. A coloring sheet with an image of a wolf walking. Vado, New Mexico on El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail In the Mesilla Valley, approximately 15 miles south of Las Cruces, New Mexico, along El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail, lies the community of Vado. The rich history of the small town was shaped by the efforts of Francis Marion Boyer and Ella Louise McGruder Boyer, who arrived in New Mexico from Georgia in the early 1900s and founded the first all-African American settlement in the territory. historic image of African American adults and children in front of a schoolhouse. National Historic Trails: Historical Routes of National Significance Wondering about National Historic Trails? Check out this infographic with basic information about the trails, their purpose, and where you can go for more information! Infographic about National Historic Trails featuring a map. Full description available at link. National Historic Trails Scrapbooks Imagine if early travelers on the National Historic Trails had a polaroid camera... what would their scrapbooks look like? Though we have many journals describing their experiences, there are obviously very few or no photos at all from these journeys. Cameras didn't exist! Well, we took a crack at it and created scrapbook pages for them! Take a look at what we imagine a trail traveler's scrapbook would like! A scrapbook page depicting multiple scenes from the trail, and relevant icon images. Fort Craig Exhibits Audio Description Listen to the audio description of the Fort Craig exhibits. A wayside exhibit panel. National Historic Trails Fashion Inspiration During NPS Fashion Week, we are exploring some ways fashion inspiration may be found on National Historic Trails (NHTs). On NHTs you’ll find intriguing colors, shapes, textures, histories, and stories. From golden sunsets to feathered hats, NHTs have diverse natural and cultural environments that can inspire the fashionista in us all! A red rock cliff with a path winding through it
The rough trail jolted nails loose from wagons and carriages. Hundreds of cobbler’s nails, farrier’s nails, and upholstery nails tell the story of El Camino Real. Spanish ranches and villages are established along El Camino Real north of Isleta Pueblo, including Pajarito and Atrisco, independent communities now within the greater Albuquerque area. German trader Bernardo Gruber dies on the Jornada del Muerto after fleeing jail at Sandía Pueblo and the cruelties of the Spanish Inquisition. On August 10th, nearly two dozen pueblos and their allies revolt over the Spanish practices of extracting payments, forcing conversion to Catholicism, and brutally suppressing native religion. The Spanish flee south and the pueblos regained their homeland for 12 years. 1706 • 1692 • The Spanish return to New Mexico and begin rebuilding missions and settlements. La Villa de Alburquerque is established, with today’s “Old Town” and plaza as its historic center. o R o m e r o, R i o G r a n d e P u r ging ,C yR o Palace of the Governors This modest, single-story adobe is the oldest continuously occupied governmental building in the US. Construction began in 1610. Over the years the palace has been converted to an Indian Pueblo, housed Spanish and Mexican governors, and served as a Territorial Capitol. Since 1909 the palace has been the heart of New Mexico’s State Museum system. The palace sits on the north side of the Santa Fe Plaza. 1680 • es Coronado Historic Site / Kuaua Pueblo When Francisco Vásquez de Coronado arrived at Kuaua Pueblo in 1540, he was leading an expeditionary force of 300 soldiers and 800 Indian allies on a march to locate the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola. Instead of the golden city they expected, the Spanish found a thriving multistory adobe pueblo with more than a thousand villagers. The Spanish capital is relocated from San Juan do los Caballeros to La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francsico de Asis (Santa Fe). 1670 • 1739 • The Tomé grant is settled after the Rio Grande shifts west, creating an inner valley branch of El Camino Real through the Tomé Plaza. 1760 • Still a rough camp in 1760, the paraje of Doña Ana is settled as a town in the 1840s. 1789 • San Elizario is established as a military presidio to protect citizens of El Paso del Norte from Apache attacks. 1807 • US Lieutenant Zebulon Pike illegally enters Spanish territory while exploring the West. Pike is captured and taken down El Camino Real to Mexico City. 1821 • Mexico gains its independence from Spain. The Santa Fe Trail opens with the arrival of William Becknell’s trading party from Missouri. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro becomes known as the “Chihuahua Trail” for traders moving goods between Santa Fe and towns to the south. 1846 • Missouri volunteers under Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan defeat a Mexican unit at the Battle of Bracitos, go on to take El Paso del Norte, and march into Chihuahua. 1848 • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo establishes American control over about half of Mexico’s lands, including the lands traversed by El Camino Real north of El Paso del Norte. El Rancho de las Golondrinas Today a living history museum dedicated to telling New Mexico Hispanic lifeways, this was once an important paraje, or campsite, on El Camino Real. About 15 miles from the Santa Fe Plaza, the rancho offered travelers a chance to freshen up before reaching the capital city or to make repairs to gear following a jolting journey on the trail heading south. 1850 • 1853 • New Mexico becomes an incorporated, organized territory of the US on September 9. American-Mexican border is redefined through the Gadsden Purchase, which for 10 million dollars brought nearly 19 million acres of land between Texas and California into American hands. 1862 • Battle of Valverde, the first major battle of the Civil War in the South­ west, takes place north of Fort Craig in February. Fort Craig Historic Site Fort Craig, active between 1854 and 1885, was home to Buffalo Soldiers from the 9th Cavalry and 38th and 125th Infantry. Hispanic New Mexican volunteers and militia also served there, and Kit Carson, Rafael Chacon, and Captain Jack Crawford spent time there. Fort Selden Historic Site Fort Selden was established in 1865 to protect settlers and travelers in the Mesilla Valley. Built on the banks of the Rio Grande in the vicinity of the Robledo paraje, this adobe fort housed units of the US Army’s infantry and cavalry. The fort remained active until 1891, five years after Geronimo’s capture and seven years after the railroad had taken over El Camino Real’s role in commercial freight and transport. J.R. Riddle, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 014523 1865 • Fort Selden is established to protect the Mesilla Valley. 1878 • The region’s first operational railroad, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, enters New Mexico Territory by way of Ratón Pass; the rails reach El Paso, Texas, in 1881. 1909 • New Mexico
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail New Mexico, Texas Travel the Royal Road The Royal Road at the Jornada del Muerto in New Mexico. Blazed atop a network of footpaths that tied Mexico’s ancient cultures with the equally ancient cultures of the interior West, Don Juan de Oñate took the first Spanish colonists in 1598 along what became “The Royal Road of the Interior Lands.” El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro began in Mexico City and continued to Ohkay Owinge Pueblo, north of present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico. As a royal road, it brought priests, solders, traders, settlers, and officials to Spain’s northern frontier—today’s New Mexico. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro is the earliest EuroAmerican trade route in the United States. Tying Spain’s colonial capital at Mexico City to its northern frontier in distant New Mexico, the route spans three centuries, two countries, and 1,600 miles. You can follow in their footsteps... El Rancho de las Golondrinas, New Mexico Places to Visit These are only a few of the sites that you can visit on the trail. They represent the variety of experiences and activities that occured along the historic trail over hundreds of years of use including Mexican independence, American trade, and the invasion Socorro of Mexico by the US military. Rio Gr an de Española 1 25 3 Albuquerque 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 5 6 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 7 8 Truth or Consequences Santa Fe 2 Engle 9 25 Palace of the Governors El Rancho de las Golondrinas Casa San Ysidro/Gutiérrez-Minge House The Gutiérrez-Hubbell House Tomé Hill Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge Fort Craig Historic Site El Camino Real Historic Trail Site Jornada del Muerto Trailheads Fort Selden Historic Site Mesilla Plaza Chamizal National Monument Ysleta Mission Church La Purísima Socorro Mission San Elizario Catholic Church 10 13 11 Nearby Town Site of Interest Trail Route Las Cruces New Mexico El Paso Mexico Ciudad Juárez Texas 12 13 14 15 To Mexico City El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail runs through the heart of the Rio Grande Valley. Established by Congress in 2001, it is co-administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service, who work with partners to foster trail preservation and public use. Trail sites are in private, municipal, tribal, federal or state ownership. Bureau of Land Management www.blm.gov/nm National Park Service National Trails Intermountain Region www.nps.gov/elca El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association www.caminorealcarta.org Look for signs like these to retrace the Royal Road. Scan this code for nps.gov/elca
Yost Escarpment and Point of Rocks ~ Panel 1A The Royal Road El Camino Real El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Bureau of Land Management National Park Service El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico Royal Road of the Interior El Camino Realde Tierra Adentr0, the “Royal Road of the Interior,” was the earliest Euro-American trade route in the United States. It tied Spain’s colonial capital at Mexico City to its northern frontier in distant New Mexico. It was part of Spain’s Camino Real Inter­ continental—a global network of roads and maritime routes. The route spans three centuries, two countries, and 1,600 miles. It was blazed atop a network of footpaths that connected Mexico’s ancient cultures with the equally ancient cultures of the interior West. Starting in Mexico City, the frontier wagon road brought settlers into today’s New Mexico. Once travelers crossed the arid lands above Ciudad Chihuahua, they followed the wide Rio Grande valley north into New Mexico. Many of the historic parajes (campgrounds) and early settlements created by the Spanish colonists moving along El Camino Real are today’s modern cities along the Rio Grande. Freighters i h ffrom Mexico i arrive i at the h Santa Fe Plaza l in i 1874. Los fleteros comerciantes de México llegan a la Plaza de Santa Fe en 1874 Scene in Plaza in Santa Fe, New Mexico Sylvia Loomis Collection; Courtesy New Mexico State Records Center & Archives, Negative no: 21949 El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, el “Royal Road of the Interior,” era la más antigua ruta comercial euroamericana en los Estados Unidos. La ruta unía la Ciudad de México, la capital colonial española, con su frontera norte, en el lejano Nuevo México. Era parte de un sistema intercontinental de caminos reales de España— una red global de caminos y rutas marítimas. La ruta se extiende por tres siglos, dos países y 2.575 kilómetros (1,600 millas). Se abrió siguiendo una red de senderos que conectaba las culturas antiguas de México con las de la parte oeste del interior que hoy pertenece a los Estados Unidos. Empezando en la Ciudad de México, este camino fronterizo para carretas condujo pobladores a lo que hoy es Nuevo México. Al cruzar los desiertos al norte de la ciudad de Chihuahua, los viajeros siguieron el ancho valle del Río Grande hacia el norte hasta llegar a Nuevo México. Muchos de los parajes históricos y los asentamientos más antiguos fundados por los pobladores hispanos en su trayectoria por El Camino Real son las actuales ciudades modernas ubicadas a lo largo del Río Grande. National Historic Trail Sendero Histórico Nacional The trail has fostered exchanges between people from many backgrounds, including American Indians, Spaniards and other Europeans, Mexicans, and later New Mexicans, and others from the United States. El sendero ha fomentado intercambios entre personas de orígenes muy diferentes, incluyendo indígenas, españoles y otros europeos, mexicanos y, más tarde, nuevomexicanos, así como otros grupos de los Estados Unidos. The corridor of the historic trail is still very much alive, 125 years after the coming of the railroad eclipsed commercial use of the route. The historic trail in the United States was added to the National Trails System in 2000. It is administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior under the National Park Service (NPS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in partnership with land owners, tribes, and other agencies. Panel size: 36" x 48" Quantity of 2 Unos 125 años después de que la llegada del ferrocarril eclipsara el uso comercial de la ruta, el corredor de este sendero histórico tiene todavía mucha vida. La porción del sendero histórico en los Estados Unidos fue añadida al Sistema Nacional de Senderos en el año 2000. Es administrado por el Ministerio del Interior de los Estados Unidos a través del Servicio de Parques Nacionales (NPS) y del Bureau of Land Management (BLM), en asociación con propietarios, tribus indígenas y otras agencias. Version: 08/20/10 Calle de Guadalupe, Ciudad Chihuahua Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA) Negative no: 054088 (Right top and center) Travel and trade along this route resulted in the exchange of cultural materials and traditions. The introduction of Catholicism; horses, sheep, and other stock animals; new fruits and vegetables; and various forms of architecture and systems of government, had significant consequences on the region and the continent. The historic route of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro La ruta histórico (Bottom right) Visitors hike along the Jornada del Muerto, in southern New Mexico, one of the most pristine traces of the historic trail. The NPS and BLM work with partners to develop places to visit along the trail. (Arriba a la derecha y al centro) Los viajes y el comercio a lo largo de esta ruta resul­ taron en un intercambio de materiales y tradiciones cul­ turales. La introducc
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Yost Escarpment Bureau of Land Management National Park Service El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico k Welcome to the Yost Escarpment Trail Moving the Goods Transportando las mercancías The Dead Man of the Jornada El Hombre Muerto de La Jornada Stories in the Dust Historias en el polvo A013 Walking the Ancient Road Andando por el antiguo camino You are here Usted está aquí Finding the Trail Encontrando el sendero El Camino Real Take a walk in 1598 with Don Juan de Oñate and those who traveled on El Camino Real. This 1½ mile-long trail leads up to the historic Camino Real. You will be walking where thousands of wagons, people and livestock traveled between Mexico City and the small New Mexican towns on New Spain’s northern frontier. Along the way there are five interpretive signs with stories about this part of the journey. The trail ends at the top of an escarpment— a steep, rocky slope that was a true test for caravans with huge freight wagons. Bienvenidos al Sendero del Yost Escarpment Camine en 1598 con don Juan de Oñate y aquéllos que recorrieron El Camino Real. Este sendero de 2,4 kilómetros (1,5 millas) de longitud conduce al histórico Camino Real. Usted caminará donde miles de carretas, gente y ganado viajaron entre la Ciudad de México y los pequeños poblaciones nuevomexicanos en la frontera norte de la Nueva España. A lo largo del sendero hay cinco paneles interpretativos con historias sobre esta parte del viaje. El sendero termina en la cima de un crestón, una ladera rocosa y muy inclinada que verdaderamente ponía a prueba las caravanas de grandes carretones de carga. Travelers called this desolate stretch the Jornada del Muerto. About 10 miles south of here rough terrain forced Spanish colonists to veer away from the Rio Grande and the security of year-round water. For the next 90 miles there would be little or no water, firewood or forage for the livestock. Imagine entering this landscape at the head of a column of more than 700 people, 7,000 head of livestock, and 100 freight wagons. Until railroad lines were completed in the 1880s this was the only route for heavy wagons. Rules of the Royal Road Las Reglas de El Camino Real Heels, hoofs and wheels The Bureau of Land Management would like you to experience El Camino Real just like the early travelers: on foot or on horseback. Please leave mountain bikes and offhighway vehicles in the parking lot. Talones, pezuñas y ruedas Al Bureau of Land Management le gustaría que usted tuviera una experiencia en El Camino Real semejante a la de los primeros viajeros: a pie o a caballo. Favor de dejar las bicicletas de montaña y los vehículos todo terreno en el estacionamiento. Campfires Since this is arid country with plenty of wind, campfires are not allowed. Cattle Like the early days, there are no fences to control the movement of animals. If you see cattle, please stay a safe distance away. Although they are used to seeing people, cattle should not be approached. They could be dangerous if they are mistreated or if they think you are offering them food. Stay found Stay on the trail. It is very easy to get turned around in mesquite country. Look and leave it Look and leave it. Allow others a sense of discovery. Leave things where you find them. Stuff that may look like junk or trash can provide important information about the trail’s history. Taking historic artifacts or other materials away is against the law. Viajeros llamaban a este tramo desolado la Jornada del Muerto. Cerca de 16 kilómetros (10 millas) al sur de aquí, el terreno escabroso forzó a los pobladores españoles que viajaban hacia el norte a desviarse del Río Grande y de la seguridad que ofrecía el agua del río durante todo el año. Por los siguientes 145 kilómetros (90 millas) había muy poco o nada de agua, leña o pastura para el ganado. Imagínense entrando en este paisaje a la cabeza de una columna de más de 700 personas, 7 mil cabezas de ganado y 100 carretones de carga. Hasta que las vías del ferrocarril fueron completadas en la década de 1880, ésta era la única ruta para los pesados carretones. Fogatas Se prohíben las fogatas, ya que éste es un terreno muy árido y con mucho viento. Ganado Vacuno Así como en tiempos pasados, no hay cercos para restringir el movimiento de los animales. Si se encuentra con ganado vacuno, favor de mantener una distancia segura. Aunque los animales están habituados a ver gente, uno no debe acercarse a ellos. Podrían ser peligrosos si se les maltrata o si piensan que se les está ofreciendo comida. No Se Pierda Permanezca en el sendero; es muy fácil desorientarse en este paisaje de mesquites. Observar y Dejarlo Observar y dejarlo; permita que otros experimenten su propio sentido de descubrimiento. Deje las cosas donde se encuentran. Cosas que parecen ser inútil o basura pueden revelar importante información sobre la historia del sendero. La ley prohí
Yost Escarpment ~ Panel 2 Finding the Trail Encontrando el sendero El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Bureau of Land Management National Park Service El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico ¿No debería ser fácil de ubicar un sendero utilizado por miles y miles de personas, carretas y animales? No siempre. Las pistas cambiarán dependiendo del tipo de terreno por el que pasa el sendero. Mire más allá de este panel. Allá está El Camino Real, a unos pocos cientos de metros hacia el sur. Here, at the southernmost portion of the Jornada del Muerto, large caravans struggled through the barren landscape, moving people and trade goods to and from Mexico. Aquí, en el tramo más al sur de la Jornada del Muerto, caravanas grandes luchaban al cruzar el terreno desolado, transportando personas y bienes desde y hacia México. ▲ Shouldn’t a trail used by countless thousands of people, wagons, and livestock be easy to locate? Not always. The clues will change with the type of terrain the trail crosses. Look beyond this sign. El Camino Real is out there, only a few hundred yards to the south. Do you see that broken line of darker trees? Those are mesquite that have taken root along the old trail. As caravans passed on El Camino Real, they cut a dusty path across fragile soils. Wind and rain eroded the trail into a wide depression called a swale. Rainwater pooling in the swale germinated the tough seeds of mesquite and cactus left behind in the fertile droppings of cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and mules. Panel size: 36" x 24" Version: 8/20/10 ¿Puede ver la línea quebrada de árboles más oscuros? Son árboles de mesquite que han crecido a lo largo del viejo sendero. Al pasar por El Camino Real, las caravanas cortaban un sendero polvoriento a través de frágiles suelos. El viento y la lluvia erosionaron el sendero, formando una amplia depresión conocida como un bajío. El agua de lluvia estancada en el bajío hacía germinar las duras semillas de mesquite y cactos que el ganado vacuno, ovejas, cerdos, caballos y mulas habían dejado en su fértil excremento. Discovery Exhibits • Santa Fe, NM
Yost Escarpment ~ Panel 3 Walking the Ancient Road Andando por el antiguo camino El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Bureau of Land Management National Park Service El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico You are now walking on one of the great roads of North American history. Traveling the entire length of El Camino Real between Mexico City and Santa Fe required a six-month commitment. You might have experienced Indian attacks on the caravan, days without water, food shortages, river crossings, heatstroke, grass fires, and snakebites. You would have spent at least two nights on the trail, pushing on through the night or sleeping in a rough campground, or paraje. En este momento, usted está caminando por uno de los grandes caminos de la historia de Norteamérica. El viaje por toda la extensión de El Camino Real entre la Ciudad de México y Santa Fe requería un compromiso de seis meses. Podría haber experimentado indios atacando la caravana, días sin agua, escasez de comida, cruces de ríos, insolación, incendios en las praderas y mordeduras de víboras. Habría pasado por lo menos dos noches en el sendero, tratando de avanzar por la noche o durmiendo en un rudo campamento o paraje. “On the 25th day, having to cross the great distance of the Jornada del Muerto… I left the San Diego paraje having taken on water and wood. Traveling in a north northeasterly direction, I went 11 leagues over plains… We then camped in Las Penuelas clearing, like the other uninhabited, and having neither wood nor water.” —Don Pedro de Rivera, Brigadier of the Royal Spanish Armies, 1726 Panel size: 36" x 24" Version: 8/20/10 “El día veinte y cinco, respecto á haver de transitar la larga distancia de la Jornada del Muerto…partí del paraje de San Diego, de donde se cargó agua, y leña: y tomando el rumbo del Nor Nordeste, caminé once leguas, por tierra llana…y haciendo alto en un paraje despoblado como los antecedentes, sin agua, ni leña, que llaman Las Peñuelas.” —Don Pedro de Rivera, Brigadier de los Reales Ejércitos, 1726 Discovery Exhibits • Santa Fe, NM
Yost Escarpment ~ Panel 4 Stories in the Dust Historias en el polvo El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico Recently, archaeologists wanting to learn more about El Camino Real have been getting on their knees to study the trail’s story. Recientemente, los arqueólogos que quieren saber más sobre El Camino Real se han puesto de rodillas para estudiar la historia del sendero. Most of the artifacts found along El Camino Real are from the last half of the 1800s. During this period, U.S. merchants shipped goods west along the Santa Fe Trail and then down El Camino Real. Much like today, some people tossed their empty containers and worn out goods onto the side of the road. Archaeologists have found cans, cartridges, broken bottles, tin coffee pots, buttons, horse and mule shoes, tack and other manufactured items along the trail. Casi todos los artefactos encontrados a lo largo de El Camino Real datan de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Durante este período, los comerciantes estadounidenses transportaban mercancías al oeste por el Santa Fe Trail y después hacia el sur por El Camino Real. Como sucede hoy en día, había personas que tiraban sus recipientes vacíos y bienes que ya no servían al lado del camino. A lo largo del sendero, los arqueólogos han encontrado latas, cartuchos, botellas quebradas, cafeteras de hojalata, botones, herraduras para caballos y mulas, arreos estropeados y otros objetos manufacturados. Two archaeology volunteers study artifacts at the Yost Escarpment. On the Jornada del Muerto, people and draft animals literally walked out of their shoes. Photo: Jean Fulton, El Camino Real de Tierro Adentro Trail Association (CARTA) The rough trail jolted the nails loose from wagons and carriages. Hundreds of cobbler’s nails, farrier’s nails, and upholstery nails tell the story of this difficult crossing. En la Jornada del Muerto, tanto personas como animales de tiro literalmente saltaron de sus calzados. Photo: Jean Fulton, El Camino Real de Tierro Adentro Trail Association (CARTA) Panel size: 36" x 24" Version: 8/20/10 Bureau of Land Management National Park Service El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association El sendero escabroso también hacía que se aflojaran los clavos de las carretas y los carruajes. Cientos de clavos—de zapatero, de herrero y de tapicero—cuentan la historia de esta difícil travesía. Dos voluntarios en arqueología estudian artefactos del Yost Escarpment. Should you pick that up? ¿Debería recogerlo? It is illegal to collect artifacts—old glass and bottles, nails and metal scraps, pottery and sherds, coins, arrowheads, or other items left by previous trail travelers. Look, enjoy, and then leave these pieces of history for others to find and study. Es ilegal recoger artefactos: vidrio y botellas antiguas, clavos y pedazos de metal, cerámicas y fragmentos de las mismas, monedas, puntas de flecha u otros objetos dejados por previos viajeros del sendero. Observe, disfrute y después deje estas piezas de la historia para que otros puedan hallarlos y estudiarlos. Professional archaeologists and volunteers work under special permits granted by the Bureau of Land Management for scientific study of the trail. Archaeologists use what they find to learn more about the history of the trail and the daily life of trail travelers. Arqueólogos profesionales y voluntarios trabajan con permisos especiales otorgados por el Bureau of Land Management con el propósito de estudiar científicamente el sendero. Los arqueólogos usan lo que encuentran para aprender más sobre la historia del sendero y la vida cotidiana de los viajeros que lo recorrieron. Discovery Exhibits • Santa Fe, NM
The Dead Man of the Jornada El Hombre Muerto de La Jornada Although many travelers died on this harsh stretch of road, the Jornada del Muerto, or the Journey of the Dead Man, got its name from the fate of Bernardo Gruber, a German trader working out of Sonora, Mexico. Agents of the Spanish inquisition imprisoned Gruber, El Aleman (the German), in 1668 under suspicion of practicing witchcraft. After two years in a tiny prison cell near Sandia Pueblo, he escaped with the help of an Apache friend. The two fled south on El Camino Real. After two waterless days of travel, El Aleman stopped and sent his friend ahead to search for water. When the Apache returned two days later, El Aleman had disappeared. Weeks later traders traveling south found “a roan horse tied to a tree by a halter. It was dead…” Searching, they soon discovered “hair and the remnants of clothing…the skull, three ribs, two long bones, and two other little bones which had been gnawed by animals.” These were later determined to be the grisly remains of Bernardo Gruber. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Bureau of Land Management National Park Service El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico Aunque muchos viajeros perecieron en este tramo arduo del camino, la Jornada del Muerto fue nombrada por lo que le pasó a Bernardo Gruber, un tratante alemán de Sonora, México. Oficiales de la Inquisición española arrestaron a Gruber, El Alemán, en 1668, bajo sospecha de practicar brujería. Después de pasar dos años en una pequeña cárcel en el Pueblo de Sandía, se escapó con la ayuda de un apache amigo; los dos huyeron hacia el sur por El Camino Real. Después de dos días de fuga sin agua, El Alemán se detuvo y envió a su amigo adelante a buscar agua. Cuando el apache volvió dos días después, El Alemán había desaparecido. Unas semanas después, algunos tratantes con rumbo hacia el sur encontraron “un caballo de color rosillo amarrado a un árbol con un cabestro ya muerto…” Después de inspeccionar el área, pronto descubrieron “su cabello y las señas de la ropa que traía…la calabera, tres costillas, dos colmillos, y otros dos guesillos pequeños roídos de animales.” Por fin determinaron que eran los espantosos restos de Bernardo Gruber. From a cross to a ranch De cruz a rancho A cross was erected at the spot where Bernardo Gruber died in 1670. That place became known by travelers as La Cruz del Aleman or just Aleman. Almost 200 years later, in 1867, Civil War veteran John Martin dug a water well in that general location and named his ranch “El Aleman.” Over the years this ranch has been a traveler’s rest stop, or paraje, a stagecoach stop and even a post office. In the mid­ 1880s, the traveller's rest became part of the Bar Cross Ranch. Una cruz fue erigida en el lugar donde Bernardo Gruber murió en 1670. Ese lugar llegó a ser conocido por viajeros como La Cruz del Alemán o simplemente Alemán. Casi 200 años después, en 1867, John Martin, veterano de la Guerra Civil, cavó un pozo en el área circundante y nombró su rancho “El Alemán”. A través de los años, este rancho funcionó como un lugar de descanso, o paraje, para viajeros; una parada para diligencias; y aun una estafeta. A mediados de la década de 1880, este paraje llegó a formar parte del moderno Bar Cross Ranch. Look to the north to see some of the Bar Cross buildings. Photo: Bonescape by Jody Johnson Si mira hacia el norte, podrá ver algunas de las construcciones del Bar Cross Ranch.
Yost Escarpment ~ Panel 6 Moving the Goods Transportando las mercancías Carros were used to haul goods from central Mexico to the northern provinces. The wheels on these huge wagons were 8 to 10 feet tall, and 12 feet apart. A carro could carry up to 12,000 pounds of cargo. On El Camino Real they were usually pulled by oxen or mules. Carros como éstos se usaban para transportar mercancías desde México central hasta las provincias del norte. Las ruedas de estos grandes carretones medían de 2,5 a 3 metros (8-10 pies) de diámetro y estaban separados por 3,7 metros (12 pies) de eje a eje. Un carro podía cargar hasta 5.444 kilogramos (12,000 libras) de mercancía. Usualmente, eran tiradas por bueyes o mulas a lo largo de El Camino Real. Slight changes in slope meant big changes if you were moving freight wagons. When caravans came to this steep slope, wagon drivers hitched an extra team of eight oxen to each wagon. Together, 16 oxen would pull from the front going upslope, and hold back from the rear going down. With luck and skill, the wagons would cross this escarpment safely. Panel size: 36" x 24" Cambios casi imperceptibles en la inclinación del camino eran en realidad grandes cambios si se trataba de mover carretones de carga. Cuando las caravanas llegaban a esta inclinación precipitosa, los conductores uncían un grupo extra de ocho bueyes a cada carro. Juntos, los dieciséis bueyes tiraban desde el frente mientras avanzaban cuesta arriba y, cuando bajaban, detenían la parte trasera. Con suerte y habilidad, los carretones podían cruzar esta escarpa con seguridad. Version: 8/20/10 El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Bureau of Land Management National Park Service El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico Carretas were smaller carts used mostly for short hauls. Their two large wooden wheels turned on a pine axle. This made an "unearthly music" and "a siren sound which awakened the dead for five miles or more," said 19th-century travelers. Carros and carretas were the first wheeled vehicles used in North America. En la mayoría de los casos, las carretas eran carros más pequeños utilizados para viajes más cortos. Las dos grandes ruedas de madera giraban en un eje hecho de pino. Esto producía una “música sobrenatural” y “un sonido de sirena que despertaba a los muertos por unos 8 kilómetros (5 millas) o más,” según decían los viajeros del siglo XIX. Los carros y las carretas fueron los primeros vehículos con ruedas que se usaron en Norteamérica. Some of the items being moved along the trail did not require any wagons. Oñate brought 4,000 head of Churro sheep up the trail to establish flocks in the new colonies. Churros, well-suited to their new home, could survive for days without water. Photo: Ingrid Painter, Brownsville, Oregon Algunas de las cosas que se transportaban a lo largo del camino no requerían carretón ninguno. Oñate trajo consigo 4 mil cabezas de borregos churros por el camino con el propósito de establecer rebaños en las nuevas colonias. Estos borregos, bien adaptados para su nuevo hogar, podían sobrevivir por días sin agua. Discovery Exhibits • Santa Fe, NM
National Trails System National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Historic Trails Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide The Mormon Pioneer Trail Across Iowa in 1846 Leaving Nauvoo and “Crossing the Mississippi on the Ice,” by C. A. Christensen Reconstructed Latter-day Saints Temple at Nauvoo, Illinois. NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS AUTO TOUR ROUTE INTERPRETIVE GUIDE The Mormon Pioneer Trail Across Iowa in 1846 Prepared by National Park Service National Trails Intermountain Region 324 South State Street, Suite 200 Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 Telephone: 801-741-1012 www.nps.gov/cali www.nps.gov/oreg www.nps.gov/poex www.nps.gov/mopi NATIONAL PARK SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR April 2007 Second Printing September 2010 contents Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A New Faith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Clash of Cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Exodus From Nauvoo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Winter Retreat Across Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Places to Pause, To Rest…To Die. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 A Far Reaching Impact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Sites and Points of Interest Nauvoo, Illinois to Council Bluffs, Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 For More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Regional Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Back Cover Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska Introduction T he Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail follows the route Auto Tour established by Brigham Young Route to bring his followers from Nauvoo, Illinois, to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, where The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has been based for more than 160 years. That first migration of Latter-day Saints to the Great Basin occurred in two stages: in 1846, from western Illinois to the Missouri River in the area of today’s Council Bluffs, Iowa; and in 1847, from the Missouri River to Salt Lake City. This Auto Tour Route interpretive guide covers the 1846 segment of Mormon Trail from Illinois through Iowa. Because they have not been designated by Congress Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska as part of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, routes and sites used by later Mormon wagon trains and handcart companies are not included in this guide. Individual Auto Tour Route interpretive guides such as this one are in preparation for each state through which the trail passes. As you follow the guide, watch for Auto Tour Route highway logos marking the general route of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. In addition, a National Park Service brochure with a map of the entire Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail is available at many trail-related venues, and also can be requested from the trail’s administrative office at 324 South State Street, Suite 200, Salt Lake City, Utah. Historic Nauvoo, pioneer wagon ruts, emigrant camps, and other places of interest along or near the trail corridor are listed within this guide. Driving directions are also provided. Entrance and parking fees may be charged at some locations; hours may vary at the discretion of the managers —you may want to call ahead. Large groups are encouraged to make prior arrangements for tours, where available. 2 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Iowa - Nebraska A New Faith M ormons, as Latter-day Saints are popularly called, practice a unique religion that arose in 1830 from the teachings of church founder Joseph Smith, Jr. Early converts to the new faith followed their prophet from New York to Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois through the 1830s and ’40s. They were driven from each state by threats and violence. The reasons for the Latter-day Saints’ early troubles still are debated, but religious, political, economic, and social practices all were at issue. Because Mormon beliefs about God and family differed in important ways from mainstream Christianity, they drew criticism and scorn. Because the Latter-day Saints created their own separate towns, religion-based governments, and security forces, their neighbors became uneasy and fearful. Resentment grew as the church became involved in local, state, and eventually, national politics. Disagreements led to legal battles and, in cases, violence
National Trails System Office Intermountain Region National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Historic Trails Interpretive Auto Tour Western Missouri Through Northeastern Kansas “Westport Landing” — by William Henry Jackson Courtesy—William Henry Jackson Collection at Scotts Bluff National Monument . R Driving directions to the sites are provided from major highways and nearby towns. To follow overland trail routes between sites, follow the Auto Tour Route highway signs. Generally, local brochures and guides are also available. Entrance and parking fees may be charged at some locations, and hours may vary at the discretion of site administrators. Large groups are encouraged to make prior arrangements for tours, where tours are available. Please respect private property by staying in public areas, and help protect our national heritage by leaving trail resources undisturbed. National Trails System Office 324 South State Street, Suite 200 P.O. Box 45155 Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0155 Auto Tour Route oadside Auto Tour Route signs mark the general routes of the Oregon, California, and Pony Express national historic trails through western Missouri and northeast Kansas. Actual wagon wheel ruts, emigrant camps, Pony Express stations, and other places of interest can be visited at the sites listed in this guide. Interpretive Auto Tour Western Missouri - Northeast Kansas ACROSS THE WIDE MISSOURI ON THEIR OWN T N he story of the American West is not simply a tale of pioneer courage and vision—of prairie schooners swaying westward to the strains of heroic music. Rather, it is a complex weave of plots and subplots, of romance and religion, of politics and money, and of personal and national tragedy. Traces of the people, livestock, and wooden wheels that were part of those stories can still be found on the landscape. There are traces, too, of native peoples whose lives were changed by emigration. This guide will provide descriptions of the historic places where wagon wheels cut into soft stream banks and over rolling prairie, where lonely trailside graves lie, where missionary outposts were established for Native Americans, and where Pony Express stations were, and more. Pioneers gathered to prepare for their journey at Independence and St. Joseph, Missouri. From there, they would embark across the wide and muddy Missouri River into a strange, windswept land of unfamiliar wonders—and dangers. ot fit for farming, too windswept and exposed to attract homesteaders, the “Great American Desert” that unrolled west of the Missouri River was seen as landscape to be crossed on the way to a better place. That crossing, travelers of the mid-19th century knew, was, by turn, exhausting and exhilarating, and tedious and terrifying. Emigrants’ excitement and anxiety mounted as they prepared to launch their ox-drawn prairie schooners from St. Joseph and Independence, Missouri, bustling river ports at the frontier’s edge. To them, the great, gray ribbon of the Missouri was the western shore of civilized society. Once their wagons rolled off the ferry onto the Kansas side, emigrants embarked into unfamiliar country—trespassers on Indian lands, and beyond the protection of the government. On the trail, there were no markets, no hospitals, no laws, and no second chances. From there until they reached trail’s end some 2,000 miles later, the pioneer emigrants were on their own. Here we were, without law, without order, and without restraint; in a state of nature, amid the confused, revolving fragments of elementary society! Some were sad, while others were merry; and while the brave doubted, the timid trembled! —Lansford W. Hastings, . . . . I, like every other pioneer, love to live over again, in memory those romantic months, and revisit, in fancy, the scenes of the journey. —Catherine Haun, —California emigration of 1849 In the winter of 18 and 46 our neighbor got hold of Fremont’s History of California and . . . . brought the book to my husband to read, & he was carried away with the idea [of emigrating] too. I said O let us not go! —Mary Jones, —California emigration of 1846 Interpretive Auto Tour Western Missouri - Northeast Kansas DANGER, DEATH, AND DISAPPOINTMENT M ost emigrants lived in fear of Indian attack. Rumors of—even hoaxes about—trailside massacres drifted back to Eastern newspapers, and many travelers packed a virtual arsenal to protect themselves on the road. For the most part, though, their fears were unfounded. Historians conclude that more Indian people than emigrants were killed in clashes along the Oregon and California trails. A more serious threat to those gathering at the congested jumping-off places along the Missouri River was a mysterious killer that could neither be seen nor fought: cholera. In the mid-19th century, no one realized that this virulent and painful intestinal infection was caused by bacteria. Spread unknowingly from waterhole to waterhole by sick travel
National Trails System National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Historic Trails Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Nebraska and Northeastern Colorado “Approaching Chimney Rock” By William Henry Jackson Chimney Rock, in western Nebraska, was one of the most notable landmarks recorded in emigrant diaries and journals. Photograph is courtesy of The Wagner Perspective. NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS AUTO TOUR ROUTE INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Nebraska and Northeastern Colorado Prepared by National Park Service National Trails System—Intermountain Region 324 South State Street, Suite 200 Box 30 Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 Telephone: 801-741-1012 www.nps.gov/cali www.nps.gov/oreg www.nps.gov/mopi www.nps.gov/poex NATIONAL PARK SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR August 2006 Contents Introduction • • • • • • • 1 The Great Platte River Road • • • • • • • From Path to Highway • • • • • • • “A Whiz and a Hail” — The Pony Express • • • • • A “Frayed Rope” • • • • • • • The Platte Experience • • • • • • • Natives and Newcomers: A Gathering Storm • • • • • • • War on the Oregon & California Trails • • • • • • • Corridor to Destiny • • • • • • • 2 4 8 11 15 18 21 24 SITES AND POINTS OF INTEREST • • • • • • • Auto Tour Segment A: Odell to Kearney • • • • • • • Auto Tour Segment B: Omaha-Central City-Kearney • • • • • • Auto Tour Segment C: Nebraska City-Central City-Kearney • • • • • • • Auto Tour Segment D: Kearney to Wyoming Border • • • • • • • 25 For More Information • • • • • • • 61 Regional Map • • • • • • • 26 35 41 43 inside the back cover Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Nebraska Introduction M any of the pioneer trails and other historic routes that are important in our nation’s past have been designated by Congress as National Historic Trails. While Auto Tour most of those old roads and routes are Route not open to motorized traffic, people can drive along modern highways that lie close to the original trails. Those modern roads are designated as Auto Tour Routes, and they are marked with highway signs and trail logos to help today’s travelers follow the trails used by the pioneers who helped to open a new nation. This interpretive publication guides visitors along the Auto Tour Routes for the Oregon, California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express National Historic Trails as they approach and parallel the Platte River across Nebraska and cut across the northeastern corner of Colorado. Siteby-site driving directions are included, and an overview map is located inside the back cover. To make the tour more meaningful, this guide also provides an historical overview of the four trails, shares the thoughts and experiences of emigrants who followed those routes, and describes how the westward expansion impacted native peoples of the Great Plains. Individual Auto Tour Route interpretive guides such as this one are in preparation for each state through which the trails pass. In addition, individual National Park Service interpretive brochures for the Oregon, California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express National Historic Trails are available at many trail-related venues, and can be requested from the National Trails System Office at 324 South State, Suite 200, Box 30, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111. These brochures provide more detailed information about each of the trails. Additional information on each trail also can be found on individual trail web sites. Links are listed on the title page of this guide. 1 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Nebraska The Great Platte River Road “Too thick to drink, too thin to plow, too pale to paint.” “A mile wide and an inch deep.” “A stream flowing upside down.” C overed wagon pioneers of the 19th century liked to joke about Nebraska’s Platte River, a stream unlike any they had known back East. But the Platte, strange as it looked, was no joke. A summer shower could send it raging over-bank and through camp; its soft quicksand bottom could swallow up an ox team. River crossings were ordeals to dread. The river’s setting, too, seemed strange. Surrounding prairie, frequently cleansed by wildfire, was burned bare of trees right up to the water’s edge, and a line of low sand hills, looking like a storm-wracked beach, rimmed much of the river valley. Yet the yellow Platte, that treeless “Coast of Nebraska,” was an emigrant’s lifeline—a water source that snaked 800 dusty miles between the Missouri River and the uplands of central Wyoming. Though a choked and sandy disappointment of a stream, the Platte always was and still is a natural east-west corridor across the central plains. Migrating game and moccasin-clad feet wore paths through the “Fort Kearny & the South Platte River” by William Henry Jackson. 2 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Nebraska valley thousands of years before any white man ventured there. Like those first travelers, covered wagon emigrants and their slow, plodding oxen found water, grass, and fuel
National Trails System National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Historic Trails Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Along the Snake River Plain Through Idaho “Three Island Crossing” by William Henry Jackson “Great Falls” on the Snake River. Courtesy of Library of Congress. NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS AUTO TOUR ROUTE INTERPRETIVE GUIDE The Tangle of Trails Through Idaho Prepared by National Park Service National Trails System—Intermountain Region 324 South State Street, Suite 200 Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 Telephone: 801-741-1012 www.nps.gov/cali www.nps.gov/oreg www.nps.gov/poex www.nps.gov/mopi NATIONAL PARK SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR October 2008 Contents Introduction• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 THE DESERT WEST• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 THE SNAKE COUNTRY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4 FINDING THE WAY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7 WYOMING TO FORT HALL• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 11 THE RAFT RIVER PARTING OF THE WAYS• • • • • • • • • • 20 ON TO OREGON• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 22 ‘O FOR MORE PATIENCE’: A SNAKE RIVER SOJOURN • • 29 ‘DEATH OR THE DIGGINS’• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 32 ‘OUTRAGES HAVE BEEN COMMITTED’• • • • • • • • • • • 35 YESTERDAY AND TODAY• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 41 SITES AND POINTS OF INTEREST• • • • • • • • • • • • • 42 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT A: WYOMING TO OREGON ON THE SNAKE RIVER ROUTE OF THE OREGON TRAIL • • • • 45 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT B: THE SOUTH ALTERNATE OREGON TRAIL ROUTE, GLENNS FERRY TO OREGON STATE LINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 78 FOR MORE INFORMATION: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 82 Credits: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 82 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Idaho Introduction M any of the pioneer trails and other historic routes that are important in our nation’s past have been designated by Congress as National Auto Tour Historic Trails. While most of the old roads and routes still in existance are not open to motorized Route traffic, people can drive along modern highways that closely parallel the original trails. Those modern roads are designated as Auto Tour Routes, and they are marked with highway signs and trail logos to help today’s travelers follow the trails used by the pioneers who helped to open the American West. This interpretive publication guides visitors along the Auto Tour Routes for the Oregon and California National Historic Trails across Idaho. Site-by-site driving directions are included, and an overview map is located inside the back cover. To make the tour more meaningful, this guide also provides a historical overview of the two trails, shares the thoughts and experiences of emigrants who followed these routes, and discusses how the westward expansion impacted native peoples of Idaho. Individual Auto Tour Route interpretive guides such as this one are in preparation for each state through which the trails pass. In addition, individual National Park Service brochures for the Oregon and California National Historic Trails are available at many trail-related venues, and also can be requested from the National Trails System administrative office at 324 South State Street, Suite 200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111. Each brochure includes a map of the entire trail and an overview of trail history. Additional information about each trail also can be found on individual trail web sites. Links are listed on the “For More Information” page of this guide. Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Idaho THE DESERT WEST A s covered-wagon emigrants crossed today’s Idaho, they found the romance of the road wearing as thin as the soles of their trailtorn shoes. The pioneers’ initial energy and excitement curdled into fatigue and crankiness after three or more months on the road. Nightly fireside dances got left behind back down the trail, next to Grandpa’s clock, Mother’s good china, and heaps of souring bacon. Highjinks and horse races grew rare, quarrels more frequent. Journal-keepers, when they “Freighters Grub Pile,” by William mustered the energy to write at all, Henry Jackson. Courtesy of Library of generally jotted terse complaints Congress. about fellow travelers, Indians, heat, exhaustion, dust, mosquitoes, aches and pains, and the “stink” of the never-ending sagebrush. It seems the nearer we approach Oregon the worse roads we have, and a worse more rough looking country. —Amelia Hadley, 1851 Oregon emigration Felt today like giving up in despair, the intolerable heat and dust, together with fatigue makes me almost sick at heart. —Esther Belle Hanna, 1852 California emigration [Men] are by turns, or all together, cross, peevish, sullen, boisterous, giddy, profane, dirty, vulgar, ragged, mustachioed, bewhiskered, idle, petulant, quarrelsome, unfaithful, disobedient, refractory, careless,
National Trails System National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Historic Trails Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Across Wyoming “Rendezvous,” by William Henry Jackson NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS AUTO TOUR ROUTE INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Across Wyoming Prepared by National Park Service National Trails Intermountain Region www.nps.gov/cali www.nps.gov/oreg www.nps.gov/mopi www.nps.gov/poex NATIONAL PARK SERVICE US DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Third Printing December 2016 Historical marker on South Pass recognizing the first “white” women to make the trek to Oregon in 1836. CONTENTS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Gateway to the West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Blazing the Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Approaching the Rockies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sweetwater to South Pass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Beyond the Great Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Leapfrogging Across Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Ho for California! Oregon or Bust! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Fire on the Plains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 God Speed to the Boy & the Pony! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The End of the Trail Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Sites and Points of Interest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Auto Tour Segment A —Nebraska State Line to Casper . . . . . . . Auto Tour Segment B —Casper to Seedskadee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auto Tour Segment C —The Lander Road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auto Tour Segment D —Seedskadee to Idaho State Line. . . . . . . Auto Tour Segment E —Seedskadee to Utah State Line. . . . . . . . 38 50 68 70 71 For More Information/Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Regional Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside Back Cover Eastern view of the Sweetwater River Valley from atop Independence Rock, by William Henry Jackson. Image is courtesy of the Brigham Young University Online Collection. Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Wyoming INTRODUCTION Auto Tour Route any of the pioneer trails and other M historic routes that are important in our nation’s past have been designated by Congress as national historic trails. While most of those old roads and routes are not open to motorized traffic, people can drive along modern highways that lie close to the original trails. Those modern roads are designated as Auto Tour Routes, and are marked with highway signs and trail logos to help today’s travelers follow the trails used by the pioneers who helped to open a new nation. This interpretive publication guides visitors along the Auto Tour Routes for the Oregon, California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express national historic trails as they as they cross the state of Wyoming from east to west. Site-by-site driving directions are included, and an overview map is located inside the back cover. To make the tour more meaningful, this guide also provides a historical overview of the four trails, shares the thoughts and experiences of emigrants who followed those routes, and describes how westward expansion impacted native peoples of the Intermountain West. National Park Service interpretive brochures for the Oregon, California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express national historic trails are available at many trail-related venues, or can be requested via email to ntir_information@nps.gov. Additional information on each trail also can be found on individual trail websites. Links are listed on the title page of this guide. Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Wyoming GATEWAY TO THE WEST History is geography set into motion. —Johann Gottfried Herder, 18th century philosopher of history T he Rocky Mountains stretch like a jagged spine between Alaska and Mexico, splitting North America into East and West. The Continental Divide is not a simple line of peaks, easily threaded by tracks and roads, but a complex of overlapping mountain ranges and treeless sagebrush steppe, hundreds of miles wide. In the days of covered wagon travel, the Rockies were an imposing barrier to the movement of people, commerce, and communications. Early explorers probed the Northern Rockies looking for the fabled “Northwest Passage” that would open an easy route for transcontinental traffic. The men of Lewis and Clark’s Cor
National Trails System National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Historic Trails Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Utah — Crossroads of the West “Wagons Through Echo Canyon,” by William Henry Jackson Pony Express Bible photograph is courtesy of Joe Nardone, — Pony Express History Association. Every Pony Express rider working for Russell, Majors, and Waddell, was issued a personal Bible to carry with them and obliged to pledge this oath: “I, [name of rider] - do hereby swear before the great and living God that during my engagement and while I am an employee of Russell, Majors, and Waddell, I will under no circumstances use profane language, I will drink no intoxicating liquors; that I will not quarrel or fight with any other employee of the firm and that in every respect I will I conduct myself honestly, faithful to my duties, and so direct my acts, as to win the confidence of my employers, So help me God.” NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS AUTO TOUR ROUTE INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Utah — Crossroads of the West Prepared by National Park Service National Trails—Intermountain Region 324 South State Street, Suite 200 Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 Telephone: 801-741-1012 www.nps.gov/cali www.nps.gov/oreg www.nps.gov/poex www.nps.gov/mopi NATIONAL PARK SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR September 2010 Contents INTRODUCTION • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 A NOTE ON STATE BOUNDARIES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 THE BIG EMPTY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3 SAGEBRUSH AND SALT FLATS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4 FIRST WAGONS INTO UTAH • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7 ‘A NIGHER ROUTE’: The Hastings Cutoff • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 11 ‘THIS IS THE PLACE’: The Mormon Pioneers • • • • • • • • • • • • •18 A HALF-WAY HOUSE ON THE CALIFORNIA TRAIL • • • • • • • • • 28 THE UTAH WAR • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 34 ‘THE FORLORNEST SPOT’: The Pony Express Trail in Utah • • • 36 THE WARPATH • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 43 CROSSROADS OF THE WEST• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 47 SITES AND POINTS OF INTEREST • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 49 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT A: Wyoming Border To Salt Lake City, Utah — (Hastings Cutoff Of The California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express Trails) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 49 OPTIONAL BACKCOUNTRY ROUTE: East Canyon/Little Emigration Canyon • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 65 SALT LAKE CITY PIONEER TOUR • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 77 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT B: Salt Lake City To West Wendover, NV • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 90 OPTIONAL BACKCOUNTRY ROUTE: Skull Valley and Hastings Pass • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 95 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT C: Salt Lake City To City Of Rocks NR, ID (Salt Lake Cutoff of the California Trail) • • • • • • • • • • 105 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT D: Pony Express Trail National Back Country Byway • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 110 For More Information • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 122 Credits • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 122 Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Utah INTRODUCTION M any of the pioneer trails and other historic routes that are important in our nation’s past have been designated by Congress as National Historic Trails. While most of the trail ruts still in existence are not open to motorized traffic, people can drive along modern highways that either overlie the original route or closely parallel it. Those modern roads are designated as Auto Tour Routes, and they are marked with highway signs and trail logos to help today’s travelers follow the routes used by the pioneers who helped to open the American West. This interpretive publication guides visitors along the Auto Tour Routes for the California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express National Historic Trails across Utah. Site-by-site driving directions are included, and an overview map is located inside the back cover. To make the tour more meaningful, this guide also provides a historical overview of the three trails, shares the thoughts and experiences of emigrants who followed these routes, and discusses how the westward expansion impacted the native peoples of what is now Utah. Individual Auto Tour Route interpretive guides such as this one are in preparation for each state through which the trails pass. In addition, individual National Park Service brochures for the California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express National Historic Trails are available at many trail-related venues, and also can be requested from the National Trails System administrative office at 324 South State Street, Suite 200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111. Each brochure includes a map of the entire trail and a general overview of
National Trails Intermountain Region National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior National Historic Trails Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Across Nevada California National Historic Trail Pony Express National Historic Trail By the time they reached the Humboldt Sink, or Forty-mile Desert, many emigrant pioneers had little food, exhausted livestock, and broken wagons. [Cover photo] Forty-mile Desert NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS AUTO TOUR ROUTE INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Across Nevada on the Humboldt Route and The Central Route of the Pony Express Prepared by National Park Service National Trails Intermountain Region www.nps.gov/cali www.nps.gov/oreg www.nps.gov/poex www.nps.gov/mopi NATIONAL PARK SERVICE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR April 2012 Table of Contents ‘MOST CORDIALLY I HATE YOU’: THE HUMBOLDT RIVER •••••••••••••••••••• 2 THE GREAT BASIN •••••••••••••••••••• 4 SEEKING MARY’S RIVER •••••••••••••••••••• 5 APPROACHING THE HUMBOLDT • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 11 PRELUDE TO MURDER • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 15 THE HUMBOLDT EXPERIENCE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 18 WEST TO STONY POINT • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 21 THE POLITICS OF HUNGER • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 24 A FLASH OF THE BLADE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 27 ‘HEARTILY TIRED OF THE JOURNEY’ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 29 THE HUMBOLDT SINK • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 33 THE Forty-mile DESERT; or, HOW TO KILL AN OX • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 35 INTO THE SIERRA NEVADA • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 42 THE PONY BOYS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 44 CHANGE IN THE GREAT BASIN • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 51 Sites & Points of Interest: Setting Out • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 53 Navigating the California Trail Across Nevada • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 54 Tips for Trailing Across Nevada • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 56 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT A: WEST WENDOVER AND JACKPOT, NEVADA, TO CALIFORNIA (California Trail) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 58 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT B: BLACK ROCK DESERT, RYE PATCH RESERVOIR TO GERLACH, NEVADA (Applegate and Nobles Trails) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 77 AUTO TOUR SEGMENT C: WEST WENDOVER, NEVADA TO CALIFORNIA BORDER (Pony Express Trail and Carson and Walker River-Sonora Routes of the California Trail) FOR MORE INFORMATION: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 86 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 102 Introduction M any of the pioneer trails and other historic routes that are important in our nation’s past have been designated by Congress as national historic trails. While most of those old wagon roads and routes are not open to motorized traffic, visitors can drive along modern highways that either retrace the original route or closely parallel it. Those modern roads are designated as Auto Tour Routes. They are marked with “National Historic Trails” highway signs to help today’s travelers follow the routes used by the pioneers who helped to open the American West. This interpretive publication guides visitors along the Auto Tour Routes for the California and Pony Express national historic trails as they cross the state of Nevada from east to west. Site-by-site driving directions are included, and an overview map is located inside the back cover. To make the tour more meaningful, this guide also provides a historical overview of the two trails, shares the thoughts and experiences of emigrants who trekked to California, and discusses how the westward expansion impacted native peoples of what is now Nevada. Individual Auto Tour Route interpretive guides such as this one are in preparation for each state that the Oregon, California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express trails pass through. In addition, individual National Park Service brochures for the four national historic trails are available at many trail-related venues and can be requested from the National Trails Intermountain Region Salt Lake City Branch Office at ntsl_interpretation@nps.gov. Each brochure includes a color map of the entire trail and provides an overview of information about each of the trails. Additional information can also can be found on individual trail websites. For links see page 102. Auto Tour Route Interpretive Guide Nevada ‘MOST CORDIALLY I HATE YOU’: THE HUMBOLDT RIVER T he four great rivers that led covered wagon pioneers into the far West each had a personality all its own. There was the gritty prairie Platte, cantankerous but dependable; the brooding, basalt-shrouded Snake, menacing as a stranger with a hostile stare; and the broad-shouldered Columbia, the Big River of the West, confident and athletic, striding purposefully toward the Pacific Ocean. But the Humboldt. The Humboldt was sullen and spiteful, a mocking mean joker that lured emigrants deep into the desert, swindle

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