"Sandstone formation" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

El Morro

National Monument - New Mexico

El Morro National Monument is located on an ancient east-west trail in western New Mexico. The main feature of this National Monument is a great sandstone promontory with a pool of water at its base. As a shaded oasis in the western U.S. desert, this site has seen many centuries of travelers. The remains of a mesa top pueblo are atop the promontory where between about 1275 to 1350 AD, up to 1500 people lived in this 875 room pueblo.

maps

Official visitor map of El Morro National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).El Morro - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of El Morro National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Zuni Mountains in the Mount Taylor Ranger District (RD) of Cibola National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Cibola MVUM - Mount Taylor - Zuni Mountains 2020

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Zuni Mountains in the Mount Taylor Ranger District (RD) of Cibola National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

https://www.nps.gov/elmo/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Morro_National_Monument El Morro National Monument is located on an ancient east-west trail in western New Mexico. The main feature of this National Monument is a great sandstone promontory with a pool of water at its base. As a shaded oasis in the western U.S. desert, this site has seen many centuries of travelers. The remains of a mesa top pueblo are atop the promontory where between about 1275 to 1350 AD, up to 1500 people lived in this 875 room pueblo. Imagine the refreshment of finding water after days of dusty travel. A reliable waterhole hidden at the base of a sandstone bluff made El Morro (the headland) a popular campsite for hundreds of years. Here, Ancestral Puebloans, Spanish and American travelers carved over 2,000 signatures, dates, messages, and petroglyphs. Make El Morro National Monument a stopping point on your travels. From Albuquerque, NM, or from the east: take Interstate 40 west to Grants. At exit 81, go south on Highway 53 for 42 miles to El Morro National Monument. From Flagstaff, AZ, or from the west: take Interstate 40 east to Gallup. At exit 20, go south on Highway 602 for about 31 miles. Turn east (left) onto Highway 53. El Morro is 25 more miles. El Morro Visitor Center Your visit to El Morro National Monument begins here. Park rangers and volunteers are available to answer your questions and orient you to the facilities and self-guided trails. Both of the park trails begin at the visitor center. From Albuquerque, NM, or from the east: take Interstate 40 west to Grants. At exit 81, go south on Highway 53 for 42 miles to El Morro National Monument. From Flagstaff, AZ, or from the west: take Interstate 40 east to Gallup. At exit 20, go south on Highway 602 for about 31 miles. Turn east (left) onto Highway 53. El Morro is 25 more miles. El Morro Campground El Morro National Monument operates a nine-site campground year-round. First come-first served. Each site has a graveled tent pad, picnic table and ground grill for fires. During the warmer months, water is available at spigots that are centrally located along the campground loop road. Once the overnight low's begin to reach freezing temperatures, water is turned off for the season. There are no hookups for RVs. The length limit on all motor homes is 27 feet overall. One site, #5, is handicapped accessible. El Morro Campground 0.00 There are no fees for the campground El Morro Campground El Morro Campsite El Morro Campground offers peace and quiet in a tranquil setting. Ranger Recreates Historic Photograph A ranger recreates a historic El Morro Photograph Ranger Andrew recreates a historic photograph with Petroglyphs at El Morro. El Morro in snow Headland in Snow El Morro blanketed with snow El Morro with Sunflowers El Morro with Sunflowers El Morro with Sunflowers Pool at El Morro Pool at El Morro A drinking hole for visitors for hundreds of years, the pool at El Morro has significant cultural and historical value. Trail at El Morro Trail at El Morro Constructed by the CCC, the historic headland trail at El Morro offers visitors great views and the archaeological site of Atsinna. Atsinna Pueblo Atsinna Pueblo Atsinna Pueblo sits atop the headland at El Morro Then and Now at the Pool Ranger recreates a historic photo A ranger recreates a historic photograph at El Morro near The Pool. 2011 SCPN-NAU Student Projects In spring 2011, the SCPN-NAU School of Communication collaboration began with a multimedia studies course focused on documenting park resources and resource projects. The class was taught by NAU professors Laura Camden and Peter Friederici. 2011 Student Projects The Colorado Plateau The Colorado Plateau is centered on the four corners area of the Southwest, and includes much of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Hazy Fajada Butte, Chaco Culture National Monument NPS Geodiversity Atlas—El Morro National Monument, New Mexico Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] rock outcrop Monitoring Night Skies and Natural Soundscapes on the Southern Colorado Plateau Many national parks in the Southern Colorado Plateau region contain large areas of wilderness, where dark night skies and natural soundscapes are important human values. Dark night skies, which depend upon the visibility of stars and other natural components, are diminishing resources in several park units because of anthropogenic activities. Natural soundscapes—that is, the natural sounds of wildlands—are degraded by sounds caused by humans or human technology. Clouds and sky turning red and orange over Navajo National Monument at sunset Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. Southern Colorado Plateau Bird Inventories Birds are considered to be good indicators of environmental change. Inventories of bird populations not only provide valuable information that can help manage bird populations, but can also be helpful in managing other resources as well. Yellow-rumped warbler Vegetation Characterization and Mapping on the Southern Colorado Plateau Vegetation mapping is a tool used by botanists, ecologists, and land managers to better understand the abundance, diversity, and distribution of different vegetation types across a landscape. Vegetation plots used for the classification and mapping of El Malpais NM Climate Change on the Southern Colorado Plateau The combination of high. elevation and a semi-arid climate makes the Colorado Plateau particularly vulnerable to climate change. Climate models predict that over the next 100 years, the Southwest will become warmer and even more arid, with more extreme droughts than the region has experienced in the recent past. One result of climate change may be more, larger floods, like this flash flood in Glen Canyon NRA Monitoring Spring Ecosystems on the Southern Colorado Plateau Springs are important water sources in arid landscapes, supporting unique plant associations and sustaining high levels of biotic diversity. Because springs rely on groundwater, they can serve as important indicators of change in local and regional aquifers. On the Colorado Plateau, spring ecosystems also provide vital habitat for both endemic and regionally rare species, including several types of orchids and declining populations of leopard frogs. A pool of water filled with vegetation and sheltered by large rocks Southern Colorado Plateau Mammal Inventories Mammal inventories help to close the gap in our knowledge and understanding of some taxonomic groups on the Colorado Plateau. Coyote (Canis latrans) Before the Signatures: A New Vázquez de Coronado Site at the El Morro NM Engravings along the base of El Morro National Monument's Inscription Rock range from prehistoric petroglyphs to the earliest known European inscription, Don Juan de Oñate's engraved memorial, dated 1605. Dramatic new evidence — a range of metal artifacts — has emerged linking El Morro with the earliest major Spanish entrada in the desert Southwest – the 1540-1542 expedition of Capitan General Francisco Vázquez de Coronado. Two people stand at base of large stone wall. National Park Getaway: El Morro National Monument At El Morro National Monument, a thousand years of history is written in stone. Follow in the footsteps of ancient Puebloans, Spanish conquistadors, and American pioneers—all in one afternoon. From an afternoon stroll back in time to a night at our nine-site campground under the dark night skies, wonders await. Sandstone bluff overlooking a desert valley below Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: SCPN-NAU School of Communication Collaboration The Southern Colorado Plateau Network (SCPN) of the National Park Service has been partnering with the Northern Arizona University (NAU) School of Communication since 2011 to develop student multimedia projects that highlight resources and activities in network parks. This collaboration gives NAU students hands-on experience in creating multimedia projects and provides network parks with products that can help to promote their unique resources and scientific or educational project work. SCPN-NAU student projects Two for the Price of One Companion, assistant, confidant, ambassador, host, nurse, cook, secretary, editor, field technician, wildlife wrangler, diplomat, and social director are some of the many roles that people who marry into the NPS perform in support of their spouses and the NPS mission. Although the wives and daughters of park rangers were some of the earliest women rangers in the NPS, many more women served as “park wives” in the 1920s–1940s. Three members of a family Substitute Rangers As the 1940s dawned, the United States was still dealing with the economic woes of the Great Depression and trying not to get drawn in WWII. Even as it continued to manage New Deal Program work in national and state parks, the NPS remained understaffed as a government bureau. The emergency relief workers and about 15 percent of NPS staff enlisted or were drafted during the first couple of years of WWII. Winifred Tada, 1940. (Courtesy of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin)
El Morro National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior El Morro National Monument Planning Your Visit Inscription Rock Rising above the valley floor, a massive sandstone bluff was a welcome landmark for weary travelers. A reliable waterhole hidden at its base made El Morro (or Inscription Rock) a popular campsite. For over 300 years Spanish exlorers and soldiers, followed by American soldiers, pioneers and others, passed by El Morro. While they rested in its shade and drank from the pool, many carved their signatures, dates, and messages. Perhaps the Spanish carved the first inscriptions after seeing petroglyphs left hundreds of years earlier by Ancestral Puebloans living on top of the bluff. Today, El Morro National Monument protects over 2,000 inscriptions and petroglyphs, many easily viewed as you wander along the base of this majestic rock. Hours and Fees Hours are subject to change, although El Morro National Monument is usually open from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. You must begin your walk one hour before closing time. Call ahead or check our website to inquire about extended summer hours. Trails may close due to severe weather conditions. El Morro is open every day except December 25 and January 1. Passes Interagency Annual, Senior, and Access Passes, as well as El Morro Passes are honored and can be purchased at the Visitor Center. For more information about these passes got to http://www.nps.gov/fees_passes. htm or call the monument. Fees There is a trail fee of $3.00 per adult, which is good for 7 consecutive days. Children under 16 are free. There is no fee for exploring the Visitor Center. Educational Groups Groups such as elementary, high school, or college classes studying some aspect of El Morro may request an educational fee waiver. Please call at least two weeks in advance to request your fee waiver. Visitor Center Your visit to El Morro National Monument begins here. Park staff is available to answer your questions and orient you to the facilities and self–guided trails. Both trails begin at the Visitor Center. Exhibits located in the Visitor Center span 700 years of human history in the El Morro area. A fifteen– minute video provides an orientation to the monument, and a computer will take you on a virtual tour. Camping and Picnicking A 9–site primitive campground operates on a first come, first served basis. A fee is charged from roughly May through October. During the winter, water is turned off and camping is free. Fires are permitted in provided grills, except during periods of high fire danger. Picnicking Picnic tables, including a group picnic site with grill, are available adjacent to the Visitor Center during business hours. The campgound is not intended for day use. Preserving our Heritage During your visit you will probably see many beautiful and interesting things. However, it is illegal to take anything away from here. This includes items such as flowers, feathers, pottery sherds, pine cones, rocks, plants, snakes, and anything else, living or not. Enjoy what you find, but then leave it behind! El Morro is a very historically, culturally and geologically sensitive area. For this reason and for your own safety, please stay on the designated trails at all times and obey any trail closures that may be in effect. 189 miles to Flagstaff Driving Directions From Albuquerque, take Interstate 40 west to Grants. At exit 81, go south on Highway 53 for 42 miles to El Morro National Monument. N Gallup I-40 From Flagstaff, AZ, or from the west, take Interstate 40 east to Gallup. At exit 20, go south on Highway 602 for about 31 miles. Turn east (left) onto Highway 53. El Morro is 25 more miles. 602 75 miles to Albuquerque Grants 53 Zuni Ramah El Morro National Monument 53 38 El Malpais National Monument and Conservation Area 117 Trails Inscription Trail A must–see! If you only have an hour or less, you will definitely want to take the trail to the pool and past hundreds of Spanish and Anglo inscriptions, as well as pre–historic petroglyphs. These inscriptions are the reason El Morro was proclaimed a National Monument in 1906. This ½–mile loop trail is paved and wheelchair accessible with assistance. Camping In addition to the campground at El Morro, the Ancient Way Cafe and Outpost has tent spaces, RV spaces with hook–ups and showers. Tinaja Restaurant (5 miles east) has RV spaces: 505-783-4349. Primitive camping is permitted in Cibola National Forest. Restaurants, Gasoline, and Groceries Food and gasoline are not available at El Morro. There are restaurants and gas stations within a few miles, as well as in Ramah, Zuni, Gallup, and Grants. Reading Ahead Caution: Commercial trucks frequent Highway 53. Please exercise caution when turning onto and off of the highway. Acoma Mesa Top Trail If you have at least 1 ½ hours and lots of energy, you can also hike to the top of the mesa. There, you will be rewarded with spectacular views of the Zuni Mountain
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior El Morro El Morro National Monument Geology Geology 101 The geology of Inscription Rock made it possible for travelers to leave their lasting legacy etched into the sandstone. The stone, known as Zuni Sandstone, is a deposit of wind–blown sand of Jurassic age (about 170 million years old). The details of the geology add background to the stories we read from the inscriptions and from the remains of ancient dwellings found here at El Morro. Why is Inscription Rock so easy to inscribe? Zuni Sandstone is only held together by clay between the sand grains; it is not cemented at all. The Zuni Sandstone was never buried so deeply that sand grains were squeezed tightly, fusing the grains together. Instead, below the water table, where the subsurface water chemistry was quite alkaline, some sand grains were dissolved and reprecipitated as a weak cement around the remaining grains. When the alkaline ground water dissolved these grains, it also precipitated a Some of the inscriptions are finely detailed. Does the rock type have something to do with that? Why is the Zuni Sandstone believed to be a wind–blown deposit? Yes. The sandstone grains are very uniform in size and they are very small. You can imagine that a gravel deposit could not be inscribed so finely. clay mineral called kaolinite in the minute spaces between the remaining quartz grains. This clay is the only thing that binds the sandstone together. Scratching on the sand easily dislodges sand grains from the rock. Although it may be easy to carve, this irreplacable natural and cultural wonder is protected by the National Park Service as it is. It is illegal to carve or write anything on Inscription Rock. away the finest dust, clay and silt particles but cannot transport heavier, coarse–grained sand, pebbles or cobbles. The result is that eolian deposits like the Zuni are well sorted—the grains are all about the same size and are quite small. The Zuni Sandstone has been interpreted as a wind-blown or eolian deposit. As is typical of most wind deposits, the sandstone is composed of very fine to fine grains (more than 10 grains fit in a millimeter). That’s because wind generally blows The combination of fine, evenly sorted, and weakly cemented grains has created a smooth texture that was well–suited to finely detailed carving. Thick sets of inclined beds, uniform small sand grains, lack of coarse pebbles or fine shale beds and lack of fossils all indicate that the Zuni is a desert sand deposit. thick like desert dune deposits. By noting the direction of inclination of the cross-beds, you can determine that the ancient wind direction at El Morro was from the northeast. The sweeping bedding planes are known as crossbeds. They are produced as wind (or water) transports sand grains up and over a dune or a ripple. The steep leeward faces of the dunes or ripples are preserved as cross-beds in the final sandstone deposit. The windward or upstream side of the dune, being continually attacked and eroded, is rarely preserved in the final deposit. You may also see that the cross-beds are sandwiched between persistent, relatively flat horizons spaced several meters apart. The flat enclosing surfaces indicate that the tilted beds are cross-beds and have not been tilted by mountain building. Wind–blown dunes tend to be taller than water– laid cross-beds. The El Morro cross-beds are The Zuni Sandstone was deposited in a Sahara like desert, not in a coastal or lakeside dune field. Zuni Sandstone and equivalent sandstones with different names are found throughout the Colorado Plateau. El Morro is surprisingly vertical. Doesn't erosion tend to crumble cliffs? The Zuni Sandstone is broken by large vertical fractures called joints. When erosion occurs, whole slabs on one side of a joint fall off and the cliff remains vertical. Joints may have expanded as the Zuni Sandstone was uplifted and confining pressure was removed. The beginnings of the joints may have occurred while the sandstone was buried and squeezed horizontally. The stress may have been related to drift of the North American continental plate or to more local uplift of the Zuni Mountains. Under constant pressure the rock adjusted its shape, relieving the stress by fracturing vertically in two directions. At El Morro the main joints are oriented east-northeast; others are oriented almost north. How did that box canyon form inside the mesa? Although some rainwater drains off the edge of the cliff to fill the pool, most drainage is down the gentle backside of the cliff. This runoff is eroding the box canyon. El Morro is a flat–topped mesa, gently tilted about 3° to the southwest. Because of the tilt, it is called a cuesta. Due to much greater surface area tilted south west, the majority of runoff flows that direction. Initially, a weak area to the southwest on the cuesta eroded into an indentation. Continued Why is there a pool here in this
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior El Morro El Morro National Monument Monitoring and Preservation Why preserve? El Morro is an important link to the past and natural deterioration of that link is a concern. Even though the inscriptions on Inscription Rock are very old, dating back to the 1600's, and the petroglyphs are anywhere from 700-1000 years old, they will not be here forever. The processes of erosion, weathering and plant growth all take their toll. Sand grains wear away, rocks crumble and fall, and lichens and clay deposits cover the historic carvings. Important inscriptions become illegible or fall from the face of the bluff. A part of the evidence of our heritage is crumbling away. The National Park Service hopes to preserve this evidence for as long as possible by assessing, monitoring and treating the inscriptions and the rocks in which they are carved. Rockfall monitoring The cliffs at El Morro are composed of Zuni Sandstone which is jointed, or broken into huge blocks by vertical fractures. If park rangers are aware of the loosening of one of these blocks, it may be possible to predict a large rockfall, averting danger to visitors. Water enters the rock through joints. Freezes expand the water volume by 10%, exerting pressure on the sides of the joint. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles exert cumulative stress on the joint. Joints are also avenues for roots to penetrate the rock. As a plant or tree grows, the roots are also growing and expanding in the joint crack, sending root hairs into the smallest spaces. When water and roots open a joint, sand grains fall into the opening crack, helping to keep it spread apart. Eventually, rocks will fall from the cliffs. The large crack just beyond marker #12 is believed to be stable, but it is monitored for any movement. To measure the crack, four bolts must be accessed by ladder. The bolts have been placed on opposite sides of the joint to serve as reference points. Park staff periodically climb up the ladder and record the distances between the bolts. Another method the park uses to monitor this joint is a tilt meter. It was installed to record changes in the inclination of the monolith by measuring degrees of tilt. The instrument is located high on the cliff near marker #13. Rangers connect a recording device to the wire leading from the instrument to obtain the inclination in two directions. Since Fall 2000 when the current measuring devices were installed, the data suggest that the rock does move a bit, particularly in winter and spring with the freezes and thaws, but only in the range of tenths of millimeters. Most of the movement is in and out, as opposed to an outward trending movement. The tilt meter indicates no more than 1/4o of increased lean in the last 36 months. The monolith seems stable for now, but monitoring will continue. Inscription Monitoring The inscriptions are carved into sandstone that is very weakly cemented—the sand particles are held together only by clay between the grains. The poor cementation of the rock made it easy to carve inscriptions, but it is also the reason the rock is deteriorating quickly. Inscription Rock is eroded mechanically and chemically. Mechanical attack includes expansion by freeze/thaw and wet/dry cycles, growth of lichens, burrowing by animals and insects, and abrasion by wind and water. Chemical weathering includes the interaction of the rock with the chemicals in the ground water, which can lead to erosion. Inscriptions at the point of El Morro, near marker #14, are being eroded the most rapidly. This northeast corner bears the brunt of weathering. The cliff face is abraded by lashing rain, sleet and wind that swirls around the point. Other inscriptions are being covered by a wash of clay. The clay is leached out of the rock above and carried by rainwater or snowmelt seeping down the face of the cliff. After the water evaporates, clay remains behind and can coat the inscriptions. The clay washes also seem to be prevalent below areas where insects have bored holes into the rock, so perhaps the insects release extra clay. Preservation and Prognosis By now you may be wondering what is being done to preserve the inscriptions. The goal of the El Morro Inscription Preservation Program, begun in 1997, is to slow the rate of deterioration and loss of this remarkable record of human passage by monitoring and treating threatened inscriptions. Inscriptions are monitored by comparing old photos with present appearances for lichen growth, clay deposition, cracking or detaching and erosion of the sandstone. Spalling, another mechanical process, involves flaking of thin scales of rock from the face of the bluff. Spalling begins with water seeping slowly within the rock from above. The seeping water dissolves minerals that are redeposited on the rock face when the water evaporates. The crust that forms then traps water behind it. Salts repeatedly collect behind the crust and cause spalling
VULTURES Turkey Vulture U FC U HAWKS, EAGLES O * U U U O * FC * R U O U U U U U U U O O O FC FC FC R R R U U U FALCONS * FC FC FC FC R R O * U U U * U U U U RAILS R R O R r O O o r O o o o R r O O O o r O o o o o o * o o o o o o o o u fc u CUCKOOS Yellow-billed Cuckoo Greater Roadrunner r o r r OWLS Flammulated Owl Western Screech-Owl Great Horned Owl Northern Pygmy-Owl Long-eared Owl * * * r r r r r r u u u u o o o o o NIGHTJARS Common Nighthawk Common Poorwill * * u fc r r r r SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS White-throated Swift * Black-chinned Hummingbird * Calliope Hummingbird Broad-tailed Hummingbird * c u KINGFISHERS R r PIGEONS, DOVES Rock Pigeon Eurasian Collared-Dove White-winged Dove Mourning Dove R winter O O O O O O Semipalmated Plover Killdeer Spotted Sandpiper Solitary Sandpiper Greater Yellowlegs Willet Western Sandpiper Baird’s Sandpiper Pectoral Sandpiper Long-billed Dowitcher Wilson’s Snipe Wilson’s Phalarope Red-necked Phalarope Ring-billed Gull fall Great Blue Heron Snowy Egret White-faced Ibis Rufous Hummingbird summer O O O O SPECIES spring O O U U U R O O O O O O O O O O O O  nesting * Scaled Quail American Coot winter O HERONS, IBIS American Kestrel Merlin Peregrine Falcon Prairie Falcon fall SHOREBIRDS, GULLS GALLINACEOUS BIRDS Osprey Bald Eagle Northern Harrier Sharp-shinned Hawk Cooper’s Hawk Northern Goshawk Swainson’s Hawk Red-tailed Hawk Rough-legged Hawk Ferruginous Hawk Golden Eagle summer Gadwall American Wigeon Mallard Blue-winged Teal Cinnamon Teal Northern Shoveler Green-winged Teal Bufflehead Ruddy Duck SPECIES spring WATERFOWL  nesting 181 species as of May, 2008. winter Compiled from observations made between September 2002 and May 2008, in addition to previous checklists by McCallum (1979), Stoltz (1987), and USGS (2002). fall KEY C=Common—usually easy to find. FC=Fairly Common—usually present but not as easy to find. U=Uncommon—regular, but only a few individuals may be present in a particular season. R=Rare—irregular, or not detected every year. O=Occasional—few records exist. X=Extirpated—no longer occurs in the area. *=Nests or has nested. summer To help further our knowledge of El Morro’s wildlife, we encourage you to report your observations to staff at the visitor center. SPECIES spring Samuel Washington Woodhouse, an ornithologist who passed by here in 1851 with the Sitgreaves Expedition, secured El Morro’s place in American ornithology history books with the first-ever scientific description of a White-throated Swift. Since then, El Morro has offered birdwatchers the chance for discovery. The variety of habitats contained within a small area (1,278 acres) makes possible the diversity and number of bird species found here.  nesting “E ncamped at the Inscription Rock, a singular sandstone mesa . . . I observed a new swift . . . ” Belted Kingfisher o o WOODPECKERS Lewis’s Woodpecker * r r r r Acorn Woodpecker O O O Williamson’s Sapsucker r r r Red-naped Sapsucker fc r fc u Ladder-backed Woodpecker O o O Hairy Woodpecker * fc fc fc fc Northern Flicker * c c c c TYRANT FLYCATCHERS Olive-sided Flycatcher Western Wood-Pewee Willow Flycatcher Hammond’s Flycatcher Gray Flycatcher Dusky Flycatcher Cordilleran Flycatcher Buff-breasted Flycatcher Black Phoebe Say’s Phoebe Ash-throated Flycatcher Cassin’s Kingbird Western Kingbird * r c c O r * fc fc r * u u * x r r * c c * c c * c c * u u r c O r fc r u r c u c u SHRIKES, VIREOS Loggerhead Shrike Northern Shrike Gray Vireo Plumbeous Vireo Cassin’s Vireo Warbling Vireo u u u r * c r u o c c u u JAYS, CROWS c c r c c c r c c u r u Steller’s Jay Western Scrub-Jay Pinyon Jay Clark’s Nutcracker * r c c c c r c c o r c c Northern Rough-winged Swallow Cliff Swallow Barn Swallow PIPITS r * * r c c r c r r r c r c r c r CHICKADEES AND ALLIES Mountain Chickadee Juniper Titmouse Bushtit * c c c c * fc fc fc fc * fc fc fc fc NUTHATCHES, CREEPERS Red-breasted Nuthatch White-breasted Nuthatch Pygmy Nuthatch Brown Creeper r r r r * fc fc fc fc * c c c c r r r WRENS Rock Wren Canyon Wren Bewick’s Wren House Wren * fc fc fc r * fc fc fc u * fc fc fc u u u KINGLETS, GNATCATCHERS Ruby-crowned Kinglet Blue-gray Gnatcatcher fc fc r fc R u THRUSHES Western Bluebird Mountain Bluebird Townsend’s Solitaire Hermit Thrush American Robin * * * c c c r c c c c c c c Fc c c r c fc MOCKINGBIRDS, THRASHERS Gray Catbird o o o o o American Pipit o WAXWINGS Cedar Waxwing r r Orange-crowned Warbler c R c Nashville Warbler u Virginia’s Warbler * fc fc fc Yellow Warbler u u Yellow-rumped Warbler c u c r Black-throated Gray Warbler * fc u fc Townsend’s Warbler r u Grace’s Warbler r r r Kentucky Warbler O MacGillivray’s Warbler u u fc Common Yellowthroat r r Wilson’s Warbler fc r fc Yellow-breasted Chat o o TANAGERS * fc fc fc r r r * c fc c TOWHEES, SPARROWS Green-tailed Towhee Spotted Towhee Canyon Towhee Chipping Sparrow Brew

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