Fort Necessity

National Battlefield - Pennsylvania

Fort Necessity National Battlefield is located in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States, which preserves the site of the Battle of Fort Necessity. The battle, which took place on July 3, 1754, was an early battle of the French and Indian War, and resulted in the surrender of British colonial forces under Colonel George Washington, to the French and Indians, under Louis Coulon de Villiers. The site also includes the Mount Washington Tavern, once one of the inns along the National Road, and in two separate units the grave of British General Edward Braddock, killed in 1755, and the site of the Battle of Jumonville Glen.

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Official visitor map of Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail (NST) in District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Potomac Heritage - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail (NST) in District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/fone/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Necessity_National_Battlefield Fort Necessity National Battlefield is located in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States, which preserves the site of the Battle of Fort Necessity. The battle, which took place on July 3, 1754, was an early battle of the French and Indian War, and resulted in the surrender of British colonial forces under Colonel George Washington, to the French and Indians, under Louis Coulon de Villiers. The site also includes the Mount Washington Tavern, once one of the inns along the National Road, and in two separate units the grave of British General Edward Braddock, killed in 1755, and the site of the Battle of Jumonville Glen. The battle at Fort Necessity in the summer of 1754 was the opening action of the French and Indian War. This war was a clash of British, French and American Indian cultures. It ended with the removal of French power from North America. The stage was set for the American Revolution. The main unit of the park is located 11 miles east of Uniontown, Pennsylvania on U.S. Highway 40. The visitor center, reconstructed Fort Necessity, Mount Washington Tavern and picnic area are located in the main unit of the park. Fort Necessity/National Road Interpretive and Education Center The exhibits an programs at The Fort Necessity/National Road Interpretive and Education Center immerse visitors and students in the diverse cultures and customs of mid-eighteenth century Pennsylvania. The bookstore gift-shop provides a selection of theme related souvenirs and in-depth material for those who want to learn more after visiting the park. Exhibits also cover the National Road, the first federally funded highway, that linked the east and west of the young United States. The visitor center parking area is the second right after entering the park from US Hwy 40. Mount Washington Tavern The Mount Washington Tavern is a museum that focuses on travel and life along the National Road in the early 1800s, when it was a stagecoach stop along the nation's first federally funded highway. The Mount Washington Tavern is located in the main unit of Fort Necessity National Battlefield on a hill overlooking Fort Necessity. Please stop at the Fort Necessity Visitor Center prior to visiting the tavern. Fort Necessity Circular stockade in the middle of a meadow. Dramatic clouds build in the blue sky. The small circular stockade of Fort Necessity served as a supply depot for George Washington's Virginia Regiment during their 1754 campaign. Fort Necessity in Winter cabin and stockade casting shadows on the snow Fort Necessity National Battlefield is open year round. Fort Necessity Fort Necessity and the Great Meadow with trail and tree in the foreground Fort Necessity was the site of George Washington's first military experience at the beginning of the French and Indian War My Experience With "Shop With a Cop" As a law enforcement officer at Friendship Hill National Historic Site and Fort Necessity National Battlefield, my duties give me a lot of different experiences. On December 18, 2017, I found myself at the Mount Pleasant Walmart in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, shopping for Christmas presents with a three-year-old girl named Anastasia. The National Road The story of America's first federally funded highway. Map of the National Road Traveling on the National Road The opening of the National Road saw thousands of travelers heading west over the Allegheny Mountains to settle the rich land of the Ohio River Valley. Young George Washington's Adventures: Meeting the French As Washington journeys into the wilderness he experiences difficult situations: the winter trip was snowy, he needed to consult with the American Indians, and negotiate with the French. He succeeded in delivering the governor's letter to the French. Washington on horseback in the snow and a map of his route. Young George Washington's Adventures: What's Next? Washington’s trip to the French at Fort LeBoeuf had shown he was skilled and dependable leading to new opportunities for the young Virginian. Washington from the French and Indian War, from the American Revolution, and from his presidency Young George Washington's Adventures: The Return Journey Washington’s trip to the French at Fort LeBoeuf had shown he was skilled and dependable and led to new opportunities for the young Virginian. An Indian firing a musket directly at the viewer Young George Washington's Adventures: The Beginning George Washington had an exciting trip in 1753 when he delivered a letter from the Virginia governor to the French at Fort LeBoeuf. The return trip with the French reply was just as difficult and hazardous. Bust of young George Wahington in red military uniform Forest Health Monitoring in Fort Necessity National Battlefield Studying the different components of Fort Necessity National Battlefield’s forest gives the park information on the health of the forest, and allows park managers to make better informed decisions on how to manage the forest. In particular, mortality (how many trees are dying), recruitment (how many trees are growing into the canopy), and tree growth are important indicators of forest health and vitality. Maidenhair fern cluster on the forest floor. Restoring the Landscape at Fort Necessity The story of the Fort Necessity landscape and the techniques used to discover the historic landscape, so that restoration could begin. Sign indicating historic tree line of Great Meadows at Fort Necessity Forest Health in a Regional Context Eight Inventory and Monitoring networks have been collaborating on forest health monitoring since 2005. Participants include 61 national parks in the eastern United States. As a result of this collaboration, vegetation data are collected in similar ways, which allows us to compare various parks across the region. One person on the forest floor collecting data, while another records the data So Many Mushrooms! It started as a personal project. Biological technician Sarah Daugherty would be out collecting data for the Eastern Rivers and Mountains Network’s forest health monitoring program, and notice so many cool mushrooms. She started taking photos and jotting down what she saw. Soon, she noticed that many of the species she was finding weren't on park species lists. Discussing her discoveries with her colleagues, everyone agreed that a more formal fungi inventory was in order. Mushrooms of different colors, shapes, and sizes, laid out next to each other on a floor Bat Population Monitoring in western Pennsylvania national parks White-nose syndrome has decimated the populations of several bat species across the Northeast and research indicates that bat populations in western Pennsylvania national parks have been affected by the disease. Many species that were once common, are now rare. In order to better protect bats, the National Park Service continues to study how bat populations are changing. A northern long-eared bat showing symptoms of white-nose syndrome. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Pennsylvania Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] wooden fence and trees Western Pennsylvania Virtual Junior Ranger Learn about the everyday heroes at five western Pennsylvania National Park Sites who rose to the challenges that faced them and made history. Answer questions and learn about Allegheny Portage Railroad national Historic Site, Flight 93 National Memorial, Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Friendship Hill National Historic Site and Johnstown Flood National Memorial to become a Virtual Junior Ranger. A collage of employees and kids and the question 2019 Weather In Review: Fort Necessity National Battlefield In 2019, Fort Necessity National Battlefield had a warm and wet year. The year ended as the 9th warmest and 13th wettest since 1895. View of the side of a cabin and a post fence under a blue sky. Silent Witnesses, Old Trees are Hiding in Our Midst An article about old trees in Eastern Rivers and Mountains Network (ERMN) parks. ERMN scientists have collected cores from two "average" looking canopy trees adjacent to every permanent long-term forest health monitoring plot in network parks. Of the 700 trees cored, over 60 of them hovered near 200 years old. A woman uses an increment borer to take a core sample from a tree. Prelude to war in North America Events in the mid-18th century put the French and British on a collision course in the Ohio River Valley. Map showing Washington's trips to the Ohio Country in 1753 and 1754 Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits The Braddock Campaign After the Virginians failed to secure the Ohio Country, the British sent General Braddock of the Coldstream Guard to evict the French. His failure was even more spectacular than Washington's. Soldiers in Red Coat and tricorn hats with heads bowed around a grave Battle of Fort Necessity The French intend to stop the British advance to the Forks of the Ohio at all costs. They march out of Fort Duquesne with a large force of Marines bolstered by their American Indian allies and encounter the Virginians at the Great Meadows. Reenactors representing British regular soldiers firing a volley from black power muskets. Jumonville Glen George Washington encounters a French patrol in a secluded glen in 1754. Contemporary historian Horace Walpole said it was here that "The volley fired by a young Virginian in the backwoods of America set the world on fire." Jumonville Glen Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: National Road - America's First Federally Funded Highway The road George Washington cut through the forest was replaced by the National Road. The road bustled with traffic heading from port to plains and plains to port. Map of the National Road Series: French and Indian War - The Contest for the Ohio River Valley In 1753 a young George Washington crossed the Allegheny Mountains on missions he hoped would lead to a career as a British Officer and land holdings that would make him wealthy. He was unsuccessful in both goals and his actions sparked a war that spread across the globe. Map of Washington's trips to the Ohio Valley 1753-1755 2020 Weather In Review: Fort Necessity National Battlefield Fort Necessity National Battlefield had a very warm 2020 but had total precipitation that was near normal. In total, the year ended as the 4th warmest and 58th wettest on record. Dark clouds above an orange sunrise. All Hope is Not Lost – Parks plan strategically to treat invasive plants Managing invasive plant species can seem like an endless and insurmountable challenge, but parks are using a new strategic collaborative tool to protect their most valuable resources. Four photos show invasive plants spreading over an area during 12 years
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield Braddock Grave Quietly it stands, a single marker, a reminder of a quest for empire that took place more than 200 years ago. The marker memorializes the final resting this place of British Major General Edward Braddock, leader of an ill-fated expedition to the forks of the Ohio River to try to capture French-held Fort Duquesne. After George Washington’s defeat at Fort Necessity, his British force retreated to Williamsburg. The French used British retreat to their advantage, and soon French- inspired Indian attacks occurred throughout the frontier. Terrorized settlers streamed eastward. General Braddock After appeals from colonial governors, the British decided to take matters more seriously and sent Major General Braddock to North America with two regiments of infantry. Braddock, a career soldier, had risen through the ranks, and after 45 years of military service he became commander-in-chief of all British forces in North America. Braddock Road The overall British plan for 1755 was to simultaneously attack many French forts in North America. Braddock would lead the expedition against Fort Duquesne personally. That spring, he disembarked his army at Alexandria, Virginia. After augmenting his force with colonial militia and a few Indians, Braddock had about 2,400 men. Among the men was George Washington, a volunteer aide to the general. The army assembled at Wills Creek, known today as Cumberland, Maryland. Braddock decided to follow the road Washington had blazed over the mountains on his way to Fort Necessity the previous year. Because the trail was inadequate for the army’s large wagons and artillery, it was widened to 12 feet, but only at great effort and expenditure of time. The force seemed to move at a snail’s pace. Finally the army was split in two with Braddock moving ahead with the bulk of the men and a few pieces of artillery. The remainder would follow under the command of Colonel Dunbar. Battle of the Monongahela In early July, the advance group was approaching the forks of the Ohio. On July 9, a second crossing of the Monongahela River was made. From that point, it was a short march to Fort Duquesne. tinued advancing, adding to the confusion. Disorganization and fear quickly seized the British. In the smoke of battle, fighting an unseen enemy, and with many British officers killed early on, discipline all but ended. Soon after the river crossing, the woods in front of the British column exploded with musket fire and the whooping of French soldiers and their Indian allies as they collided head-on with the British. The battle lasted several hours. Finally, as Braddock was carried from the field severely wounded, the surviving British fled. British losses had been horrendous: more than 900 casualties out of the 1,400 men engaged. Advance British units fell back upon the main body, while rear units con- The British were completely beaten by a force they could not see in a wilderness where they did not want to be. They now were trailed by what they must have imagined to be a horde of Indians who would kill them all if they stopped. Sword believed to have been carried by Washington on the Braddock campaign. The General is Buried The British camped near here on July 13, and in the evening Braddock died. Washington officiated at the ceremony the next day, and the general was buried in the road his men had built. The army then marched, over the grave to obliterate any traces of it and continued to eastern Pennsylvania. One can only imagine what went through the general’s mind after the battle. He commanded what some considered an invincible army. They were not ambushed, but rather surprised, and discipline broke down. The rout was a disgrace. Doctors later reported that the general died more from anxiety than from his wounds. Washington later wrote, “...thus died a man, whose good and bad qualities were intimately blended. He was brave even to a fault and in regular Service would have done honor to his profession. His attachments were warm, his enmities were strong, and having no disguise about him, both appeared in full forces.” Re-enactment of burial service for General Braddock during the 250th anniversary commemmoration. After the French and Indian War ended, the Braddock Road remained a main road in this area. In 1804, some workmen and discovered human remains in the road near where Braddock was supposed to have been buried. The remains were reinterred on a small knoll adjacent to the road. In 1913 the marker was placed where it is today, keeping its silent watch. The National Park Service preserves special places saved by the American people so all may experince our heritage. While visiting Braddock Grave, please park in designated areas and remain on exsiting trails and outside of fenced areas.. For more information about the Braddock Campaign read: “History of an Expedi
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield The Native People – French Allies at Fort Necessity Europeans of the 18th century, primarily the French and British, found lucrative trade opportunities in North America. We often group their indigenous trading partners together as "American Indians" or "Native Americans," but the cultures and the relationships between them were numerous, diverse, and complex. Some traded exclusively with the French, others with the British, but most, just as the Europeans, wanted the trade that was to their own greatest advantage. When Britain and France went to war, the various native nations had to decide whom to back. The British were unable to convince any native people to fight with them at Fort Necessity. Between 120 and 250 Indians from different nations fought with the French. Huron: Iroquois speaking At French contact, the Huron were locked in traditional warfare with the Iroquois Confederacy. Population before the Small Pox epidemic of 1639 was nearly 30,000 people; post epidemic it was 10,000. In the 1640s the Iroquois launched full-scale attacks on the Huron for fur trading opportunities in the Canadian shield. The Huron were displaced from their territory by the 1650s. The Huron were noted canoe builders. Huron of Lorette: Iroquois speaking The Huron of Lorette were the first and largest group of Huron to seek refuge from their Iroquois attackers. The French Jesuits established them in 1697 at their present location, near the fall of the Saint Charles River in Quebec. Mixing heavily with the French, the Huron language quickly disappeared and was replaced by French (The last Huron-speaking person died in 1912). This Huron group became Catholic very early. Nipissing: Algonquian speaking The Nipissing suffered from the same Small Pox epidemic that the Huron did, greatly reducing their population. The Nipissing were strong allies to the French throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The Nipissing were known to be Sorcerers and were feared by the Iroquois. However, this did not stop the Iroquois’s from attacking them also, in the 1640s. Algonquin: Algonquian Speaking The Algonquin were very closely associated with the Nipissing. Their original territory lay to the East of the Odawa and Nipissing in Ontario and Quebec. The Algonquins also suffered greatly by war with the Iroquois from 1628 to 1646. Fort Necessity was not their only Western Pennsylvania battle; they also fought at Braddock’s defeat in 1755. Odawa or Ottawa: Algonquian Speaking The Odawa inhabited the coastal and river regions of the Lower Michigan Peninsula. They also lived throughout Ontario, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. They were very pro-French and worked as intermediaries between other native people and the French during the early fur trade. Very few Odawa accepted Christianity. This limited the hold of the missionaries on them. The third quarter of the 18th century shows that the Nation began to split their alliances, some became allied to the Americans, others to the British. Shawnee: Algonquian Speaking The Shawnee were a semi nomadic people who were scattered through out the East and South. However, they claimed the Ohio Valley region as their traditional homeland. Migrations during the second quarter of the 18th century filled the Ohio regions with Shawnee. They were French allies during the French and Indian War despite their long trade relationship with the English colonies. Today, the Shawnee reside in Oklahoma and Canada. Their language is still used in Oklahoma and is also being taught there. Abenaki: Algonquian Speaking These people lived in the St. Lawrence waterways of Quebec and surrounding areas. First encountered by the French in 1642, they were converted heavily to Christianity by the Jesuits. They were very proFrench in their alliances and became very important in the early beginnings of New France. They aided the French in their explorations of Canada. The language exists; however most of the remaining Abenaki speak a dialect of the French language. For further reading on these Nations and other Nations, refer to the Handbook of North American Indians ‘Volume 15, Northeast’. Published by the Smithsonian Institute. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Jul-03 rev Jun-09
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield What is an Earthwork? Forts and Fortifications Washington’s “Fort of Necessity” On June 3, 1754, George Washington wrote to Virginia’s Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie, “We have just finish’d a small palisadod Fort in which with my small Number’s I shall not fear the attack of 500 Men.” Thus began Washington’s effort to protect his men and supplies as they advanced towards the French who were based out of Fort Duquesne (present-day Pittsburgh). From our modern-day prospective Fort Necessity is less than desirable for use in combat. Its small size and location make it look vulnerable. The campaign combined with the abilities of Washington and his soldiers did shape the defensive measures they would take. A Look at Forts in the Age of Vauban During the eighteenth century (1700’s) forts, fortifications and siege warfare were considered an art form. Military engineers took great pride in the development and design of forts and conversely in their ability to destroy them. The chief engineer to the French court, Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban (1633 - 1707), improved the classic design of forts during the Age of Enlightenment. He and his counterparts like Dutchman Menno van Coehoorn developed ‘systems’ which became standard practice for military engineers and officers over several decades. Using precise angles, ditches, ramps and mounds Vauban made attempts to create the perfect fortification. Even Vauban conceded every fort can be taken in siege. Classical Design The elements of fortification are based on creating differences in elevation (ditches and walls) to the advantage of the defender and detriment of the attacker. From these two features a whole series of defensive works are employed. Typical 18th century design begins with a square enclosure (although other geometric shapes were used) of earth, stone, brick or logs. At each corner is placed an angular projection call a bastion. Bastions allow defenders to maximize their firepower and eliminate ‘dead ground.’ Beyond the fort wall existed ditches and outer works. Meant to befuddle attackers and deflect artillery the outer works allowed defenders to keep the besieging army at a distance in an effort to drain their resources. Redoubts, redans, lunettes, ravelins, blockhouses, palisades and moats are examples of outer works that added to the discomfort of the attackers. Some of these elements are found at Fort Necessity Washington’s plans for defense The Great Meadows offers defensive advantages. The natural clearing provides feed and water for horses and cattle, plus protection from surprise attack. The creek beds are ‘natural entrenchments’ into which his men find cover and return fire. A last minute improvement is a circular stockade containing a storage cabin to protect the supplies. Yet this is not enough security for the Virginians. deep. The present height of the earthworks is misleading as archaeological evidence interprets taller embankments nearly five feet high when standing in the rear ditch. One fatal flaw confronts Washington. The stockade’s proximity to the tree line (60 yards to the south and 80 yards to the west) puts it within effective musket fire. To correct this long sections of earthworks face these areas. Now the British can concentration their fire towards the enemy in these tree lines By July, Washington commands 400 troops. With the realization the present defenses are not adequate, work begins on new entrenchments days prior to the French attack. Two V shaped embankments five feet wide make a redoubt to enclose the stockade. Complementing the back and front edge of each earthwork is a ditch two feet Fort Necessity in Battle Eventually forcing the fort’s surrender, the French hesitate launching any frontal assault against the earth enclosure as Washington’s men fight tenaciously. The French commander Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers notes the fort “was advantageously enough situated in a meadow.” Although Fort Necessity is a defeat for Washington, he makes the best of a situation at times out of his control and fraught with limited resources. Protecting the Resource Unfortunately for Fort Necessity, much of its original defenses are gone; reconstructed earthworks and stockade recreate the scene for our visitors. In some places throughout America there can be found original forts and defensive works with some protected as historic sites. And yet these are still under siege through the ravages of time and visitor pressure. Even Fort Necessity’s reconstructed earthworks have eroded to half their built height over the last fifty years by visitor foot traffic. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Of less concern to Washington are two hillsides flanking Great Meadows. Containing thick forest and out of effective musket range they present no advantage to the French. What can you do to protect these historic resources? Stay on d
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield George Washington – Coming of Age George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 at his family’s farm in Popes Creek, Virginia. His father, Augustine, was considered to be in the middle tier of Virginia Society. Though not an aristocrat, he was a planter and owned several tobacco plantations. In 1738, Augustine moved his family to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Washington spent most of his youth at Ferry Farm, years that gave him a passion for farming. Washington was an impressive figure physically. As a teenager, George approached six foot tall, dwarfing other boys his age. George Washington seemed a little uncoordinated as he tried to compete with other young men for the attention of ladies. While this was not an advantage for George in his youth, later in life being the tallest man in the room gave him a commanding appearance wherever he went. Washington eventually used a determined desire and impeccable attention to detail to become very successful during the entirety of his eventful life. Shaping the Man Adversity arrived in Washington’s life early. The death of his father at age eleven prevented him from attending school in England. In 1748, at the age of 16, Washington began surveying. The Fairfax family, one of the most influential families in Virginia, invited him to join an expedition to survey western Virginia. The Fairfax’s also helped Washington to obtain the lucrative job as a county surveyor. George worked hard, saved his money and started to buy his own land. Fighting the French and Indians Lessons Learned While Washington was in Barbados with his older half brother Lawrence, he contracted and survived small pox, a major killer in the 18th century. Contracting the disease and surviving it immunized Washington to the virus for the rest of his life. When George was seventeen, Lawrence, who had become Washington’s father figure, died from tuberculosis. After Lawrence’s death, Washington sought his first military post. He secured a commission as a major in the Virginia militia in 1753. In 1753, George Washington was sent north to a French outpost, Fort Le Boeuf, to warn them of being on English lands. Washington returned to Virginia with grim news. The French had no intentions of leaving the land. Glen, the French on July 3rd forced a surrender of Washington’s troops at Fort Necessity. In the summer of 1754 Washington met the French again in western Pennsylvania, but this time fighting erupted between the two sides. As a consequence of the May 28th Skirmish at Jumonville Washington participated in sporadic fighting throughout the rest of the French and Indian War, fighting mostly Indians sympathetic to the French cause in the frontier regions of Virginia. During Washington’s campaign in Western Pennsylvania, he learned many lessons about war. Prior to these campaigns, Washington’s only knowledge of warcraft came from books and from conversations with older brother Lawrence. Washington learned three main lessons after the battle at Fort Necessity. He applied these lessons throughout the remainder of the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War. In 1755 Washington once again moved against the French, but this time as an aid to General Edward Braddock. Defeated by the French and Indians on July 9th, George Washington is one of the few officers who survived the fighting. Lessons Learned continued Take care of your men. Washington spent the spring and early summer of 1754 with poorly equipped and poorly supplied men. The men’s physical condition prevented the unit from fighting to its full potential. Even more devastating was low morale. Desertion became an issue. It was one of Washington’s own men who informed the French of the location of Fort Necessity. In the Revolutionary War, Washington spent much of his personal wealth to have the Continental Army at least partly supplied with such necessities as food and clothing. He spent £10,000 during the war. Even with such a large personal monetary commitment, George had only procured barely enough items to keep his army together. Always have an escape route. Fort Necessity was the only time Washington surrendered his army to the enemy. When Washington commanded the Continental Army he was American Revolution swept from the field numerous times. However, he had always escaped to fight another day. The strategy committed Parliament to continually send supplies and troops to America from already depleted stockpiles in Great Britain. The tactic was made famous by a Roman General named Fabius Maximus. Fabius successfully defeated Hannibal by engaging in a war of attrition with his army against the more powerful Carthaginians. Washington applied it during the American Revolution as well. Do not fully trust those who send you out to fight. In 1754, the Governor of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddie, promised him many things and
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield The Cherokee and the French and Indian War “The friendship and assistance of the Cherokees are well worth cultivating” George Washington to Col. Stanwix June 1757 The Cherokee Nation has been associated with the British since 1674 when they exchanged deerskins and other furs for European trade goods. In 1712 they allied with the British and sent 200 warriors against the Tuscarora Indians. During the French and Indian War, they were heavily recruited by the British to fight against the French. At one time, the Cherokee nation controlled 140,000 square miles in the southern Appalachians. The English colonists needed Cherokee presence and their warriors experience to help form a barrier between them and any possible French incursions. Battle at Fort Necessity The first battle of the French and Indian War took rd place at Fort Necessity on July 3 , 1754. It would also be George Washington’s first battle and the site of his only surrender. Washington tried to obtain Indian allies but was unsuccessful. Although the Cherokee were recruited to fight, they were not involved in this battle. Hundreds of Cherokee participated in other engagements. The war that started at Fort Necessity eventually evolved into a world war with fighting in North America, Caribbean, Europe, Africa and the Philippines. Cherokee as Allies and Enemies Valuable Allies As allies to the British, the Cherokee usually concentrated more of their efforts in the southern Appalachian Mountains. They also attended British council meetings held in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. Similar to today’s marathon runners, both the Cherokee women and warriors could often cover large amounts of territory. When the Cherokee returned to receive the customary compensation of trade goods, they were asked to wait. There are accounts that estimate the women could run upwards to 50 miles in one day to be present at treaties. The warriors were able to run up to 100 miles in one day. In 1756, William Gerald DeBrahm wrote about one Cherokee, “An Indian once kept up, running a-foot, for three hours, with the Author, who kept his horse in a constant Gallop…and never left him.” In 1761, British officer, Lt. Timberlake wrote about a trip of 550 miles where they averaged 50 miles per day on foot. In 1762, an Irish trader named James Adair remarked when they hunted deer they walked 25-30 miles. Cherokee in Pennsylvania The ability of the Cherokee warriors to cover such long distances made them perfect allies for the British. The Cherokee scouted and skirmished around French forts including Fort LeBoeuf (present-day Waterford, PA), and Fort Duquesne (present-day Pittsburgh). In June, 1758, at Fort Littleton (near present-day Breezewood, PA), Hugh Mercer wrote to Henry Bouquet, “A Party of Six Cherrokee Indians Arriv’d Yesterday from the Westward, they have been gone Six Weeks from thence & have lost One of their Number in an Engagement near Fort Priscisle…” (Presque Isle, present-day Erie, Pa). Troubled Relations The British did not have the goods on hand and encouraged them to wait for payment. The British interpreter at the Fort, an Indian named “Antoine” or “Anthony,” told the Cherokee they would not receive the expected diplomatic gifts for their efforts and they should go home and tell the rest of warriors not to help the British. The British began to be suspicious of Antoine. Eventually some of the Cherokee believed Antoine and went home angry at the loss of compensation for all of their trouble. On their way home, Virginia farmers suspected them of stealing horses and cattle, and in retaliation, they killed some of the Cherokees. Avenging these deaths, the Cherokee began to raid Carolina settlements. War and Peace Afterwards, the diplomatic relationship between the Cherokee and British spiraled downward and resulted in the British/Cherokee war. Losses occurred on both sides and it was not until 1761 that the Cherokee and British signed a peace treaty at present-day Kingsport, TN. A junior officer named Henry Timberlake agreed to go with the Cherokee as a symbol of good faith. Although, he did not speak their language he stayed with them recording their customs and eventually travelled with them to England to meet King George III. Emissaries of Peace in England Three Cherokee leaders, Ostenaco, Cunne Shote and Woyi, travelled with Lt. Timberlake and Sgt. Thomas Sumter to meet with the King of England. Unfortunately, their interpreter died enroute and it became Timberlake’s responsibility to try to translate the Cherokee language. They landed in June of 1762 but were unable to meet with King George III until July. While waiting to meet with the King, the emissaries were given new clothes and their portraits were painted. Huge crowds surrounded the group as they Aftermath By 1763, the French and Indian War was over and King George III issued a Procla
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield Penn’s Treaty with the Indians by Benjamin West, 1771 Art print courtesy of the PA Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Gift of Mrs. Sarah Harrison (The Joseph Harrison Jr. Collection) Story of Queen Allaquippa “…the most esteemed of their women do sometimes speak in council…He told me she was an empress; and they gave much heed to what she said among them…” T. Chalkley, 1706, Conestoga, Pennsylvania. Few know the story of this Iroquois matriarch and staunch English ally named Queen Allaquippa. Yet, the town of Aliquippa, Pennsylvania is still named for her. In the 18th century, other area sites were also named after her including: Allaquippa Town, Allaquippa Creek, Allaquippa Island, and Allaquippa Cornfield. The name Allaquippa is actually a Delaware (Lenape) word that means Hat or Cap. Even though her name was in the Delaware language, she was usually referred to as being Iroquois. In the 18th century, it was not unusual for an American Indian to be from one nation yet have a name given to them from another nation. Queen Allaquippa was an Iroquois matriarch probably from the Seneca Nation. The Seneca are part of the Iroquois Confederacy, a powerful government eventually encompassing six nations: the Seneca, Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Tuscarora. In the 18th century, the Iroquois government believed they had dominance over other Indian nations in the Ohio River Valley. Early Life There is little documentation about Queen Allaquippa's early life. She was born sometime around 1680. Her father was probably from the ancient Susquehannock Nation, now Iroquoian, who signed a treaty with William Penn. The West picture above is the artist’s rendition of the treaty. Allaquippa attended the treaty and oral history implies that she is in the painting Allaquippa lived at Conestoga, Pennsylvania and had at least one son, named Canachquasy. In 1701, they traveled to New Castle, Delaware to say farewell to William Penn who was returning to England. By 1731, the family began to move westward and eventually settled near the Forks of the Ohio, adjacent to where McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania is today. Influence Women in the Iroquois play an influential role in Indian politics. The women place representatives into council and they can advise what topics are to be discussed in council meetings. At times, they will speak at the meetings. With Allaquippa Town built along the river, Queen Allaquippa was in a perfect area to conduct and control business. The rivers permitted transportation for fur traders and diplomats to stop and speak with Queen Allaquippa before and after traveling to nearby Logstown (Ambridge, PA) where the Indians conducted council meetings. Extracts from three journals help to describe her influence in the area. Conrad Weiser, the Pennsylvania diplomat, visited with her on his way to Logstown in 1748. Pennsylvania hoped the Indians would sign a treaty to ally with the English and let fur traders come to the area. He wrote, "We dined in a Seneka town where an old Seneka woman reigns with great authority. We dined at her house and they all used us very well.” Pennsylvania was successful in forming a treaty with the Indians. intentions were with such a large contingent. Celeron wrote, "The Iroquois inhabit this place, and it is an old woman of this nation who governs it. She regards herself as sovereign; she is entirely devoted to the English. ...This place is one of the most beautiful that until the present I have seen on La Belle Riviere." In 1752, Virginia diplomats stopped at Allaquippa Town on the way to Logstown in the hopes of forming a treaty with the Indians to allow Virginia fur traders to trade here and to live here. Before the council meeting she presented a string of wampum to the Virginian diplomats to “clear their way to Loggs Town.” The Virginian government was successful in forming a treaty with the Indians. In 1749 the French captain, Celeron de Blainville led an expedition with approximately 245 men to claim the Ohio River Valley for the French. Celeron tried to meet with Queen Allaquippa but she and most of her people had left town before they came. It was well known she was an ally to the English. She may have left because she was unsure what Celeron's Allaquippa and Washington Due to the 1752 treaty between the Indians and Virginia, George Washington was ordered by the Virginian Governor to deliver a message to the French to leave the Ohio River Valley. The French were polite to Washington but they refused to leave. Washington and his guide, Christopeher Gist, did not originally stop at Allaquippa Town on the way to the French fort. However, they did stop on their return. Queen Allaquippa rebuked Washington for not stopping on the way to the French at Ft. Le Boeuf. Washington wrote, "…she expressed great concern that we passed her in going to the fort." (Le Boeuf).
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield The National Road The National Road, today called U.S. Route 40, was the first highway built entirely with federal funds. The road was authorized by Congress in 1806 during the Jefferson Administration. Construction began in Cumberland, Maryland in 1811. The route closely paralleled the military road opened by George Washington and General Braddock in 1754-55. By 1818, the road had been completed to the Ohio River at Wheeling, which was then in Virginia. Eventually the road was pushed through central Ohio and Indiana, reaching Vandalia, Illinois in the 1830s where construction ceased due to a lack of funds. The National Road opened the Ohio River Valley and the Midwest for settlement and commerce. Traveling The opening of the road saw thousands of travelers heading west over the Allegheny Mountains to settle the rich land of the Ohio River Valley. Small towns along the National Road's path began to grow and prosper with the increase in population. Towns such as Cumberland, Uniontown, Brownsville, Washington, and Wheeling evolved into commercial centers of business and industry. Uniontown was the headquarters for two major stagecoach lines which carried passengers over the National Road. Brownsville, on the Monongahela River, was a center for steamboat building and river freight hauling. Many small towns and villages along the road contained taverns, blacksmith shops, and livery stables. Taverns were probably the most important and numerous businesses found on the National Road. It is estimated there was about one tavern every mile on the National Road. There were two different classes of taverns on the road. The stagecoach tavern was one type. It was the more expensive accommodation, designed for the affluent traveler. Mount Washington Tavern was a stagecoach tavern. The other class of tavern was the wagon stand, which would have been more affordable for most travelers. A wagon stand would have been similar to a modern "truck stop." All taverns regardless of class offered three basic things: food, drink, and lodging. Traffic During the heyday of the National Road, traffic was heavy throughout the day and into the early evening. Almost every kind of vehicle could be seen on the road. The two most common vehicles were the stagecoach and the Conestoga wagon. Stagecoach travel was designed with speed in mind. Stages would average 60 to 70 miles in one day. The Conestoga wagon was the "tractor-trailer" of the 19th century. Conestogas were designed to carry heavy freight both east and west over the Allegheny Mountains. These wagons were brightly painted with red running gears, Prussian blue bodies, and white canvas coverings. A Conestoga wagon, pulled by a team of six draft horses, averaged 15 miles a day. Cast iron mile markers, set out in the early 1830s, let travelers know distances on the road. Many of the original road markers may be found on the north side of the highway. Fiberglass reproduction obelisks were set out to replace the missing cast iron obelisks in 1998. Decline By the early 1850s, technology was changing the way people traveled. The steam locomotive was being perfected and soon railroads would cross the Allegheny Mountains. The people of Southwestern Pennsylvania fought strongly to keep the railroad out of the area, knowing the impact it would have on the National Road. In 1852, the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed to Pittsburgh and shortly after, the B & O Railroad reached Wheeling. This spelled doom for the National Road. As the traffic quickly declined, many taverns went out of business. An article in Harper's Magazine in November 1879 declared, "The national turnpike that led over the Alleghenies from the East to the West is a glory departed...Octogenarians who participated in the traffic will tell an enquirer that never before were there such landlords, such taverns, such dinners, such whiskey...or such an endless calvacades of coaches and wagons." A poet lamented "We hear no more the clanging hoof and the stagecoach rattling by, for the steam king rules the traveled world, and the Old Pike is left to die." Revival Just as technology caused the National Road to decline, it also led to its revival with the invention of the automobile in the early 20th century. As "motor touring" became a popular pastime, the need for improved roads began to grow. Many early wagon and coach roads such as the National Road were revived into smoothly-paved automobile roads. The Federal Highway Act of 1921 established a program of federal aid to encourage the states to build "an adequate and connected system of highways, interstate in character.” By the mid 1920s, the grid system of numbering highways was in place, thus creating U.S. Route 40 out of the ashes of the National Road. Due to the increased automobile traffic on U.S. Route 40, a completely new network of businesses grew to aid
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield Mount Washington Tavern The Mount Washington Tavern was one of the many taverns located along the National Road, the first highway built by the Federal government. The tavern, constructed in the 1830s, was in operation during the heyday of the National Road. James and Rebecca Sampey and their family owned and operated this imposing brick and stone building. The Mount Washington Tavern catered to stagecoach clientele and was serviced by the Good Intent Stagecoach Line. This tavern owes its name to George Washington, who, as a young man, fought a battle nearby. He returned 15 years later to initiate the purchase of the land which he owned until his death in 1799. Barroom Tired, sore, and stiff, travelers would enter the tavern for an evening of good food, drink, warmth, and conversation. A few tables and many chairs would have filled the barroom and made for a very congenial environment for gentlemen. busy and noisy place. Men could swap tales of their traveling the National Road between sips of rye whiskey and puffs on a clay pipe or a stogie cigar. They also chewed and spit, and indulged in games of cards or checkers. Ladies did not frequent the barroom. Their reputations would have been tarnished if they had entered this setting. Taverns were required to have a license and there were four considerations for licensing: financial status of the innkeeper; location; facilities for the public; and the ability of the innkeeper to discharge his duties. The barroom, like modern bars or taverns, was a Parlor Across the hall is the parlor. Ladies, children, and gentlemen could rest in this pleasant atmosphere. Here, travelers and local citizens could gather and relax while enjoying a cup of tea or coffee. They would find out about other travelers, where those folks were going, or talk about important issues or events occurring in other parts of the country. The parlor may have been the fanciest room in the tavern. The only original piece of furniture from the Sampey family is one small chair in this room. All the other furniture is from the time period, but not from this tavern. Dining Room The dining room might have been the busiest room of the tavern. Meals were served family-style with the traveler seated at a long table surrounded by chairs or benches. One morning, 72 people were served breakfast. Guest were allowed to eat as much as they liked, but were often hurried as other coaches would be arriving with hungry travelers waiting for a hot and hearty meal. The price of a meal was about 25 cents in the mid 1800s. Kitchen The Mount Washington Tavern was noted for its good food and cleanliness. Food was prepared over the open hearth until the cast iron cook stove came along. three legs were called “spiders" and each one could have a fire beneath it. The trammel hook on the crane would be adjusted to various heights above the fire to regulate the cooking speed. Experience was the best teacher when learning how to cook from the hearth, but was hard work and time consuming. Heavy iron pots were required for the high temperatures of an open fire. The pots with An evening meal might include chicken, pork, wild game, fresh trout, corn, and wheat bread with freshly-churned butter. Bedrooms Spending the night in a tavern would not be one of the highlights of the trip. Beds were shared with strangers and it was possible to have two or three bed mates during the night. Travelers would arise at all hours to get an early start on the road and another tired wayfarer could crawl in that vacant place in the bed. Now, the Mount Washington Tavern's bedrooms are on display. Furnishings for these rooms would have been limited to mostly beds, two or three per room, a few chairs, and a wash stand. Upstairs and Downstairs Today, the attic is used for storage. It is uncertain if it was used for anything other than storage during the stagecoach period. It is known that some taverns provided overflow sleeping accommodations in the attic. This did not provide much privacy for there would have been bed after bed, dormitory style, in one large room Presently, the basement is also used for storage. When the Mount Washington Tavern was operating, there was a working kitchen in the basement. It was a large kitchen with adjoining fruit and vegetable cellars. Prosperity along the National Road came to an end with the coming of the railroad. In 1855, the executors of the James Sampey estate sold the Mount Washington Tavern to Godfrey Fazenbaker. Decline The new owner’s family lived in the tavern building for over 75 years and occasionally had a paying guest spend the night. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA rev Jun-09
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield Mount Washington Tavern Exterior On the Outside Looking In If you visit Fort Necessity National Battlefield when the Mount Washington Tavern is closed you should still take the opportunity to see the outside of the building. Many visitors are so interested in seeing the inside of the Tavern that they miss what is on the outside. This handout will help guide you to the surrounding points of interest at the Tavern. Whether you walked or drove, take the pathway that goes behind the Tavern. In this area archeologists found the foundation of a smokehouse as well as numerous pottery shards from dishes dating to the mid 1800’s. There was also a privy located near where the tree line begins below. Now continue along the pathway around the side of the Tavern to a stone marker that we call "Arrowhead Rock." Arrowhead Rock You will be able to notice from this marker’s shape why the park staff has always called it "Arrowhead Rock". In 1926, this rock was brought to the Tavern from the Ohiopyle area by horse and wagon. It was erected by the Pennsylvania Historical Commission and the Citizens of Fayette County and converted into the "Fort Necessity Monument." This monument was one of the earliest efforts to commemorate the battle of Fort Necessity. When it was placed here, you could see all the way to the Fort area since all the trees were timbered. The arrowhead shaped rock is native sandstone and stands at a height of 7 feet. The girth is 15 feet. After reading the plaque, continue past the stone to the two informational exhibits at the top of the path. Informational Exhibits Take the time to read both panels of the informational exhibits. One panel describes the National Road. This is the road you traveled on today and it is now called US Route 40. The second panel describes the Mount Washington Tavern. Look carefully at this panel and then look at the Tavern. There are some differences between the drawing on the panel and the Tavern today. How many changes can you find? - Now let's go visit the Conestoga wagon. Conestoga Wagon* This original Conestoga wagon was made sometime before the 1830’s. This smaller Conestoga wagons, like the one displaye here, were called “Sharpshooters.” They were often used for farming but when freight prices were high the farmers could make extra money by putting the wagon on the road to haul goods. When prices declined it would be back to farming. A sharpshooter wagon would average 20 miles a day. In the mid 1800's you would have seen even larger Conestoga wagons than this sharpshooter. It was not unusual to see 40 or 50 large Conestoga wagons going by everyday. They were pulled by six horse teams and at times they had added help from a bulldog. These large wagons would be similar to the tractor trailer trucks that you can see and hear going by today – still hauling goods along the National Road. After you finish reading the plaque in front of the wagon, walk to the front of the Tavern. Mount Washington Tavern Even when you can't go inside the Tavern, the architecture can still tell a story. Standing in front of the Tavern you will notice it is an elegant structure. It was built sometime around 1828 as a stagecoach stop for along the National Road. The architecture of the building is considered "Federal style." About 70% of the outside structure is original. The Tavern measures about 50 feet by 40 feet with walls that are between 12-24 inches thick. The roof was made of hand split wood shingles. The brick was locally hand made. Can you see the differences in the brickwork? The north and east sides of the Tavern are fancier brickwork. Travelers who were more likely to stay at the Tavern were usually coming from the east. This means they would have seen the fancy side of the building first, giving them a good first impression. Please Come Again The fan-shaped windows over the door would have been a welcome sight to a weary traveler. Most taverns had two doors, one for the ladies to enter and a separate one for the bar patrons or gentlemen. Can you figure out where the Tavern's second public door was located? If you read the informational exhibits you'll find the answer. As you travel the National Road today, look for old buildings standing close to the road with 2 separate doors. Each of these old buildings were either wagon stands, drovers inns or stagecoach stops and they all catered to travelers just like you bustling along the National Road. We hope you will return to visit the Mount Washington Tavern. Please check at the Visitor Center Desk for when the inside tours begin again. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Nov-09
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield The African-American Experience in Southwestern PA Bakers Alley – Uniontown 1754 to 1860 The history of African-Americans in southwestern Pennsylvania is full of interesting and intriguing stories many of them untold. Here they lived, worked and traveled. Below are vignettes of their story related to the Great Meadows and the National Road. "A charming field" Part of an Immense Army On April 20, 1755, George Washington sent letters to Carter Burwell and John Robinson two powerful members of Virginia's House of Burgess. He was requesting reimbursement for losses of personal property at the Great Meadows in 1754. To Burwell he wrote, " . . . for beside the loss of many valuable Paper's, a valuable Servant (who died a few days after of his Wounds) . . . ." and to Robinson, " . . . for I had, unfortunately, got my baggage from Wills Creek but a few days before the Engagemt in wch I General Edward Braddock arrived in 1755 and attempted to force the French from the Ohio River valley. Much is made of the general, his staff and soldiers, but little is told of the camp followers. also had a valuable Servt Wounded, who died soon after." Although Washington refers to him as a servant he was a slave, Washington's property. This nameless soul tackled the 1754 campaign only to be wounded in the battle. But unlike the thirty British dead remembered on the battlefield, this individual along with other wounded suffered along the retreat route to later die and perhaps be buried in a dark and lonely forest. As part of Col. Dunbar's column Jenkins never took part in the frightful July 9th battle. He saw the results though, as his wagon and others were put to use hauling the wounded. Among this group is Samuel Jenkins a slave owned by a British officer. Jenkins attained a job as a wagon driver on the expedition. His responsibilities for the care of the horses, wagon and supplies were important to the overall success of the campaign. For his extra duties beyond servitude he was paid. Moving West In 1802, the Jonathan Clark family of Virginia decided to move to Kentucky for a better life. Jonathan asked his younger brother William to help move his property. On January 19, 1802 a group of thirty to thirty-five slaves entrusted to William began their journey from Spotsylvania County, Virginia. By February 3, they were at the Great Meadows traveling the Braddock Road. That day's walk began at Great Crossing of the Youghiogheny River and would finish in the village of Woodstock [Hopwood, PA], 21miles away. The following day they arrived at Redstone Landing [Brownsville, PA]. Writing his brother, William bemoaned the bad state of the roads, towns and weather slowing his progress. Having reached the Monongahela River they continued their trip by water to Louisville, arriving safely February 23. A year later Clark's friend, Meriwether Lewis, travelled this route to join William at Louisville and continue their famous exploration. Seeking Freedom along the National Road In 1806, President Thomas Jefferson laid plans for the National Road. Construction of the road began in 1811 in Cumberland, Maryland. By the 1830s, construction of the road came to an end in Vandalia, Illinois, but the popularity of the road never ceased. In fact, the National Road even has its ties to the Underground Railroad. The National Road served several purposes in history, first as a major route of commerce between the east and west linking towns and communities and opening a new era of communication. Lastly, the National Road served as an important escape route for slaves seeking freedom. Following the North Star led them to this significant road which could either enhance or hinder them towards their ultimate goal. Stations The National Road was one of several escape routes used by the slaves on the Underground Railroad. Some slaves escaped northwest from Maryland over the National Road into Uniontown. Slaves made use of Indian paths and old roads as they made their way to freedom. Baker's Alley located off the National Road in Uniontown was a famous haven for slaves finding shelter, help and directions. Turkey's Nest section of the National Road, located on the western slope of Chestnut Ridge, was also a noted safe haven. According to Fayette county historian Buzz Storey there were twenty-four stations in Fayette, Greene, Washington and Westmoreland counties. Authors Switala and Swetnam declare the National Road served as an important artery for fleeing slaves whom once they reached Uniontown from the Morgantown area then traversed the road to Brownsville and Washington. A Conductor's Account Several people gave accounts of slaves using the National Road. One of the best known is Howard Wallace's account. Wallace speaks of the slaves getting help from people living along the National Road with a list of area "conductors" on the Undergr
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield Hiking Trails The hiking trails at Fort Necessity traverse a wide spectrum of natural and historical settings. We ask that you follow some simple procedures to help make your visit safe and enjoyable. Please: Stop and pay the entrance fee at the Visitor Center. The fee is $5.00 per person. Children 15 and under are free Leave flowers, plants, salamanders, baby deer, etc. where you find them. This is a natural and historical area, set aside for all to enjoy. Respect the environment and leave the area the same for others. Historical Points of Interest The Great Meadows was where George Washington and his troops fought a large French and Indian force on July 3, 1754, forever immortalizing the ground. The area near the benches where the Forest Trail leaves the meadow is believed to be where the French and Indians used the forest for cover while directing their most effective fire on Washington's forces. The trails leaving the fort area wind through mixed deciduous forest. When Washington and his men passed through this area, they found the forest in a virgin state. The trees were large and well spaced with the absence of undergrowth due to the shade of the trees. The Braddock Road Trace is the remnant of the road built by Washington in 1754 and improved by General Braddock's army on their way to Fort Duquesne the next year. This road became one of the major routes of transportation from the east before the completion of the National Road to Wheeling, Virginia in 1818. In places, the trails pass stands of pines. These were planted by the men of the Civilian Conservation Corps camp in the mid 1930's. As you explore the park, imagine it as seen through the perspective of a youthful commander on his first military campaign on the edge of the wilderness. Fort Necessity Hiking Trail Map Suggested Trails All trails start from the Visitor Center. Trail distances are marked on the map. Please stay on the marked trails. 15 minutes – Fort Necessity: Walk the paved trail from the Visitor Center to Fort Necessity and return. 30 minutes – Braddock Road/French Camp: Leave the Great Meadows on the Forest Trail, turning right into the woods just before the bridge to the fort. The trail follows Indian Run Creek to the Braddock Road Trace. Follow the Braddock Road to the left 200 ft. Turn left again. This trail returns to the Great Meadows through the French Camp, making a small loop. 45 minutes – Indian Run Loop: Continue along the Braddock Road Trace another 650 ft., crossing the paved road and the Forest Trail turns to the right. In a short distance the Indian Run Trail bears right and returns to the Braddock Road. 90 minutes – Forest/Meadow Loop: The Forest Trail continues to the traffic circle at the top of the hill. TheMeadow Trail continues through open meadows to your right and passes a peaceful spot where you can stop and enjoy the surrounding landscape with Chestnut Ridge to the west. Just beyond this point, the Meadow Trail splits into the Outer Meadow Trail and the Inner Meadow Trail. The Inner Meadow Trail leads to the hill above Fort Necessity where you can stop to gaze at the setting before returning to the fort area. The Outer Meadow Trail passes through open fields along the park boundary and returns to the fort area. Alternatives 45 minute meadow hike: From the fort, follow the Outer Meadow Trail to your right. Take a cutoff on your left to the Inner Meadow Trail. Turn left on the Inner Meadow Trail and return to the fort Longer hikes: Add the Picnic Area Loop to your Forest/Meadow Loop hike. From the traffic circle, the Picnic Area Spur goes down over the hill and connects to the Picnic Area Loop 30 minute woodland hike: From the picnic area parking, cross the bridge behind the nearest pavilion and follow the Picnic Area Loop. Hike along the Braddock Road Spur and visit the Woodland Zoo. Take the cutoff from the Outer Loop Trail (near the stand of spruce trees.) This trail is unimproved. Sturdy shoes are required. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA 2-Jun-09
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield Ski Trail Map Welcome The ski trails throughout the park offer opportunities for various skill levels and a chance to experience winter in the woods and meadows of the Allegheny Plateau. We ask that you follow some simple procedures to help make your visit safe and enjoyable. Please: Stop and pay the entrance fee at the Visitor Center. The fee is $5.00 per person. Children 15 and under are free All trails start from the visitor center. Trails are marked on the map for suggested direction of travel. Please stay on the marked trail. Watch for trail markers at intersections. Some areas of the park are closed to the public. This is a natural and historical area, set aside for all to enjoy. Respect the environment and leave the area the same for others. Ski Safety and Etiquette: Yield to skiers coming downhill. If you are out of control, simply sit down, hips first. If you’ve fallen on a steep hill, place your skis across the slope and downhill from you, before you try to get up. Make sure you are well equipped and prepared for harsh conditions. Extreme loss of body heat (hypothermia) presents a real threat to life. Stop and proceed with caution when crossing roads. Please avoid walking in ski tracks. If someone is injured and cannot walk or ski out, have one person remain with the victim, give all spare clothing to them, and contact a ranger. Gently place skis, packs, and some clothing underneath the victim to protect from the cold snow. Cover the victim with remaining clothing and be calm and reassuring. Ski Trails All trails start from the Visitor Center. Trail distances are marked on the map. Please stay on the marked trails Novice Trails (.6 miles): The novice trails are located around the vicinity of the fort and are mostly flat terrain. this area include the French Camp (wooded area to the left of the fort) where the Fench and Indians hid while dierecting ther most effectiv fore on Washington's foreces. It also includes a short section of the Braddonck Road, built by General Braddock's troops on their way to Fort Duquesne in 1755. Intermediate Trails (2.4 miles): The intermediate trails traverse a wide spectrum of mountain environments. Beginning in deciduous forest, the trail continues from the traffic circle on top of the hill. It passes through open meadows (mowed lanes) and provides picturesque vistas of the surrounding mountains with Chestnut Ridge looming to the west. Beyond the first knoll, you may choose to turn right and go down the steep hill on the Inner Meadow Trail or traverse the gentler slopes on the Outer Meadow Trail. Both trail return to the fort. Advanced Trail (1.0 miles): The advanced trail has an elevation change of approximately 150 feet. It starts to the left of the traffic circle on top of the hill. Because it is a gravel road, a minimum of six inches of snow in needed to enjoy this trail. This road loops around the picnic area. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield Restoring the Historic Landscape in the Great Meadows Alien species of plants have invaded the historic battlefield of Fort Necessity and a different brand of warfare is being waged. When the first battle of the French and Indian War occurred here on July 3rd, 1754, the landscape of the Great ­ Meadows looked different from what you are seeing today. The hillsides were covered with huge trees and the Great Meadows was a large, open S-shaped wetland about 1-1/2 miles long and 200 yards wide. George Washington had described the Great Meadows as “a charming field for an encounter.” He liked the meadow because there was grass for livestock, water for men and animals, and the open terrain allowed him to use line tactics against the French. Sixteen years after the battle, Washington purchased the Great Meadows. He owned it until his death in 1799. A New Battle in the Great Meadows When Washington’s heirs sold the property, the Great Meadows began to change. Subsequent owners timbered and farmed the land around the battlefield area. The streams were straightened. Ditches and drain tiles were installed to drain the meadow. In the 1930’s the Civilian Conservation Corps planted evergreen trees to control erosion and brought tons of fill dirt from the surrounding hills to the fort area. The non-native pine plantations you see today were not here in the 18th century. The fill dirt created a drier, open landscape. Agricultural practices and other human disturbances introduced alien plant species. These species thrive in the new environment, to the detriment of the native species. The introduction of Morrow’s honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowi L.) has also inhibited the return of the historic forest/meadow landscape. These land use changes and alien plant invasions make it difficult for visitors to imagine the landscape at the time of the battle. There is still a battle raging around Fort Necessity. A war to preserve native species amidst an invasion of alien plants. Eventually we hope to return the Great Meadows to what George Washington saw when he first described it as “charming”. Morrow’s honeysuckle Historic Pollen Before restoring the landscape, the National Park Service had to determine what plant life was in the Great Meadows over 250 years ago. The first step was researching 18th century accounts of people who visited the area before the significant changes from human activity. From the archeology done by J. C. Harrington in 1953 we know the original fort was made of white oak logs. In 1994 soil cores were taken from the battlefield and surrounding area. Analysis of the pollen found within these samples confirmed the dominant tree on the hillside was oak. Some of the other pollen found was from chestnut, beech, walnut, hickory, alder, hazelnut, and maple. Pollen samples showed the ground near the fort was a marsh dominated by sedges and grass. A mixture of shrubs and herbs, with a grass understory, occupied the portion of the meadow between the forest and the marsh. Washington mentioned removing bushes from the meadow for his soldiers to have a clear field of fire. Most of the bushes that Washington removed appeared to have been alders, arrowwood and hawthorns. At the fringe of the forest were alders. Grass, meadow rue, goldenrod and ironweed were on the driest ground closer to the fort. Rehabilitation Work The Great Meadows needs rehabilitation to preserve it’s historic character. One option for rehabilitating the historic landscape is mowing or pulling out the alien species. This method has been used here for over 20 years. Once an area is cleared of alien plant life, however, native species must be planted to prevent re-infestation of alien species. Another option is applying herbicides. Work planned for 2007 includes both methods. The alien shrubs will be mowed in late winter or early spring to reduce the amount of “canopy” foliage. A National Park Service approved herbicide will be applied in August. This method allows more acreage to be treated with herbicide. It also allows the spray to reach the smaller alien plants beneath the canopy. After treatment this area will look brown. The dead honeysuckle plants will be left in place temporarily to keep the hillside from eroding and to discourage deer from browsing on young native plants trying to thrive. The soil will be tested for nutrient content and fertilizer will be applied if needed. Once the site is prepared, native trees from the Park’s nursery and other sites within the park will be planted. Plastic fencing will be used to protect the saplings from the deer. Helping Species of ­‘Special Concern’ Fort Necessity is home to a variety of plants and wildlife. Many species of birds and animals commonly seen include turkey, deer, squirrel and groundhog. Other animals seldom noticed by visitors are fox, bear, bobcat, and fishers. We recently cond
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield Civilian Conservation Corps 75th Anniversary On March 31st, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered “An Act for the relief of unemployment through the performance of useful public work, and for other purposes…” This Act helped to create the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) program, later renamed the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). The CCC began as part of Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal’ and ran until 1942. It was an organization created to give young men (mostly between 18 and 25 years old) a chance for income and productive work when jobs were scarce. Men involved in the camps enlisted for 6 month intervals and were able to serve up to 2 years. The pay rate was $30.00 per month. $25.00 of the pay was sent home to families and dependents of the enlisted men. This would be approximately equivalent to $375-400 today CCC Living at Fort Necessity In the spring of 1935, the first CCC camp set up at Fort Necessity consisted of about seventy men from the Uniontown area. The camp lasted for 2 ½ years and eventually turned 850 boys into men. Of this number, 250 boys were from the south. The first group of enrollees was issued surplus Army tents for their camp. They remained quartered in these tents until wooden barracks were built before winter. The tents could hold up to 32 cots. When completed, the permanent camp was ‘U’shaped with a flag in the center. It consisted of seven barracks, a mess hall, Army officers’ quarters, civilian supervisors’ quarters, food storage building, a pump house, a blacksmith shop and a garage. Recreation and education were a priority. Both played a very important part in the life of an enrollee. A library was started. Dances were scheduled and a newspaper was published. Education was voluntary but was offered to all whom were interested. The discipline learned here helped to prepare the men for military life in WWII. They also learned a trade in which they could use the rest of their lives. Park Improvements Before the National Park Service administered Fort Necessity, previous owners had timbered all of the property. There was a time when you could look down onto the battlefield from Route 40. No trees would impede your view. One major job the CCC did was to reforest the park. They planted pine and other evergreen trees throughout the property. Unfortunately, there were no pine trees at Fort Necessity in 1754 and these pine plantations created a confusing historic view shed to the visitor. Even though the pines are not historically correct, on hot summer days, it is always refreshing to stand under the shade of the pine plantations. Roads and Bridges The CCC was also responsible for building roads and bridges to allow the visitor to drive to the Fort and picnic area. As you drive around the park look for the beautiful hand cut stone work on the bridges and culverts Picnic Area The picnic area also showcases CCC work at Fort Necessity. They were responsible for building the picnic pavilions and the fireplaces. The fireplaces are now considered historic and we are no longer permitted to use them. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA A plantation of Norway Spruce on the hillside near Fort Necessity. Hardwood forest covered the hillside at the time of the battle. The public can still use the picnic pavilions, however. As you relax in the picnic area, take the time to remember all the hard work and contributions of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Jun-08
Fort Necessity National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Necessity National Battlefield The Braddock Pathway Fort Necessity – Braddock’s Grave – Jumonville Glen – Rindfuss Museum at Jumonville As you hike along the traces of the Braddock Road, you are walking in historic footsteps. The road was originally called the Nemacolin Trail, after the Lenape Indian who helped to blaze it in 1752. In 1754, George Washington and his Virginia Regiment widened it before their defeat at Fort Necessity. In 1755, General Edward Braddock was buried in the road as the British retreated from the disastrous rout at the Battle of the Monongahela. Along with Braddock on this expedition were George Washington, Daniel Boone and Daniel Morgan. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis used this route to go to Pittsburgh to procure boats for his expedition to the Pacific. Runaway slaves used this trail to escape on the Underground Railroad. Farmers discouraged the use of the road and placed large rocks on it to force people to use the National Road, present-day Route 40. Today, we encourage visitors to walk along this historic trail and/or drive nearby on the National Road to visit area sites. Do not trespass on private land. Please respect the rights and privacy of the landowners. The majority of land along the Braddock Road trace is private property. The Braddock Pathway sites listed in this brochure are public areas where traces of the historic Braddock Road can be found. •The Great Meadows The historic Braddock Road trace at Fort Necessity National Battlefield crosses forests, meadows and streams. Hiking shoes are recommended. kBraddock Road Trace at Fort Necessity A year after Washington’s defeat at Fort Necessity, Major General Edward Braddock had road crews widen the trail to 12 feet so wagons could get through the wilderness forest. Setting out from present-day Cumberland, Maryland, Braddock had the largest army assembled in North America. With over 2400 soldiers, wagon drivers, Indian guides and camp followers, this army sometimes stretched 4 to 5 miles as it marched towards Fort Duquesne, the site of present-day Pittsburgh. As the Braddock expedition continued through the Great Meadows on June 25, 1755, an unknown British officer wrote, “We marched about two Mile the other side ye great Meadows. It was strongly imagined if we met with any opposition, ye Meadows would be ye place; but we marched through without any Molestation or alarm. There are about 150 Acres of Meadow-land entirely clear. In ye middle of this spot is Fort Necessity; built by Mr. Washin(g)ton last Year when he retreated from the French; …There are many human bones all round ye spott; but at present every thing is entirely pulled down.” On the same day, Capt. Orme wrote in his journal, “at daybreak, three men who went without centinels, were shot and scalped…We this day saw several Indians in the woods.” They continued for 2 more miles before encamping for the night. On June 24, 1755, as they hiked towards the Great Meadows, they found an abandoned Indian camp. British Captain Robert Orme, one of Braddock’s aides, wrote in his journal, “our Indians informed us that, by their hutts, their number was about one hundred and seventy. They had stripped and painted some trees, upon which they and the French had written many threats and bravados with all kinds of scurrilous language.” They encamped on the east side of the Great Meadows. The Braddock Road trace at Fort Necessity is approximately 1 ½ miles long. From here, the trail goes onto private property. After your visit at the park, turn left onto the historic National Road (US Route 40). The Braddock Road trace parallels on your left of the highway for about one mile then crosses over Route 40 to the right of Braddock’s grave. Braddock Trace at Braddock’s Grave ƒGeneral Braddock Gravesite Today, there is a monument marking Braddock’s grave, located one mile west of Fort Necessity. This is not the original location of Braddock’s grave. The original trace of the Braddock Road runs through the depression between the parking area and the monument. Walk a short distance down the trail and you will find the original gravesite. General Braddock was mortally wounded at the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9 near presentday Pittsburgh. Several days after the battle, Braddock died from his wounds. George Washington buried Braddock in the middle of the road and the remaining army marched across the gravesite to obliterate every trace. In 1804, road workmen disinterred the body and reburied him on the knoll where the monument now stands. To continue your journey, turn right onto the historic National Road. The Braddock Road „Jumonville Glen …Rindfuss Museum Jumonville The Braddock Road parallels the Jumonville Road on the right side as it enters onto National Park Service land. It was here on May 28, 1754, a 15minute skirmish between French, British and Indians marked the beginning of the French and I

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