"The fort from above" by National Park Service , public domain

Fort Stanwix

National Monument - New York

Fort Stanwix was a colonial fortress whose construction commenced on August 26, 1758, under the direction of British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York, but was not completed until about 1762. The star fort was built to guard a portage known as the Oneida Carry during the French and Indian War. Fort Stanwix National Monument, a reconstructed structure built by the National Park Service, now occupies the site.

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Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/fost/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Stanwix Fort Stanwix was a colonial fortress whose construction commenced on August 26, 1758, under the direction of British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York, but was not completed until about 1762. The star fort was built to guard a portage known as the Oneida Carry during the French and Indian War. Fort Stanwix National Monument, a reconstructed structure built by the National Park Service, now occupies the site. For centuries, the Oneida Carrying Place, a six mile portage connecting the Mohawk River and Wood Creek, served as a vital link for those traveling by water from the ocean to the Great Lakes. When Europeans arrived, nations fought for control of the carry, the homelands of the Six Nations Confederacy, and the rich resources of North America. In this struggle, Fort Stanwix would play a vital role. Take I-90 (NY Thruway) to Exit 33 (Verona-Rome). Turn Right onto Rt. 365 E. Follow Rt. 365, veering left as Rt. 365 merges with Rt 69 at the fork in the road. This will take you over an arterial bridge into the City of Rome. Fort Stanwix NM will be across Erie Blvd. on the right side of James Street. Fort A recreation of the historic fort can be found on the grounds of the park. Throughout the year, it is accessible for guided and self-guided programs. During the winter months, it is accessible only on ranger-led programs, weather dependent. Which Adventure Will You Choose? A park ranger directs a group of children thorugh the fort. From ranger tours, to walking trails, to exploring history, there's plenty to do at Fort Stanwix! Celebrate the Park! Fort Stanwix at 40 & the NPS Centennial! Children dance, jump, and skip on the parade ground of reconstructed Fort Stanwix. The park is gearing up for the National Park Service Centennial. Find out what's going on and what's already been done! Objects From the Past: Museum Collection Small boxes in rows contain small artifacts, including broken pipes and glass bottles. Learn more about the objects in the park's museum collection. Uncovering the Past at Fort Stanwix A woman digs in a carefully excavated hole. What evidence of the past has been found at Fort Stanwix? Stop through to find out! Fort Stanwix: History Happened Here! Soldiers stand in a neat row holding their muskets. Discover the vital role that Fort Stanwix/Schuyler, the fort that "never surrendered" played in the American Revolution. Benedict Arnold, 1741 - 1801 It has been said that had Benedict Arnold died at the Battles of Saratoga, he would have been considered as one of America's greatest heroes. Instead, he died in England in June of 1801 as General Washington's most brilliant tactician and America's worst betrayer. Thomas Hart painting of Benedict Arnold. Cold Cream Jar The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! Would you believe that this plain, white cold cream jar found in Rome, NY has ties to Frank Lloyd Wright, the Wizard of Oz, and the RMS Lusitania? Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A ceramic object with “MODJESKA COLD CREAM, BUFFALO, NY” and “LARKING SOAP CO” embossed on it. Mortar Bomb The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This mortar bomb from the Siege of 1777 is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here A pocked metal ball with a hole drilled in the side. British Half Penny The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This British coin is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. Front and back of an old copper corroded coin, about a half inch in diameter. Imported Ink Bottle The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! Imported ink bottle is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A close-up of a matte clay bottle with various information imprinted on it. King of Prussia Plate The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This etched plate is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A line of ceramic shards with edging on them Proverb Plate The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This proverb plate is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A close up of a painted ceramic image. It says "For age and want save what you may" Phoenix Bitters Bottle The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This medicine bottle is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A dark glass bottle with "New York Phoenix Bitters" embossed on it. Burgoyne's Campaign: June-October 1777 A plan to divide the Colonies was put into action by the British in 1777. The results of the "Campaign of 1777" went on to change the course of the conflict and helped the fledgling United States to a larger victory. Surrender of General Burgoyne by John Trumbull, 1822. Staffordshire Napoleon Figurine The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This tiny statue is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. Tiny ceramic man. His hat is triangular, his right hand is stuck in his jacket near his chest. Gothic Pickle Bottle The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This gothic-style glass pickle bottle is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A cloudy glass bottle with cracks and a few pieces missing. “Frozen Charlotte” The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! “Frozen Charlotte” is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A close-up of a white ceramic figurine inside of a clear glass ball. Armistice Day Ceremony at Fort Stanwix On the 11th hour, of the 11th month, of 2018, Fort Stanwix National Monument joined the world in commemorating the 100th anniversary of the end of World War I. 2 men stand on a grassy wall. One holds a drum. A second in a black cape, plays a bugle. Fort Stanwix Makes Baby Bison an Honorary Junior Ranger National Park Rangers from Fort Stanwix National Monument in Rome, NY went to the Rosamond Gifford Zoo in Syracuse to visit baby bison Madison on his 2-month birthday. New 3D Technology Utilized for Preservation Using 3D technology of the future, Fort Stanwix National Monument and Dr. Michael "Bodhi" Rogers to preserve the past. In June of 2018, a fireplace hearth, the only structure left visible from the original fort, became the first artifact scanned using this technique. A man sits in a small wooden boxy area. A laptop on his knees, a crumbled brick hearth by his feet. Escutcheon Plate The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This portion of an British musket is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. Front and back of a thin metal triangular object with pocks and engraving on the surface. Patriots' Weekend 2018 Patriots' Weekend at Minute Man National Historical Park for April 2018. John McConnell leads march of patriot and redcoats to North Bridge, Concord, MA. Erie Canalway NHC Hosts World Canals Conference From September 24 to 28, delegates from around the world convened in Syracuse, NY to discuss the many facets of canal development, and to learn firsthand about the engineering and economic marvel that is the Erie Canal. Erie Canalway NHC hosted the 2017 World Canals Conference Natural History Objects The museum collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This includes many natural history objects. Read about them and other Interesting Artifacts here. A pentagon shaped crystal object about an inch across. Powderhorn The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This powderhorn is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A powder horn with etchings on it, including rivers and the fort. Veteran Story: Dael Sumner Dael Sumner was a U.S. Marine. Currently, she works as a seasonal Park Ranger at Fort Stanwix National Monument in Rome, NY. This is her story. Two people dressed as continental soldiers stand next to each other in a green field. Fort Stanwix Cultural Landscape Fort Stanwix is a reconstruction of how the original fort may have appeared in 1777. A National Historic Landmark, the significance of the fort is associated with events of the American Revolution. It was reconstructed as an earth and timber-clad reinforced structure on the site of the original fort. Although built on the same site, the new fort is surrounded by urban development where woodlands once stood. A colored sketch of the reconstructed fort, with four pointed corners Archaic Lamoka Projectile Point Archaic Lamoka projectile point found by NPS archeologists at Fort Stanwix National Monument. Projectile point shown with some chipped and refinished edges. German Porcelain Candy Dish The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! This German candy dish is just one of them. Read about it and other Interesting Artifacts here. A faded seal painted carefully on a piece of porcelain. Dr. Kilmer's Medicine Bottle This bottle was found during archeological excavations at Fort Stanwix. Its front features the words “THE GREAT DR. KILMER'S SWAMP-ROOT KIDNEY LIVER & BLADDER REMEDY” inside of an embossed image of a kidney. While this bottle may seem mundane and unassuming, it tells the story of a company whose founder’s vision was corrupted and exploited by his very own family. Large medicine bottle, rectangular with embossed sides. Welcome to 1935, The Year That Created a National Monument The world’s economy is struggling. Large numbers of Americans are unemployed. The country is reeling from a long hot summer with powerful storms. Americans are debating government economic stimulus initiatives and Social Security. Does this sound familiar? However, there is a catch! This does not describe today, but 1935 when Fort Stanwix National Monument was established. Learn more about this fateful year here. The southeast corner of the fort reduced to only an old cannon and a historic marker plaque. "What's in a name?' or "That which we call a rose" "Fort Stanwix" was not always the name of the fort that sits in Rome, NY today. "Fort Stanwix" was not even the American name of the fort! Learn about the significance of it's historic names and how the modern name for this historic location was chosen. A NYS historic marker. It reads: Rome. March 4th 1796. Tales of Fort Stanwix: Research from the 1920s Throughout the early 20th Century, a series of works on the history of Fort Stanwix/Schuyler were created. Plays, poems, and textbooks were all written to showcase the history of the location as the nation's 150th anniversary celebrations began. The cover page of an old book. "The Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1784...by Henry S. Manley." 75 Years - Thank You to The People who Refused to Forget: 1935-2010 In the year 2010, Fort Stanwix celebrated it's 75 anniversary of as a national monument. It's creation was due in large part to the City of Rome, NY, and its people who preserved its memory. An old newspaper with the headline "Roosevelt Signs Ft. Stanwix Bill" as it's main headline. Here’s to the Red, White, & Blue!!! Did you know it was once believed that the American flag first flew over the walls of Fort Stanwix/Schuyler? For years, compelling evidence led many to this conclusion. It was even written in history books! However, the evidence compiled over the years has disproved this idea. But the origins of it remain an intriguing mystery! An american flag flying from a wooden flagpole. The 150th Anniversary of the 1777 Campaign: "A Day of Days at the Oneida Carrying Place" In 1927, the nation was celebrating its 150th anniversary. The events that took place in Rome, NY that year set the stage for the remains of the historic fort to become a national monument. A man in a crisp white uniform stand on top of a miniature wooden fort addressing a crowd. From Memory to Monument: For the past 40 years, Fort Stanwix has stood as a reconstruction nestled in the heart of Rome, New York. The road to reconstructing the 18th century past was led by members of the Rome community and forever changed the City of Rome. Two men kneel over a dirt pit lined with bricks. The 1777 Siege of Fort Schuyler The siege of the fort began officially on August 3, 1777 when the British sent their first surrender demands to the fort, and would continue through the next 21 days. An advanced party of the British force had arrived on August 2, in an attempt to intercept supplies heading for the fort. A view of the fort wall as seen over the back of a six-pound, field-piece cannon. The Van Schaick Expedition - April 1779 In January of 1779, eight neutral Onondaga chiefs decided to cast their lot with the Oneida and Tuscarora. Only the Oneida and Tuscarora Nation were recognized by the Americans as allies. The Onondaga Nation claimed their overall stance to be neutral, but in addition to the neutrals there were pro-American and pro-British factions as well. An old NYS history marker: "Frenchman's Island, Camp site of Van Schaick Expedition..." Treaty and Land Transaction of 1784 The American Revolutionary War in states such as New York, and North and South Carolina was brutal. This is because of the nature of the wars fought in these states. The wars fought in these states were civil wars. The colonial/state citizens as well as members of the American Indian nations chose sides fought against each other. Years of pent up animosities were unleashed on each other. An old parchment document with cursive handwriting, red wax seals, and signatures crowded onto it. 1768 Boundary Line Treaty of Fort Stanwix Nicknamed "the Fort Stanwix Land Lottery and Sweepstakes Treaty" by James H. Merrill in his book Into the American Woods: Negotiations on the Pennsylvania Frontier, the 1768 Boundary Line Treaty of Fort Stanwix was controversial before the ink dried on the parchment on November 2. Four papers with cursive handwriting and ink smudges crowded on them. The Oneida Carry and Its Early Fortifications: 1755-1757 The Oneida Carry was the English name for the portage path between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek. The carry was a part of the major water route between New York City and Canada. It was between one to six miles in length depending on the season of the year. Men in bright red jackets and tartan kilts stand facing a man sitting at a table. The Six Nations Confederacy During the American Revolution The Five Nations, comprised of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk, united in confederation about the year A.D. 1200. This unification took place under the "Great Tree of Peace" and each nation gave its pledge not to war with other members of the confederation. Around 1720, the Tuscarora nation was admitted into the league as the sixth member. Confederacy members referred to themselves as "Haudenosaunee," which translates to "The People of the Longhouse." Three men stand in elaborate clothing with feathers and paint adorning their heads The Palatine Germans The Germans that would eventually settle the Mohawk Valley came from the Rhine Valley River region known as the "Palatinate." The name arose from the Roman word "Palatine," the title given to the ruling family of the area when it was part of the Holy Roman Empire. With the outbreak of the Thirty Years War in 1618, came 96 years of sporadic fighting and wars that would leave the Palatinate destroyed. People in period clothing dance in lines. The Oneida Nation in the American Revolution The Oneida were one of the individual Nations of the powerful Six Nations Confederacy. The "Oneida Carry," where Ft. Stanwix was built, was located in traditional Oneida lands. Man in traditional Oneida clothing; flowing red cape, feathers on his head, & leather leggings. The Clinton-Sullivan Campaign of 1779 The American destruction of the Six Nations' homelands came as a result of the destructive raids carried out by the Indians and American loyalists on the frontiers of New York and Pennsylvania in 1778. The raids crippled the American Continental Army by depriving it of food and manpower, and spread terror by destroying frontier settlements and taking prisoners. This forced the settlements to be abandoned for a time, if not indefinitely. An old map with rivers and two larger lakes at the centerpoint. State of New York Treaties and Land Transactions with the Oneida, Onondaga, and Cayuga Less than a year after the 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix was concluded the State of New York began negotiating a series of treaties and land transactions with the Oneida, Tuscarora, Onondaga and Cayuga Nations. Treaties of the Fort The history of Fort Stanwix, from first contact through the end of the fort's useful military life, symbolizes the broader contest of nations (European, United States and American Indian) for economic and political control of the Oneida Carrying Place, the Mohawk Valley, the homelands of the Six Nation Confederacy, and the rich resources of North America. A map of the northeastern continental United States with native place names written across it. The Battle at Oriska The Battle of Oriskany occurred on August 6, 1777, when the local Tryon County Militia attempted to come to the relief of the besieged Fort Schuyler (Stanwix). On July 30, 1777, the militia's commander, General Nicholas Herkimer, had ordered his men to begin assembling at Fort Dayton (located in the modern Herkimer area). Men in 18th Century-style soldiers uniforms stand shoulder to shoulder firing muskets. Early New York State Waterways & the Inland Lock & Navigation Company The Erie Canal was simply the last “technological update” to an already existing water route linking eastern and western NY. A series of waterways (Hudson River, Mohawk River, Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, Oswego River) served to link Albany with the Great Lakes region prior to the coming of the Erie Canal. A black and white print of a river with two long boats. Each boat has several men paddling them. Fort Schuyler (Stanwix) in the American Revolution: 1776-1781 Though Fort Stanwix was situated in New York, people from many states helped to rebuild and defend it during the American Revolution. Because of this the fort served not only as an important military post, but also as a place where people from 13 very different states began to forge a national identity. A dark night. A fort embrasure is lit up by an exploding cannon. A fireball flies from the muzzle. The Baby of Siege 1777 Often we only think of war in the terms of the soldiers involved. But did you know that during one of the most violent and frightening actions that ever occured at Fort Schuyler/Stanwix, a child was born. A woman in 18th C garb follow a man in a cloak and carries a swaddled baby on her back. Tree of Peace Traditional Mohawk Chief Jake Swamp created the Tree of Peace Society in 1982 to commemorate the Great Law of Peace. His organization planted White Pines all over the country. On April 29, 1988, the Iroquois returned to Philadelphia to plant a White Pine by the First Bank of the United States. White Pine tree with night watch box in background. A small fence with other trees can be seen. National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Embossed Cornucopia Flask This flask from the Fort Stanwix National Monument collection features a cornucopia overflowing with vegetables and other plants embossed on its dark green glass. A thick glass flask with a triangular chip on each side. Embossed in the middle is a cornucopia. Johnny Cakes or Hoe Cakes Whether you know them as Johnny Cakes or Hoe Cakes, it seems as if everyone had a favorite recipe for these pan-fried corn cakes – General Washington even served them at Mount Vernon. Where do the curious names come from? Round, stiff, pancake-looking patties with irregular edges. Scottish Shortbread & Gunpowder Tea Shortbread was one of the many decadent foods saved only for special occasions during the 18th Century. Learn about where it came from and how to make it here. Small cookies and a tea pot sitting on an elk hide. Polish Hanukkah Apple Cake The Jewish community established itself in the colonies as early as 1654, when refugees from Brazil immigrated to Manhattan. By the American Revolution, there were Jewish communities in most of the 13 colonies, with the largest population in Newport, Rhode Island. The festive cake recipe here is not 17th Century, but could easily be replicated using ingredients available to the colonies during that time period. A bundt cake on a tablecloth. Next to it, a single lit candle. Dutch Speculaas Cookies As a Dutch colony, New York homes had the potential of smelling fantastic during the winter holiday season. Since many of the spices used in Speculaas were quite expensive at the time, families might only be able to make small batches of this tasty treat, especially in areas far from commercial ports and easily accessible cities, such as New York City and Albany. Four small round cookies sit on a plate. Next to them, large wooden shoes filled with apples. Abigail Adams’ Apple Pan Dowdy There were many Germans in the Mohawk Valley of NY, as well as apple trees. So this is a dish that could’ve very easily found its way to a holiday table of one of the many families living along the Mohawk River in the 18th Century. An pie/crumble style food sits in a dish in front of a christmas tree. Series: Festive Foods of the Fort Special holiday foods made life at Fort Stanwix/Schuyler a little more tolerable during the cold winters of the American Revolution. Learn more about the ones that might've been seen and tasted here. A pie-type crumble in an earthenware dish. Series: The People of Fort Stanwix Many different people and people groups have traversed the Oneida Carry throughout its history; from natives of the Six Nations Confederacy, to armies, to families and politicians. Learn more about many of these noted individuals and groups in the following series. A statue of a man in Continental Soldier uniform. His hand on his hip hold a sword hilt. Series: The Oneida Carry The Oneida Carry was the English name for the portage path between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek. The carry was a part of the major water route between New York City and Canada. It was between one to six miles in length depending on the season of the year. Map with trails and rivers. Title: Series: The Treaties of Fort Stanwix The history of Fort Stanwix, from first contact through the end of the fort's useful military life, symbolizes the broader contest of nations (European, United States and American Indian) for economic and political control of the Oneida Carrying Place, the Mohawk Valley, the homelands of the Six Nation Confederacy, and the rich resources of North America. The following web pages focus on treaties and land transactions negotiated and concluded at Fort Stanwix. An old parchment paper document. In the top margin Series: The Military History of Fort Schuyler Although the fort is most famous for it's role in the Siege of 1777, numerous other battles and events happened near and in conjunction with the soldiers of Fort Schuyler. A group of Continental Soldiers stand saluting underneath the American flag. Series: The Momentous History of a Monument How did the "Fort that Never Surrendered" become history not just once, but twice? The following series goes into detail about the memorial of a historic site and the creation of a historic national monument, as well as all the celebrations along the way. An overhead view of a four-pointed wooden building with a trail and a large lawn surrounding it. Series: Interesting Artifacts of Fort Stanwix National Monument The artifact collection at Fort Stanwix National Monument contains nearly 500,000 objects! Learn about some of the more unusual ones in this series of “Interesting Artifacts.” A powder horn with etchings on it, including rivers and the fort. Virtual Siege 1777 On August 3, 1777, Fort Schuyler (the American name for Fort Stanwix at the time) was attacked by a British Allied force. The events detailed here are drawn directly from the journals of the participants of this siege. Five men stand around a cannon, firing at the fort. Smoke flies from the front of the barrel. The 1st New York Regiment of the Continental Line 1776-1783 The regiment that came to be known as the 1st New York was actually authorized as the 2nd NY Regiment of the Continental Line on May 25, 1775. They were assigned to the Northern Department in Albany, NY with 10 companies from Albany, Tryon, Charlotte, and Cumberland Counties. After a year, Colonel Goose Van Schaick was designated as commander. Continental soldiers with packs on their backs that say "1NY" Scottish Highland Regiments in the Mohawk Valley 1758-1760 Did you know that the first soldiers to garrison Fort Stanwix were Scottish highlanders? Their occupation began in 1758. A line of men in kilts and bright red jackets holding muskets. The 3rd New York Regiment of the Continental Line 1777-1781 The 3rd New York Regiment that defended Fort Schuyler (Stanwix) against the British in 1777 had been reorganized and established from other New York Regiments on January 26, 1777. Two Continental Soldiers stand holding their muskets with bayonets. Irish Potato Pudding A tasty 18th Century dish with more than a few expensive ingredients, potato pudding is something that might've been saved to enjoy during a special occasion. A small round heap of potatoes, a pitcher of milk, bread, and a candle Siege 1777: The Garrison of Fort Schuyler Like their British counterparts, the different units that made up the American garrison of Fort Stanwix and Herkimer’s militia at Oriskany came from a wide range of areas, experiences, and cultural backgrounds. Men from the middle states and men from New England held vastly different ideas as to the running of local governments and the perceived “superiority” of the upper classes. 2020 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service Each year nearly 300,000 volunteers across the National Park Service (NPS) donate more than 6.5 million hours of service, for a value of more than $185 million. Through their extraordinary work and dedication, these volunteers make an exceptional contribution to their parks and communities. We are pleased to congratulate the national recipients of the 2020 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service. Photo of Tom and Karen Hartley dressed in period clothing standing and smiling outdoors.

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